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MoonDragon's Womens Health Information
GONORRHEA
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)


For "Informational Use Only".
For more detailed information, contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Description
  • Frequent Signs & Symptoms
  • Causes
  • Risk Factors
  • Preventive Measures
  • Prognosis - Expected Outcome
  • Potential Complications
  • Medical Diagnosis
  • Conventional Medical Treatment
  • Medication
  • Activity Recommendations & Restrictions
  • Diet & Nutrition
  • Notify Your Health Care Provider
  • Gonorrhea Supplement Products




  • gonorrhea


    DESCRIPTION

    Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection of the reproductive organs that is a sexually transmitted (venereal disease). Gonorrhea is caused by a microorganism called Neisseria gonorrhoeae, commonly referred to as gonococci. It is a Gram-negative bacterium. The term comes from Greek, gonorrhoia, literally "flow of seed"; in ancient times it was incorrectly believed that the pus discharge associated with the disease contained semen.

    The first place this bacterium infects is usually the columnar epithelium of the urethra and endocervix. Non-genital sites in which it thrives are in the rectum, the oropharynx and the conjunctivae of the eyes. The vulva and vagina in women are usually spared because they are lined by stratified epithelial cells. In women the cervix is the usual first site of infection.

    In females, it involves the urethra (tube from bladder to outside of the body) and the reproductive system; in males, it involves the urethra; and in both sexes the rectum, throat, joints and eyes (sometimes). It can affect all ages (even young children) who have sexual contact with infected persons. The peak incidence is between ages 20 and 30. Although readily treatable, this infection has reached epidemic levels in the USA. Incubation period is from 2 to 10 days.

    Gonorrhea is the second most reported sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States being spread through sexual intercourse. It is reported annually in about 600,000 to 800,000 people. It is believed that another 1 million cases go unreported each year. Approximately 75 percent of all cases of gonorrhea reported by health professionals to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are in people 15 to 30 years old. Teenage girls ages 15 to 19 and men ages 20 to 24 have the highest rates of infection.

    Gonorrhea can be spread during vaginal, anal, or oral sex with an infected partner. A pregnant woman may pass the infection to her newborn during delivery. Gonorrhea can be transmitted any time by an infected person, whether or not symptoms are present. An infected person is contagious until he or she has been treated. Gonorrhea among females can also be transmitted from one individual to another via contact to surfaces that may still be damp from prior contact.

    SLANG TERMS FOR GONORRHEA

    "The Clap": Gonorrhea is also commonly known by the slang term "the clap". One suggested etymology refers to a traditional treatment used to clear the blockage in the urethra from gonorrheal pus, where the penis would be "clapped" on both sides simultaneously. It could also refer to the painful sting in the male urethra, which feels like the sting of a clap (as in clapping hands) when infected with the disease. Yet another suggested source is from the old French word "clapier", meaning "brothel". Another suggested source for the term is from a notorious 18th century keeper of a brothel, Margaret Clap (better known as "Mother Clap"), though perhaps her name itself was derived from the slang term. The term "clap" may be derived from its diplococcoid microscopic morphology, which is suggestive of two cocci "clapping". This term has, in recent years, come to be used by extension to refer to any unspecified sexually transmitted disease.

    "Dripping Dick": Used mainly because of the discharge coming from the urethral opening of the penis.

    The term gonorrhea is built from the Greek prefix gono (seed) and suffix rrhea (to flow), and stems from the belief that the discharge contained semen.





    neisseria gonorrheal bacteria neisseria gonorrheal bacteria


    CAUSES

    Infection is caused from Gram-negative gonococcus bacteria (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) that grow well on delicate, moist tissue. The bacteria are usually transmitted sexually, but some cases are of unknown origin. Sexual activity involving the vagina, anus/rectum or mouth (oral) may transmit infection to those areas if either partner is infected. A pregnant woman may pass the infection to her newborn during delivery. A person infected with gonorrhea is always contagious until he or she has been treated. Having a gonorrhea infection does not protect you from another infection in the future. A new exposure to gonorrhea will cause re-infection, even if you were previously treated and cured.




    gonorrhea male


    FREQUENT SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

    FEMALE SYMPTOMS

    Females often have few or no symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they may be mild and are frequently ignored. Symptoms include:
    • Symptoms usually appear 7 to 21 days after sexual contact in women (incubation period varies from as little as 2 days to as long as 30 days). A small number of people may be asymptomatic for up to a year. Between 30 to 60 percent of women with gonorrhea are asymptomatic or have subclinical disease.

    • Cervicitis (infection of the cervix).

    • Swollen and painful glands at the opening of the vagina (Bartholin glands).

    • Frequent urge to urinate with painful burning sensation. Difficulty urinating. Gonorrhea infection is often mistaken for a bladder infection or vaginal infection. There may be urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) with little dysuria or pus. The combination of urethritis and cervicitis on examination strongly supports a gonorrhea diagnosis as both sites are infected in most gonorrhea patients.

    • Thick yellow, creamy, cloudy, pus-like or bloody abnormal discharge from the vagina. The cervix may appear anywhere from normal to the extreme of marked cervical inflammation (cervicitis) with pus.

    • Abnormal menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, excessive bleeding during the menses. Bleeding during sexual intercourse.

