animated goddess mdbs banner animated goddess

MoonDragon's Womens Health Information

For Informational Use Only.
For more detailed information, contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.


Amenorrhea, Secondary
Bone Density Testing
Breast Biopsy
Breast Cancer
Breast Exam, Self
Breast Surgery
Cervix Biopsy
Cervix Cancer
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Domestic Violence
Female Infertility
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Hysterectomy, Abdominal
Hysterectomy, Vaginal with Bladder/Rectal Repair
Hysterectomy, Vaginal with Removal of Tubes & Ovaries & Bladder/Rectal Repair
Incontinence, Stress
Incontinence, Urge
Menopause Information & Support
Menopause - Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Menopause Humor & Support Links
Osteo Therapy
Uterine Bleeding, Post Menopausal
Uterine Prolapse
Vaginitis, Post Menopausal

Cat in the Hat- Aging

The Crone Goddess


There Is No Japanese Word for Hot Flashes It has long been known that menopause is much easier for Asian women than it is for most Westerners. In a 1983 study, hot flashes were reported by only about 10 percent of Japanese women at menopause, compared to about two-thirds of women in America and other Western countries. And bone strength is not assaulted to the extent it often is among Western women. Broken hips and spinal fractures are much less common. The most likely explanation is throughout their lives Western women consume much more meat and about four times as much fat as do women on Asian rice-based diets, and only one-quarter to one-half the fiber. For reasons that have never been completely clear, a high-fat, low-fiber diet causes a rise in estrogen levels. Women on higher-fat diets have measurably more estrogen activity than do those on low-fat diets. At menopause, the ovaries' production of estrogen comes to a halt. Those women who had been on high-fat diets then have a violent drop in estrogen levels. Asian women have lower levels of estrogen both before and after menopause, and the drop appears to be less dramatic. The resulting symptoms are much milder or even non-existent.

More evidence of the diet link comes from a fascinating study by a medical anthropologist from the University of California who interviewed Greek and Mayan women about their experience of menopause. The Greek women were subsistence farmers. Menopause occurred at an average age of 47, compared to over 50 in the United States. About three-quarters had hot flashes, but they were considered normal events, however, and did not cause women to seek medical treatment. The Mayan women lived in the southeastern part of Yucatan, Mexico. Menopause occurred earlier than in Greece or North America, at an average age of 42. Unlike the experience of Greeks and Americans, hot flashes were totally unknown among Mayans, and, like the Japanese, they have no word for them. Midwives, medical personnel, and the women themselves reported that hot flashes simply do not occur, nor are they mentioned in books on Mayan botanical medicine.

The difference between Americans and Greeks and other Europeans on the one hand, for whom hot flashes are common, and the Mayans and Japanese on the other, for whom they are rare or unknown, appears to be diet. The Mayan diet consists of corn and corn tortillas, beans, tomatoes, squash, sweet potatoes, radishes, and other vegetables, with very little meat and no dairy products. Like the traditional Japanese diet, it is extremely low in animal products and low in fat in general. The Greek diet, while rich in vegetables and legumes, also contains meat, fish, cheese, and milk, as does the cuisine of other countries in Europe and North America. Animal-based meals affect hormone levels rapidly and strongly, and undoubtedly contribute to the menopausal problems that are common in Western countries.

For women who are experiencing hot flashes, there are useful steps in addition to the low-fat, vegetarian diet which is strongly recommended for so many reasons. Regular aerobic exercise helps. A vigorous walk every day or so, or any equivalent physical activity, seems to alleviate hot flashes.
  • Eat a diet consisting of 50-percent raw foods and take a Soy protein supplement to help stabilize blood sugar. Add Blackstrap Molasses, Broccoli, Dandelion greens, Kelp, Salmon with bones, sardines, and white fish to your diet.

  • Do not consume any animal products except for those recommended in this section. Avoid dairy products and limit your consumption to small amounts of low-fat yogurt or buttermilk. Dairy products and meat promote hot flashes. They also contribute to a loss of calcium from the bones.

  • Avoid alcohol, caffeine, sugar, spicy foods, and hot soups and drinks since they can trigger hot flashes, aggravate urinary incontinence, and make mood swings worse. They also make the blood more acidic, which prompts the bones to release calcium to act as a buffering agent. This is an important factor in bone loss.

