animated goddess mdbs banner animated goddess


MoonDragon's Women's Health Pregnancy Information
SPINA BIFIDA
(Neural Tube Defects)




neural tube development


SPINA BIFIDA DESCRIPTION

Spina Bifida is one of the anomalies of the nervous system. It is potentially serious because there is a danger that the child will be left with enough neurologic disorders to affect total functioning.

Although the term spina bifida (Latin for "divided spine") is most often used as a collective term for spinal cord involvement, there are well defined degrees of spina bifida involvement. All of these disorders occur because of lack of fusion of the posterior surface of the embryo in early intrauterine life.





FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES

Studies have shown that insufficient levels of Folic Acid at the time of conception and during the embryonic stage of development may be a major contributor to neural tube disorders. Folic acid helps to regulate embryonic and fetal nerve cell formation, which is vital for the normal development. Women, before and during pregnancy, need to have a minimum daily intake of 400 micrograms to prevent the vast majority of neural tube defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly. To be effective, this regiment must be started before and continue for at least the first 3 months of pregnancy. If a woman waits until she is pregnant, it may be too late, because the critical events in fetal development occur during the first six weeks of pregnancy - before most women know they are even pregnant.

The incidence is 1 to 3 per 1000 live births. They may occur as a polygenic inheritance pattern. Women who have had one child born with such a defect have an increased chance of having a second child born with such a defect (as great as 1 in 20). For this reason, women who have had one child born with a spinal cord are advised to have a maternal serum assay or an amniocentesis done to determine if such a defect exists in a second pregnancy. This is revealed by the presence of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the serum or amniotic fluid escaping from an open cord lesion. These assessments are done at the fifteenth week of pregnancy, when AFP reaches its peak concentration.

Alpha-fetoprotein screening detects neural tube defects such as anencephaly, microcephaly, hydrocephaly and spina bifida. Unfortunately the test has a 20 percent false positive rate, so that ultrasound may be necessary for final diagnosis. Numerous states require informing parents of the benefits and risks of alpha-fetoprotein screening.





A. & B. Spina bifida, small defect
A. & B. Spina bifida, banana sign, in which the outline of the cerebellum looks like a banana, probably because of the herniation at the spinal defect - the outline of the skull resembles a lemon (lemon sign).

C. & D. Portrays the outline of a normal skull and normal cerebellum.





TYPES OF SPINA BIFIDA



A. Normal spinal column
B. Spina bifida occulta
C. Meningocele
D. Myelomeningocele


A. Spina Bifida Occulta. Spina bifida occulta is a developmental anomaly in which posterior spinal vertebrae fail to close. This anomaly usually involves one or two vertebrae at the sacral or lumbar area, although it may occur at any place along the spinal column. The spot is evident as a depression in the skin. Often there is a tuft of hair growing at the place of the depression.

B. Meningocele. A meningocele is a pouching of the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid through a defect in the posterior surface of the spinal vertebrae. The meningocele may be covered by a layer of skin, or it may be denuded, with just the fibrous dura matter exposed.

C. Myelomeningocele. A myelomeningocele is a pouching of the spinal cord, the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid through a defect in the posterior spinal vertebrae. Often the spinal cord ends at the level of the myelomeningocele, and so there will be no motor or sensory function below this point. As this is lower motor neuron damage, the child will have flaccidity of the lower extremities and loss of bowel and bladder control. The infant's legs are lax; the baby does not move them, and urine and stools continually dribble because of lack of sphincter control. It is generally difficult to tell from the gross appearance of the myelomeningocele whether or not it is the simpler meningocele.

A myelomeningocele protrudes as an obvious deformity of the spine and cord. Note how the area is covered only by a thin membrane, making it prone to trauma and infection.


D. Encephalocele. An encephalocele is a myelomeningocele occurring at the back of the neck or head. The sac contains brain tissue, as well as spinal cord, meninges, and fluid.





spina bifida fetal surgery treatment


SPINA BIFIDA FETAL SURGERY

Spina bifida is a birth defect in which membranes and fluids of the spinal cord bulge through a gap into a large skin covered sac. In this sac, nerves are exposed, invariably leading to some degree of paralysis and often mental retardation.

The surgery treatment for spina bifida is done early in pregnancy on fetuses at gestational ages of 18 to 22 weeks.

1. Incision is made into the mother's abdominal cavity.
2. Incision is made into the mother's uterine muscles.
3. Incision is made into the skin-covered sac on the spinal area of the fetus to separate neural tissues from the surroundin skin and tissue.
4. Fetus's neural tissue is dropped into the central chamber of the spinal canal.
5. A protective tube is reconstructed for the fetus's spinal canal. Then the fetus and mother are stitched up.

spina bifida fetal surgical repair while in uterus, closure of dura mater. spina bifida fetal surgical repair while in uterus.


spina bifida fetal surgical closing. spina bifida fetal surgical closing.


Normal Anatomy

NORMAL ANATOMY

Normal fetal spinal-brain anatomy & development while in the uterus.
Myelomeningocele - Before Surgery

BEFORE SURGERY

Hydrocephalus: Build up of CSF compresses brain.

Chiari II Malformation: Back of brain is pulled down out of the skull into the top of the spinal canal.

Myelomeningocele: Protruding meninges and spinal cord.
After Fetal Surgery

AFTER SURGERY

Hydrocephalus: Decreased need for shunt.

Improved Chiari Malformation: Brain moves back into more normal position.

Protected Myelomeningocele: Spinal Cord Protected.





SPINA BIFIDA RESOURCE LINKS

  • SpinaBifida Association of New Orleans
  • Spinabifida Association of America
  • March of Dimes
  • Lumps, Bumps & Holes
  • Washington State Genetics Documents





  • Some photos from Diagnosis in color Obstetrics and Gynecology by Symonds and Macpherson.


    PREGNANCY RELATED LINKS

    MoonDragon's Womens Health Procedures: Amniocentesis
    MoonDragon's Pregnancy Information: Pregnancy Information & Survival Tips
    MoonDragon's Pregnancy Information Index
    MoonDragon's Womens Health Pregnancy Information Index
    MoonDragon's Pediatric Information Index
    MoonDragon's Parenting Information Index
    MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index






    MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |






    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







  • For a full list of available products from Mountain Rose Herbs, click on banner below:






    Starwest Botanicals




    HerbsPro Supplement Store


    HerbsPro




    Up to 70% Off Bath & Beauty - evitamins


    eVitamins








    Kalyx.com Herbs, Foods, Supplements, Bath & Body


    Chinese Herbs Direct


    Ayurvedic Herbs Direct


    Pet Herbs Direct


    TakeHerb.com


    Wild Divine - Stress relief training software and meditation.


    Aleva Health - Hosiery, Orthopedics, Wound Care, Support, Diabetic Socks


    ShareASale Merchant-Affiliate Program








    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




    Top