    • Acute inflammation and pain in the pelvic area (lower abdomen). Development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which includes pelvic pain and cramping, bleeding between menstrual periods along with fever and/or vomiting.

    • Pain or tenderness with sexual intercourse (sometimes).

    • Irritation of the genitals (vulva) and rectal infection.

    • Throat infection.
    MALE SYMPTOMS

    Males usually have more pronounced symptoms and they may include:
    • Symptoms usually appear between two and 14 days after sexual contact in men, but sometimes it can take up to 30 days for symptoms to appear. It is not unusual for males to have asymptomatic gonorrhea.

    • Abnormal discharge from penis (clear or milky white at first, and then Yellow or greenish, creamy, and excessive, sometimes blood-tinged discharge of pus (called gleet) and mucus from the penis). Examination may show a reddened external urethral meatus.

    • Slow, difficult, and painful and frequent urination.

    • Infection may move into the prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis, causing testicular / scrotal pain, swelling and/or fever.
    SYMPTOMS IN BOTH SEXES

    Other Symptoms In Both Males & Females:
    • Conjunctivitis (pink eye) (rare).
    • Lower abdominal pain.
    • Rash, especially on palms.
    • Mild sore throat (sometimes).
    • Fever and general tiredness.
    • Nausea.
    • The throat, anus, and rectum are common areas of infection in both men and women.
    RECTAL INFECTION

    Rectal infection (gonococcal proctitis) may affect both men and women and is often asymptomatic. If symptoms develop they may include:
    • Constipation.
    • Creamy, pus-like discharge.
    • Rectal itching.
    • Painful bowel movement with blood in feces.
    • Rectal bleeding.
    Rectal infection is transmitted by penetrative anal sex and is diagnosed on rectal swab. Protoscopy may show an inflamed mucous membrane with little mucus. It cannot be treated with penicillin because rectal commensal bacteria in the rectum produce ▀-lactamase that protects the gonococcus from penicillin.

    GONOCOCCAL PHARYNGITIS

    Infections of the throat are usually asymptomatic, but in some cases may cause a sore throat. This condition is diagnosed by a throat culture, utilizing a cotton swab. Most cases of gonococcal pharyngitis are caused by oral sex with a partner infected with gonorrhea.

    UNTREATED GONORRHEA INFECTIONS

    If not treated. the infection can travel through the bloodstream and go into the bones, joints, tendons, brain, heart, and other tissues, causing a systemic illness called "Disseminated Gonococcal Infection (DGI)" with:
    • Body aches and inflamed, painful joints and tendons, especially in the knees and hands. At this stage, the organism is difficult to detect, and the condition is often misdiagnosed as simple arthritis.

    • When joints become involved, gonococcal arthritis can develop. Gonococcal arthritis occurs after primary infection of the genitalia, anus, or throat. This occurs in about 1% of patients who are infected with gonorrhea and is more common in women than men. Typical symptoms include a 5 to 7 day history of fever, shaking, chills, multiple skin lesions, fleeting migratory polyarthralgias and tenosynovitis in fingers, wrists, toes or ankles. This should be evaluated promptly with a culture of the synovial fluid, blood, cervix, urethra, rectum, skin lesion fluid, or pharynx. The underlying gonorrhea should be treated; if this is done then usually a good prognosis will follow.

    • Infection of the blood (sepsis).
    • Infection of the inner lining of the heart and heart valves (endocarditis).

    • Skin lesions (occasionally), infection of the skin (cellulitis).

    • Meningitis (infection or inflammation of the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord).

    • In females the infection will usually spread to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, causing Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). PID causes scarring of the fallopian tubes which leads to increased risks of causing an tubal (ectopic) pregnancy as a fertilized egg may not be able to pass through the narrowed, scarred fallopian tube. Ectopic pregnancies are serious conditions which are potentially life-threatening to the mother. Gonorrhea is the most common cause of female infertility and can cause infertility in up to 10 percent of infected women.

    • In women, untreated gonorrhea can result in cyst and abscess formation in one or more of the greater vestibular glands (bartholinitis), causing trouble walking, PID, and Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome.

    • In men, inflammation of the epididymus (epididymitis), prostate gland (prostatitis) and urethral structure (urethritis) can result from untreated gonorrhea. Sterility and urethral stricture may occur in males.
    Often there are no symptoms at all in:
    • 10 to 15 percent of men.

    • 80 percent of women.
    People with no symptoms are at risk of developing complications from gonorrhea and can unknowingly spread the infection. From the time of infection gonorrhea can be spread and will continue to be spread until properly treated. Past infection does not make a person immune to gonorrhea and previous infections with gonorrhea may allow complications to occur more rapidly and increase your risk of getting HIV.





    RISK FACTORS

    The bacterium that causes gonorrhea can be passed through intercourse, anal sex, and cunnilingus (oral sex). The transmission is by contact of fluids from mucous membranes of infected people and it usually is through sexual activity. Most frequently, these bacteria infect the man's urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen through the penis, and the woman's cervix, the canal into the uterus. Multiple sexual partners, whether heterosexual or homosexual increases the risk of becoming infected with gonorrhea. Any person who is sexually active can be infected with Gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact including:
    • Penis to vagina (infection rate for males 30 to 50 percent, females 60 to 90 percent).
    • Penis to mouth.
    • Penis to rectum.
    • Mouth to vagina.
  • Gonorrhea is common among younger people, ages 15 to 30 and in those starting sexual activity before the age of 18.
  • Risk increases in having multiple partners, having high risk partner(s) (partner has multiple sex partners or gonorrhea-infected sex partners).
  • Having unprotected sexual contact (not using condoms). See STDs and Condom Use for more information.
  • Increases in gonorrhea have been found among men who have sex with men.
  • Gonorrhea occurs more frequently in urban areas than in rural areas.
  • Women are at higher risk of getting gonorrhea than men.