  • Substitute Garlic or onion (fresh or powder) for salt when cooking. Consuming salt increases urinary excretion of calcium.

  • Drink 2 quarts of quality Water daily to help prevent the drying of the skin and mucous membranes.

  • Calcium supplements are recommended if your diet does not provide at least 1000 mg of calcium a day.

  • Include more phytoestrogens (plant estrogens) in the diet to help prevent or alleviate menopausal symptoms. These estrogen-like compounds are found in foods such as Soybeans (Tofu, Miso), Flaxseeds, Pomegranates, and Dates. When these substances are eaten, they act like the estrogens produced in the body.

  • Gamma-Orysanol, a nutrient derived from Rice Bran, has been shown to be effective in treating symptoms of menopause. A daily dose of 20 mg reduced symptoms by 50-percent in 67-percent of the women studied.

  • Kombucha tea has detoxifying, energizing, and immune-boosting properties. Many women have found that using it regularly helps to increase vitality and diminish unpleasant menopausal symptoms. See Making Kombucha Tea for more information.


  • Calcium Supplement Products
  • Calendula Herbal Products
  • Dandelion Herbal Products
  • Flaxseed Herbal Products
  • Gamma Orysanol Supplement Products
  • Garlic Herbal Products
  • Kelp Herbal Products
  • Kombucha Herbal Products
  • Molasses Products
  • Onion Herbal Products
  • Soy Bean Herbal Products
  • Soy Protein Supplement Products


  • A paste made from Aloe Vera gel and Slippery Elm powder, mixed to the consistency of toothpaste and inserted into the vagina at night, can relieve vaginal dryness.

  • Damiana enhances sexual desire and pleasure.

  • Amaranth, Chickweed, Dandelion Greens, Nettle, Seaweed (Kelp), and Watercress are rich in calcium and can help prevent osteoporosis.

  • Anise, Black Cohosh, Fennel, Licorice, Raspberry Leaf, Sage, Sarsaparilla, Squawvine, False Unicorn Root, and Wild Yam root are natural estrogen replacements. Caution: Do not use Licorice on a daily basis for more than 7 days in a row, and avoid it completely if you have high blood pressure. Do not use sage if you suffer from any type of seizure disorder.

  • Chamomile and Valerian root help to calm the body and promote restful sleep. Caution: Do not use Chamomile on an ongoing basis, and avoid it completely if you are allergic to rag weed.

  • Gotu Kola and Dong Quai relieve hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and depression.

  • Andrew Weil, M.D., a well-known physician and author, recommends trying the herbs Dong Quai, Chaparral, and Damiana, two capsules of each taken once daily at noon, or, if used as a tincture, one dropperful in a cup of warm water.

  • Vitamin E, in doses of 400 to 800 IU per day, has also been reported to be helpful. People with high blood pressure should use no more than 100 IU per day.

  • Certain Menopausal Chinese Herbs have been found to be helpful for reducing menopausal symptoms for some women. There are many Menopause Formula Supplements available. Be sure to read labels and product reviews to find a product that may be beneficial to you.

  • Siberian Eleuthero Ginseng aids in relieving depression and in the production of estrogen. Caution : Do not use this herb if you have hypoglycemia, high blood pressure, or a heart disorder.


  • Aloe Vera Herbal Products
  • Amaranth Herbal Products
  • Anise Herbal Products
  • Black Cohosh Herbal Products
  • Chamomile Herbal Products
  • Chaparral Herbal Products
  • Chickweed Herbal Products
  • Damiana Herbal Products
  • Dandelion Herbal Products
  • Dong Quai Herbal Products
  • Eleuthero Herbal Products
  • False Unicorn Herbal Products
  • Fennel Herbal Products
  • Kelp Seaweed Herbal Products
  • Licorice Herbal Products
  • Menopause Supplement Products
  • Nettle Herbal Products
  • Red Raspberry Herbal Products
  • Sage Herbal Products
  • Sarsaparilla Herbal Products
  • Slippery Elm Herbal Products
  • Squawvine Herbal Products
  • Valerian Herbal Products
  • Vitamin E Supplement Products
  • Watercress Herbal Products
  • Wild Yam Herbal Products


    Menopause causes a number of changes to the body. Some women gain more weight. Some deal with violent mood swings, and others endure debilitating hot flashes. Too many layers of clothing can engulf a women in a sea of sweat. Not enough layers can leave her shivering in the cold. Hot flashes occur at random, often in public places. Any increase in temperature can leave a women drenched.