  • ACTIVITIES THAT INCREASE RISK OF INFECTION

  • Prostitution. Brief sexual encounters with multiple (potentially infected) sexual partners with unknown sexual health history is a key factor and may be combined with poor hygiene, poor medical care and treatment and possible lack of symptoms and/or the misuse or non-use of condoms.

  • Childbirth. Gonorrhea can be passed from an infected mother to her child as the child passes through the birth canal during delivery causing eye infections.

  • Child Sexual Abuse. In children, gonorrhea infection due to sexual abuse is found in the genital tract, mouth, and rectum. Any child with gonorrhea infection should be evaluated by a health professional to determine the cause and to assess for possible sexual abuse.

  • Infected Bodily Excretions. An infected person can spread the infection to another area of their body by touching the infected area and transferring the excretions. Clothing or wash cloths of infected people can spread the infection.





  • PREVENTIVE MEASURES

  • Avoid any sexual contact, especially with sexual partners whose health practices and status are uncertain.

  • Do not wait for symptoms to appear, particularly if you or your partner have other sexual contacts. Regular check-ups for STD's should be part of your regular medical examination. This is very important if you are sexually active. Visit a local sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, hospital, health care provider.

  • Use a latex condom during sexual intercourse. Sexual relations should be handled responsibly by limiting the number of sexual partners and using condoms. See Male Condom and Female Condom for more information about condom usage.

  • Proper hand washing is essential as the bacteria can be transferred to the eyes.

  • This condition must be reported to the local health department to prevent its spread. It sometimes occurs simultaneously with Syphilis and chlamydia. Your cooperation is important, and your confidentiality will be maintained. Gonorrhea is the most common reportable sexually transmitted infection in the United States, with an estimated 800,000 cases of Gonorrhea reported annually.





  • PROGNOSIS - EXPECTED OUTCOME

  • Usually curable in 1 to 2 weeks with treatment.





  • POTENTIAL COMPLICATIONS

  • Gonococcal eye infection (the conjunctiva, the membrane that lines the eyelid and eye surface). This may cause blindness in children. This is the reason why eye prophylaxis is given at the time of a newborn baby's birth.

  • Blood poisoning (gonococcal septicemia).

  • Infectious arthritis in the joints.

  • Approximately 2 percent of persons with untreated gonorrhea may develop Disseminated Gonococcal Infection (DGI). The symptoms include arthritis type pain, fever and skin lesions.

  • Endocarditis. An infection/inflammation of a heart valve.

  • Infection or inflammation of the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord (meningitis).

  • COMPLICATIONS IN WOMEN

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease. PID is an ascending infection that spreads from the vagina and cervix to the uterus and fallopian tubes, which can lead to sterility. The risk of infertility increases with each episode of PID.

  • Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes). The fertilized egg does not pass into the uterus if the tubes are partially scarred causing the embryo to implant in the fallopian tube. This can result in miscarriage and sometimes death of the mother if not caught early. This can be a life-threatening situation.

  • Perihepatitis. An infection/inflammation around the liver. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome occurs when pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) causes inflammation of the capsule covering the liver and the surrounding area. It causes pain and tenderness in the upper right abdomen over the liver. This syndrome develops when bacteria enter the abdominal cavity through the fallopian tubes and then follow the flow of peritoneal fluid to the right upper abdomen, where they infect the liver.

  • Infertility in women.

  • An abscess in or near the ovaries (tubo-ovarian abscess) in women from PID.

  • Chronic pelvic pain. This is pain in the lower abdomen and pelvis that has been present for at least 6 months. The pain may be intermittent, recurrent, or constant. The pain may fluctuate from mild to severe.

  • COMPLICATIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Problems related to untreated gonorrhea in pregnancy include:
    • The possibility of a miscarriage.
    • Preterm labor. The woman may be given drugs to prevent premature birth, which could require a stay in the hospital.
    • Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM).
    • Premature delivery. A premature infant has an increased risk of health problems.
    • Infection of the lining of the uterus (Endometritis).
    If a woman has gonorrhea when she gives birth, her newborn can be infected. Women with untreated gonorrhea and infected newborns are more likely to develop long-term complications of gonorrhea.

    COMPLICATIONS IN NEWBORNS

    Newborns of women with untreated gonorrhea may have any of the following complications:
    • Pinkeye (conjunctivitis). Most newborns who have gonorrhea get conjunctivitis.
    • Build up of toxins in the blood or tissues (sepsis).
    • Inflammation of a joint (arthritis).
    • Scalp infections at the site of a fetal monitoring device.
    • Infection of the fluid and tissues that surround the brain and spinal cord (meningitis).
    COMPLICATIONS IN MEN

    Men with untreated gonorrhea may develop:
    • An infection of the urethra (urethritis).
    • An inflammation and infection of the epididymis (epididymitis).
    • An inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis).
    • Infertility.
  • Sexual impotence in men, if untreated. This is usually the result of gonorrheal epididymitis (inflammation of the testicles) and result in sterility in the long term. Gonorrhea can also spread into other organs, cause skin problems, and swelling of the testicles and penis.





  • MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS

    MEDICAL HISTORY

    Diagnosis of gonorrhea include a medical history and a physical examination. Your health care provider may ask you questions about how you may have been exposed to any sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and how you found out you may have been exposed (such as your partner telling you). You will be asked about any symptoms you may have and what method of birth control you use and whether or not you use condoms to protect against STDs. You may be asked about your sexual behavior and whether you or your partner engage in high risk sexual behaviors and if you have been treated for an STD in the past and the treatment given.

    PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    For women, after your medical history is taken, the initial exam for gonorrhea will include a gynecological (pelvic) exam. See Pelvic Exam and Pelvic Pap Smear for more information.

    For men, a genital exam for urethritis and epididymitis will be done.

    DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

    Several gonorrhea tests can be used to detect infection. Many health care providers prefer to use more than one test to increase the chance of an accurate diagnosis. Except for the culture, which can take 3 days to obtain results, the tests give relatively quick test results.

    Diagnostic tests may include blood studies, laboratory culture and microscopic analysis of the discharge from the reproductive organs, rectum or throat. Many health care providers prefer to use more than one test to increase the chance of accurate diagnosis. There are three types of laboratory techniques used to diagnose gonorrhea.
    • Staining Biological Samples: This is called gram strain, which is usually more accurate for men then for women, as only 1 in 2 women with the infection have a positive stain. The test consists of placing a smear of the discharge from the penis or cervix on a slide that has a dye in it and when examined under a microscope shows the presence of gonorrhea. The health care provider can usually give you the test results during the consultation.

    • Detection of Bacterial Genes or Nucleic Acid (DNA) Test: Detection of bacterial genes or nucleic acid (DNA) test is carried out using urine or cervical swabs to detect the genes of the bacteria. This test is often more accurate than culturing the bacteria.

    • Cultures: The next test is a culture test, this one is usually used to tell if women have gonorrhea or not. It involves taking a sample of the discharge and placing it on a culture plate to incubate for two days, to allow the bacteria to multiply. Cervical samples are more accurate, to tell if the woman has gonorrhea or not. Cultures of cervical samples detect infection approximately 90 percent of the time. A culture can also be taken to detect gonorrhea in the throat. The culture test allows testing for drug-resistant bacteria.
    Other sexually transmitted diseases may be present with gonorrhea infection. Your health care provider may recommend testing for chlamydia (40% of people with gonorrhea also have chlamydia), syphilis, hepatitis B, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    In the United States, your health care provider must report that you have gonorrhea to the state health department so the department can inform your sex partner(s) that they also need treatment.

    Early Detection: If you engage in high-risk sexual behaviors, you may want to consider being tested for gonorrhea even though you don't have symptoms. Testing will allow gonorrhea to be quickly diagnosed and treated. This helps reduce the risk of transmitting gonorrhea and avoid complications of the infection.

    The CDC also recommends screening for pregnant women with high-risk sexual behaviors to prevent them from transmitting gonorrhea to their babies. All pregnant women should be screened during their first prenatal visit. If a pregnant woman is at high risk for gonorrhea, she may be tested again during the third trimester before delivery to prevent transmitting the infection to her newborn.





    CONVENTIONAL MEDICAL TREATMENT

    it has been suggested that mercury was used as a treatment for gonorrhea. Surgeons tools on board the recovered English warship 'The Mary Rose' included a syringe that, according to some, was used to inject the mercury via the meatus into any unfortunate crewman suffering from gonorrhea.

    The mainstay of treatment is the appropriate use of antibiotics. While penicillin was the most common antibiotic used to treat gonorrhea up until the 1970s, an increase in antibiotic resistance has led to a decline in its use. Recommendations for first choice treatment of gonorrhea must therefore depend on local information on resistance patterns and it is not possible to make treatment recommendations that are applicable to all parts of the world.

    The CDC released a report on Thursday, April 12, 2007 officially adding gonorrhea to a list of super bugs that are now resistant to common antibiotics.

    Treatment is with antibiotic medication, such as penicillin or other antibiotics in pill form or by injection. However, the disease is becoming more and more resistant to many standard medications. Antibiotics that are currently used for non pregnant women and men are:
    • Cefixime, 400 mg orally.
    • Ceftriaxone (Rocephin), 125 to 250 mg by intramuscular injection.
    • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), 500 mg orally.
    • Ofloxacin (Floxin), 400 mg orally.
    • Levofloxacin (Levaquin), 250 mg orally.
    • Doxycycline (Doryx).
    • Azithromycin (Zithromax), 2 g orally.
    • Tetracycline.
    • Cefotaxime, 500 mg by intramuscular injection.
    • Cefpodoxime (Vantin), 400 mg orally.
    • Cefoxitin, 2 g by intramuscular injection, plus probenecid, 1 g orally.
    • Spectinomycin, 2 g by intramuscular injection.
    • Amoxycillin, 2 g, plus probenecid, 1 g orally.
    • Ampicillin, 2 to 3 g, plus probenecid, 1 g orally.
    These drugs are all given as a single dose.