    Some women become exasperated by the debilitating condition. Others take action and look for solutions. Most health care practitioners can prescribe medication, but the pills often come with too many side effects, including dry mouth, dizziness, blurred vision and fatigue. Instead of taking medication, women can find solace in all-natural foods.

    Minimizing The Sweat

    Hot Flashes occur due to the body's hormonal imbalance. When the body lacks certain hormones, it can no longer regulate body temperature correctly. Instead, the body over reacts and releases sweat to minimize its chances of over heating. In order to combat hot flashes, women need to regain a proper hormone balance. By taking Soy Isoflavones, women can experience a decrease in hot flashes thanks to the compounds ability at:
    • Reducing sweating and surges of intense heat.
    • Providing genistein and biochanin A for improved hormonal balance.
    • Enhanced phyto-estrogen compounds to help minimize hot flashes.

    Effective Herbal Solutions For Hot Flashes

    Hot flashes can prove to be an embarrassing, often unwanted side effect of menopause. If you suffer from severe hot flashes, try herbal formula containing soy isoflavones.

  • Soy Isoflavones Supplement Products


    The following nutrients are important for women going through menopause to aid symptoms caused by fluctuating hormones and those women who have been through the transition with the related health changes from reduced hormonal levels. The following recommended doses are for adult women over the age of 18.

    Suggested Dosage
    Very Important
    Granules Or Capsules
    1 Tablespoon 3 times daily, before meals.

    1,200 mg 3 times daily, before meals.
    Important as an emulsifier for vitamin E, which reduces hot flashes and related symptoms.

  • Lecithin Supplement Products
  • Multi-Enzyme Complex
    Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
    As directed on label. Take with meals. To aid digestion, HCl production declines with age. Caution: Do not use HCl if you have a history of ulcers.

  • Multi-Enzyme Supplement Products
  • HCl (Betaine Hydrochloric Acid) Supplement Products
  • Evening Primrose Oil
    Black Currant Seed Oil
    As directed on label.

    As directed on label.
    Act as sedatives and diuretics. Good for hot flashes. Important for production of estrogen.

  • Evening Primrose Oil Herbal Products
  • Black Currant Seed Oil Herbal Products
  • Vitamin B Complex
    As directed on label. For improved circulation and cellular function. Use a sublingual form for best absorption. Or consider injections (under a health care provider's supervision).

  • Vitamin B-Complex
  • Plus Extra
    Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5)
    100 mg 3 times daily. A powerful anti-stress vitamin needed for adrenal function.

  • Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid) Supplement Products
  • And
    Pyridoxine (Vitamin B-6)
    50 mg 3 times daily. Minimizes water retention and eases symptoms.

  • Vitamin B-6 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin E
    Start with 400 IU daily and slowly increase the dosage until hot flashes are relieved, up to 1,600 IU daily. Reduces hot flashes and many other symptoms. Use emulsion from for easier assimilation and greater safety at high doses.

  • Vitamin E Supplement Products
  • Important
    3 mg daily. Do not exceed this amount. Enhances calcium absorption.

  • Boron Supplement Products
  • Calcium
    2,000 mg daily.

    1,000 mg daily.
    To relieve nervousness and irritability, and to protect against bone loss. Take with Vitamin D to help absorption. Use chelate forms.

  • Calcium Supplement Products
  • Magnesium Supplement Products
  • Vitamin D Supplement Products
  • Silica
    As directed on label. Supplies silicon, needed for connective tissue and for calcium uptake.

  • Silica Supplement Products
  • Horsetail Herbal Products
  • Zinc
    50 mg daily. Do not exceed a total of 100 mg daily from all supplements. Aids in protecting against bone loss and reducing symptoms. Use Zinc Gluconate lozenges or Optizinc for best absorption.

  • Zinc Supplement Products
  • Helpful
    500 mg twice daily.

    500 mg daily, on an empty stomach. Take with water or juice. Do not take with milk. Take with 50 mg Vitamin B-6 and 100 mg Vitamin C for better absorption.
    Detoxifies the liver and ammonia. Aids liver function. See Amino Acids for more information.