    The level of tetracycline resistance in Neisseria gonorrheae is now so high as to make it completely ineffective in most parts of the world. The fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin) cannot be used in pregnancy. It is important to refer all sexual partners to be checked for gonorrhea to prevent spread of the disease and to prevent the patient from becoming re-infected with gonorrhea. Patients should also be offered screening for other sexually transmitted infections. In areas where co-infection with chlamydia is common, health care providers may prescribe a combination of antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone with doxycycline or azithromycin, to treat both diseases.

    Penicillin is ineffective at treating rectal gonorrhea: this is because other bacteria within the rectum produce Beta-lactamases that destroy penicillin. All current treatments are less effective at treating gonorrhea of the throat, so the patient must be rechecked by throat swab 72 hours or more after being given treatment, and then retreated if the throat swab is still positive.

    Although gonorrhea usually does not require follow-up (with the exception of rectal or pharyngeal disease), patients are usually advised to phone for results 5 to 7 days after diagnosis to confirm that the antibiotic they received was likely to be effective. Patients are advised to abstain from sex during this time.

    Drug resistant strains are known to exist.

    US recommendations: The US does not have a federal system of sexual health clinics, and the majority of infections are treated in family practices. A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic such as ceftriaxone is recommended for use in most areas. Since some areas such as Hawaii and California have very high levels of resistance to fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin) they are no longer used empirically to treat infections originating in these areas.

    UK recommendations: In the UK, the majority of patients with gonorrhea are treated in dedicated sexual health clinics. The current recommendation is for ceftriaxone or cefixime as first line therapy; no resistance to either drug has yet been reported in the UK. Levels of spectinomycin resistance in the UK are less than 1 percent, which would make it a good choice in theory, but intramuscular spectinomycin injection is very painful.

    Azithromycin (given as a single dose of 2 g) is recommended if there is concurrent infection with chlamydia. A single dose of oral ciprofloxacin, 500 mg, is effective if the organism is known to be sensitive, but fluoroquinolones were removed from the UK recommendations for empirical therapy in 2003 because of increasing resistance rates. In 2005, resistance rates for ciprofloxacin were 22% for the whole of the UK (42 percent for London, 10 percent for the rest of the UK).

    SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
    • Pregnant. Pregnant women may only take Ceftriaxone and possibly Spectinomycin.
    • Younger than 18 years of age. Ceftriaxone is recommended for babies.
    Gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, another common STD, often infect people at the same time. A combination of antibiotics is taken which will treat both diseases, such as:
    • Azithromycin.
    • Ceftriaxone.
    • Doxycycline.
    TREATMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Follow up laboratory cultures will confirm cure.
  • Patients should be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Use separate linens and disposable eating utensils during treatment.
  • Wash hands frequently especially after urination and bowel movements.
  • Do not touch eyes with hands.
  • Inform all sexual contacts so they can seek treatment.

  • SURGERY

    If untreated, gonorrhea causes complications, such as an abscess. Surgery to drain or remove the abscess may be needed.
    ADDITIONAL RESOURCES & INFORMATION

    Centers For Disease Control & Prevention
    1600 Clifton Rd.
    Atlanta, GA 30333, USA Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/
    (800) CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)
    (888) 232-6348





    MEDICATION

    Antibiotics to fight the infection will be prescribed (See treatment above for list of commonly used antibiotic medications). Antibiotic treatment, if taken exactly as directed, normally cures gonorrhea infections. If antibiotics are not taken properly, the infection will not be cured. Prompt antibiotic treatment also prevents the spread of the infection and decreases complications, such as PID.

    Antibiotic treatment, if taken exactly as directed, normally cures gonorrhea infections over 97 percent of the time. All sex partners within the last 60 days of people diagnosed with gonorrhea also need to be tested and treated to prevent reinfection.

    Having a gonorrhea infection does not protect you from another infection in the future. A new exposure to gonorrhea will cause reinfection, even if you were previously treated and cured. Symptoms that occur after treatment are usually caused by reinfection rather than treatment failure.

    Many people who have gonorrhea also have chlamydia, a similar sexually transmitted disease. When both infections are present, medication treatment includes antibiotics that are effective in treating both chlamydia and gonorrhea.

    Non-prescription drugs, such as acetaminophen or aspirin, may be suggested to reduce discomfort but not in place of antibiotics.

    Certain strains of the gonorrhea bacteria have become resistant to some antibiotics, including penicillin, tetracycline, and sulfa drugs. In areas of Asia and the Pacific and in the western United States, the gonorrhea bacteria have also become resistant to quinolones (quinolone-resistant gonorrhea, QRNG). When bacteria become resistant to an antibiotic, they no longer can be killed by that particular medication. If gonorrhea is found to be resistant to an antibiotic, you may need to take another antibiotic to cure the infection. If you have been treated for gonorrhea and still have symptoms, you will need to be retested with a gonorrhea culture to determine whether there is bacterial resistance to the medication you were taking for the infection.


    ANTIBIOTICS RECOMMENDED FOR INFECTIONS OF THE CERVIX, URETHRA, & RECTUM


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the following medications for adults and children over 99 pounds (44.9 kg).
    MEDICATION DOSE
    DAYS OF TREATMENT
    Ceftriaxone 125 mg IM
    Single dose
    Ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally
    Single dose
    Ofloxacin 400 mg orally
    Single dose
    Levofloxacin 250 mg orally
    Single dose
    MEDICATION DOSE
    (If chlamydia is also present)
    DAYS OF TREATMENT
    Azithromycin 1 g orally
    Single dose
    Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice a day
    7 Days

    Spectinomycin 2 g in a single IM dose is an alternative medication given to people who cannot take the cephalosporin and quinolone medications recommended above.
    ANTIBIOTICS RECOMMENDED FOR INFECTION OF THE THROAT (PHARYNX)
    MEDICATION DOSE
    DAYS OF TREATMENT
    Ceftriaxone 125 mg IM
    Single dose
    Ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally
    Single dose
    MEDICATION DOSE
    (If Chlamydia is also present.)
    DAYS OF TREATMENT
    Azithromycin 1 g orally
    Single dose
    Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice a day
    7 Days




    ANTIBIOTICS RECOMMENDED FOR INFECTION OF THE CONJUNCTIVA OF THE EYE

    Ceftriaxone, 1 g IM is given in a single dose for infected eyes.




    ANTIBIOTICS RECOMMENDED IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    The CDC recommends ceftriaxone for pregnant women infected with gonorrhea.

    Doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin are not used to treat pregnant women.

    If chlamydia is also present: Erythromycin and amoxicillin are equally effective, though some pregnant women may have fewer side effects with amoxicillin. Azithromycin may also be used.

    People also infected with HIV are prescribed the same medication treatment presented in the tables.

    Newborns and infants are treated with ceftriaxone or cefotaxime intravenously (IV) or intra muscularly (IM).


    MEDICATION SIDE EFFECTS

  • The most common side effects of medications used to treat gonorrhea are nausea and vomiting.
  • Doxycycline causes less nausea and vomiting but may cause yeast infections in women.
  • Doxycycline and ofloxin (or any "floxin") cannot be given to pregnant women or babies.
  • Exposure to sunlight while taking doxycycline can cause a painful, severe sunburn or a rash reaction.

  • If side effects occur and cannot be controlled, contact your health care provider. Other antibiotics may be prescribed that cause fewer side effects.

    See Physicians Desk Reference for a full list of side effects or consult with your health care provider or pharmacist. PDR Health: For Online Drug Information





    ACTIVITY RECOMMENDATIONS & RESTRICTIONS

    No restrictions, except do not resume sexual activity until a follow-up culture shows the infection is cured. Abstaining from sexual contact while you are being treated for an STD is vital. People taking a single dose of medication should abstain from sexual contact for 7 days after treatment so the medication will be effective. Exposed sex partners need treatment whether they have symptoms or not. Treatment failures and resistance to antibiotics can occur.




    DIET & NUTRITION

  • No specific diet restrictions.

  • Eat a well balanced diet to maintain a healthy immune system. Reduce consumption of caffeine and alcohol during treatment. These irritate the urethra. See Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) for more information about nutrition and nutritional supplements.

  • HERBAL RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Andiroba (Crabwood) & Copaiba (Copal) Oil applied to irritated area as needed. Relieves vaginal and rectal inflammation.

  • Arjuna contains luteolin, which kills gonorrhea and chlamydia bacteria. Take 500 mg capsules every 8 hours.

  • Astragalus helps to protect the immune system and aids in healing.

  • Barberry, Coptis, Goldenseal, or Oregon Grape Root contains berberine, which kills gonorrhea and chlamydia bacteria. Take 15 to 30 drops tincture in 1/4 cup water 3 times daily. Do not use barberry, coptis, goldenseal or Oregon grape root if you are pregnant or have gallbladder disease. Do not take these herbs with supplemental Vitamin B-6 or with protein supplements containing the amino acid histidine. Do not take goldenseal on a daily basis for more than one week at a time, and do not use it during pregnancy. Use it only under a health care provider's supervision. Do not use goldenseal if you have cardiovascular disease or glaucoma.

  • Horny Goat Weed (Epimedium) is an antibacterial. It stimulates urination to keep bacteria from attaching to lining or urethra. Take as directed on the label or by dispensing herbalist. Use after suspected exposure. Do not use if you have any kind of prostate disorder.

  • Skullcap (Scutellaria) may act against antibiotic-resistant strains of gonorrhea and chlamydia. Do nt use skullcap if you have diarrhea. Take 1,000 to 2,000 mg 3 times daily.

  • Echinacea, Pau D'Arco and Red Clover aid in healing. Take in capsule, tincture or extract form or drink as tea. Take as directed on label.

  • Echinacea is an antiseptic and antimicrobial with properties which helps increase antiviral activity by increasing production of interferon and increase the number of white blood cells available to destroy bacteria and slow the spread of infections.