  • Arginine Amino Acid Supplement Products
  • Lysine Amino Acid Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-6 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Gamma Oryzanol
    As directed on label. Gamma-oryzanol, a component of rice bran oil, is effective in controlling uncomfortable symptoms of menopause.

  • Gamma Oryzanol Supplement Products
  • Rice Bran Oil Products
  • Multi-Glandular Complex
    As directed on label. For hormonal stability. See Glandular Therapy for more information.

  • Multi-Glandular Supplement Products
  • MultiVitamin & Mineral Complex
    As directed on label. Take with meals.

    99 mg daily.
    All nutrients are needed for normal hormone production and function.

    To replace potassium lost through perspiration during hot flashes.

  • Multimineral Supplement Products
  • Multivitamin Supplement Products
  • Potassium Supplement Products
  • And
    200 mcg daily. An important trace mineral linked to normal hormonal balance.

  • Selenium Supplement Products
  • Vitamin C
    3,000 to 10,000 mg daily, in divided doses. For hot flashes.

  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Bioflavonoids Supplement Products



    Information, supplements and products for menopause, the time in a woman's life when her menstruation cycle stops. Supplements and products related to progesterone therapy are included.

  • Aloe Vera Herbal Products
  • Amaranth Herbal Products
  • Anise Herbal Products
  • Appetite Control Products
  • Arginine Supplement Products
  • Bioflavonoids Supplement Products
  • Black Cohosh Herbal Products
  • Black Currant Herbal Products
  • Borage Oil Herbal Products
  • Boron Supplement Products
  • Calcium Supplement Products
  • Calendula Herbal Products
  • Camu Camu Herbal Products
  • Chamomile Herbal Products
  • Chaparral Herbal Products
  • Chaste Tree (Vitex) Herbal Products
  • Chickweed Herbal Products
  • Damiana Herbal Products
  • Dandelion Herbal Products
  • Dong Quai Herbal Products
  • Eleuthero Herbal Products
  • Estrogen-Balance Products
  • Evening Primrose Herbal Products
  • False Unicorn Herbal Products
  • Fennel Herbal Products
  • Flaxseed Herbal Products
  • Gamma Oryzanol Supplement Products
  • Garlic Herbal Products
  • Gotu Kola Herbal Products
  • HCl (Betaine) Supplement Products
  • Horsetail Herbal Products
  • Kelp Seaweed Herbal Products
  • Lecithin Supplement Products
  • Kombucha Herbal Products
  • Licorice Herbal Products
  • Lysine Amino Acid Supplement Products
  • Magnesium Supplement Products

  • Menopause Supplement Products
  • Molasses Products
  • Multi-Enzyme Supplement Products
  • Multi-Glandular Products
  • Multimineral Supplement Products
  • Multivitamin Supplement Products
  • Nettle Herbal Products
  • Onion Herbal Products
  • Potassium Supplement Products
  • Progesterone Supplement Products
  • Pulsatilla Herbal Products
  • Red Clover Herbal Products
  • Red Raspberry Herbal Products
  • Rice Bran Oil Products
  • Sage Herbal Products
  • Sarsaparilla Herbal Products
  • Selenium Supplement Products
  • Silica Supplement Products
  • Slippery Elm Herbal Products
  • Soy Bean Herbal Products
  • Soy Isoflavone Supplement Products
  • Soy Protein Supplement Products
  • Squawvine Herbal Products
  • St. Johns Wort Herbal Products
  • Tribulus Herbal Products
  • Valerian Herbal Products
  • Vitamin B-5 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-6 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-Complex Products
  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Vitamin D Supplement Products
  • Vitamin E Supplement Products
  • Water-Base Lubricant Gel Products
  • Watercress Herbal Products
  • Wild Yam Herbal Products
  • Zinc Supplement Products

  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

    Health & Wellness Index


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index


    Starwest Botanicals

    Educational materials and health products are available through
    Use the search box provided below to search for a particular item.

 Herbs, Foods, Supplements, Bath & Body

    Herbs Direct

    Chinese Herbs Direct

    Ayurvedic Herbs Direct

    Pet Herbs Direct

    ShareASale Merchant-Affiliate Program


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.