  • Pau D'Arco is a natural antibiotic and potentiates immune function. It is also a powerful antioxidant and is good for destroying candida in the colon. American herbalists use this herb to enhance liver function and to help lessen the effects of AIDS, allergies, cardiovascular problems, inflammatory bowel syndrome, rheumatism, tumors, and ulcers. The key ingredient in Pau D'Arco is lapachol. In the 1970s, studies of lapachol showed promise in destroying cancer cells; however, its use produced severe side effects such as blood-clotting abnormalities, anemia, and nausea, so further studies were abandoned. While high doses are not recommended for treating cancer, moderate amounts have been found to be very useful as an immune booster while fighting cancer, HIV, AIDS, bronchitis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Pau D'Arco bark has also been used to treat fungal infections, yeast infections, smoker's cough, warts, and acne. The standard dosage for internal use is with products standardized to contain 2 to 7 percent lapachol, although an effective alternative is a product that contains 3 percent naphthoquinones. If using a tincture or liquid extract formulation as an external treatment, you may need to dilute it with a small amount of water or vegetable oil if skin becomes irritated. If skin irritation continues after dilution, discontinue use. If treating genital warts, dilution is necessary. If using as a tea, it is best to take with food to avoid stomach upset. If stomach upset continues, stop taking the herb altogether. This potent herb may pose health risks when taken internally for more than a week so it is suggested you use only for a week at a time.

  • Red Clover is used as a cancer therapy in many parts of the world has prompted scientists to take a closer look at this herb. Red Clover is used to treat menopausal symptoms. This herb works well in treating bronchitis, asthma, and spasmodic coughs. Red Clover is also used to treat acne, eczema, abscesses, psoriasis, insect bites, stings, and other skin diseases. In a compress it works well in treating arthritis pains and gout. As an eyewash, Red Clover herb can be used to treat conjunctivitis. Red Clover comes in various forms and is an ingredient in many products. For a tea, take 1 cup of boiling water to 2 to 3 teaspoons of dried flowers. Drink 3 cups a day. In capsule of tablet form take 2 to 4 grams a day. In using a tincture use 2 to 4 ml 3 times a day. For other formulations, read and follow product label directions.

  • TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM) FORMULAS

  • Dong Quai, Gentiana (Long Dan Cao), and Aloe: A traditional Chinese herbal formula that treats gonorrhea and chlamydia with accompanying herpes infection. Do not use these herbs if you are trying to become pregnant.

  • Eight-Ingredient Pill with Rehmannia (Rehmannia-Eight Combination): A traditional Chinese herbal formula that increases urination, effectively flushing bacteria out of the genitourinary tract before they can cause damage. Use after suspected exposure.

  • Peony & Licorice Decoction: A traditional Chinese herbal formula that treats gonorrhea and chlamydia complicated by cramping and abdominal pain or pain around the anus. Do not use Peony and Licorice Decoction if you have an estrogen-sensitive disease, such as breast cancer, endometriosis, or fibrocystic breasts.


  • RECOMMENDED HERBAL PRODUCTS


  • Andiroba Herbal Products
  • Arjuna Herbal Products
  • Astragalus Herbal Products
  • Barberry Herbal Products
  • Copaiba Herbal Products
  • Coptis Herbal Products
  • Echinacea Herbal Products
  • Goldenseal Herbal Products
  • Horny Goat Weed Herbal Products
  • Oregon Grape Herbal Products
  • Pau D'Arco Herbal Products
  • Red Clover Herbal Products
  • Skullcap Herbal Products
  • TCM Herbal Formula Products





  • NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

    The following nutrients are important for healing once appropriate local treatment has been administered. Unless otherwise specified, the following recommended doses are for those over the age of 18. For a child between 12 and 17 years old, reduce the dose to 3/4 the recommended amount. For a child between 6 and 12 years old, use 1/2 the recommended dose, and for a child under 6, use 1/4 the recommended amount.

    NUTRIENTS
    Supplement
    Suggested Dosage
    Comments
    Very Important
    Acidophilus
    As directed on label. Take on an empty stomach. Restores normal bacterial balance and to replenish "friendly" bacteria in the colon. Use non-dairy formula. Kyo-Dophilus is recommended.

  • Acidophilus Supplement Products
  • Bifidus Supplement Products
  • Kyo-Dophilus Supplement Products
  • Bifa-15 Probiotic
    As directed on label. A natural intestinal bacteria supplement that aids in the production of folic acid, enzymes, and B vitamins.

  • Acidophilus Supplement Products
  • Bifa-15 Probiotic Supplement Products
  • Bifidus & Bifido Factor Supplement Products
  • Kyo-Dophilus Supplement Products
  • Primadophilus Supplement Products
  • Pro-Flora Probiotic Supplement Products
  • Bifidus
    Use as a vaginal douche as directed on label. Replaces normal vaginal and bowel flora. Restores normal vaginal bacterial balance, fights candida infection.

  • Acidophilus Supplement Products
  • Bifa-15 Probiotic Supplement Products
  • Bifidus & Bifido Factor Supplement Products
  • Kyo-Dophilus Supplement Products
  • Primadophilus Supplement Products
  • Pro-Flora Probiotic Supplement Products
  • Pro-Flora Probiotic
    As directed on label. Essential for maintaining the proper pH of the colon flora. Helps prevent constipation and prevents infection.

  • Acidophilus Supplement Products
  • Bifa-15 Probiotic Supplement Products
  • Bifidus & Bifido Factor Supplement Products
  • Kyo-Dophilus Supplement Products
  • Primadophilus Supplement Products
  • Pro-Flora Probiotic Supplement Products
  • Kyo-Dophilus
    As directed on label. Take on an empty stomach. Restores normal vaginal bacterial balance, fights candida infection. Use a non-dairy formula.

  • Kyo-Dophillus Supplement Products
  • Zinc
    50 to 100 mg daily. Do not exceed a total of 100 mg daily from all supplements. Boosts immune function and healing.

  • Zinc Supplement Products
  • Vitamin C
    5,000 to 10,000 mg daily, in divided doses. Improves immune function. Immunostimulant that aids healing.

  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Plus
    Bioflavonoids
    30 to 60 mg daily, in divided doses. Works with vitamin C.


  • Bioflavonoids Supplement Products
  • Bioflavonoids Supplement Products





    NOTIFY YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER

    Gonorrhea causes no long-term problems if treated early in the course of the infection before any complications develop. Untreated gonorrhea can lead to many complications.

    Call your health care provider immediately for medical evaluation if you have the following symptoms.

    IN WOMEN:
    • Sudden, severe pain in the lower abdomen.
    • Lower abdominal pain with vaginal bleeding or discharge and a fever of 100°F (37.78°C) or higher.
    • Urinary burning, frequent urination, or inability to urinate and a fever of 100°F (37.78°C) or higher.
    • New, unexplained symptoms develop. Drugs used in treatment may produce side effects.
    IN MEN:
    • Discharge from the penis and a fever of 100°F (37.78°C) or higher.
    • Urinary burning, frequent urination, or inability to urinate and a fever of 100°F (37.78°C) or higher.
    • Pain, swelling, or tenderness in the scrotum and a fever of 100°F (37.78°C) or higher.
    • New, unexplained symptoms develop. Drugs used in treatment may produce side effects.
    Call your health care provider to determine when an evaluation is needed if you have the following symptoms.

    IN WOMEN:
    • Vaginal discharge that has become yellowish, thicker, or bad-smelling.
    • Bleeding between periods that occurs more than once when periods are usually regular.
    • Pain during sexual intercourse.
    • Bleeding after sexual intercourse or douching.
    • Sores, bumps, rashes, blisters, or warts on or around the genital or anal area.
    • Burning, pain, or itching with urination or frequent urination lasting longer than 24 hours.
    • Pelvic or lower abdominal pain occurs without a known cause, such as diarrhea or menstrual cramps.
    • Pink eye (conjunctivitis).
    • Suspected exposure to a sexually transmitted disease.

    IN MEN
    • Sores, bumps, rashes, blisters, or warts on or around the genital or anal areas.
    • Burning, pain, or itching with urination or frequent urination lasting longer than 24 hours.
    • Suspected exposure to a sexually transmitted disease.
    • Abnormal discharge from the penis.
    • Pink eye (conjunctivitis).
    Watchful waiting is a period of time during which you and your health care provider observe your symptoms or condition without using medical treatment. Watchful waiting is not appropriate for a gonorrhea infection. Gonorrhea causes no long-term problems if treated early in the course of the infection before any complications develop, but untreated gonorrhea can lead to many complications. Avoid sexual contact until you have been examined by your health professional to prevent transmitting an infection.

    If you know you have been exposed to gonorrhea, both you and your sex partner(s) need to be treated. You need to be treated even if you do not have symptoms. You should notify all sex partners with whom you have had sex within 60 days of noticing symptoms or receiving a diagnosis of an infection.

    If you are unable or uncomfortable contacting your sex partners, health departments and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics can help with this process. Low-cost diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhea is usually available at local health departments and family planning clinics, such as Planned Parenthood. If you are unable or uncomfortable contacting your sex partners, health departments and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics can help with this process. Some people are not comfortable seeing their usual health professional for sexually transmitted diseases. Most counties have confidential clinics for diagnosing and treating gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases.

    FOR MORE HELPFUL INFORMATION:

    Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S. (SIECUS) - NY Office
    90 John Street. Suite 402
    New York, NY 10038
    Phone: (212) 819-9770
    Fax: (212) 819-9776

    SIECUS DC Office 1012 14th Street, NW, Suite 107
    Washington, DC 10005
    Phone: (202) 265-2405
    Fax: (202) 462-2340
    E-mail: siecus@siecus.org
    Web Address: www.siecus.org

    SIECUS develops, collects, and disseminates information; promotes comprehensive education about sexuality, including sexually transmitted diseases; and advocates the right of individuals to make responsible sexual choices.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America
    434 West 33rd Street
    New York, NY 10001
    Phone: 1-800-230-7526 (For Health Centers Near You)
    Phone: (212) 541-7800
    Fax: (212) 245-1845
    Web Address: www.plannedparenthood.org

    This organization provides comprehensive reproductive health care and consumer information about family planning, sexual health, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

    Centers For Disease Control & Prevention
    1600 Clifton Rd.
    Atlanta, GA 30333, USA Web Site: www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/, www.cdc.gov/hiv/
    (800) CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)
    (888) 232-6348

  • Herpes-Coldsores.com: Gonorrhea Information & Pictures.
  • NIAID Infectious Diseases: Gonorrhea
  • CDC: Gonorrhea/Neisseria
  • Puberty101: Gonorrhea, Clap
  • NCBI-NIH: Nonsexual Transmission of Sexual Transmitted Diseases: An Infrequent Occurance
  • Pediatrics: Gonorrhea in Prepubertal Children
  • IPT Journal: Medical Examination for Sexual Abuse - Have We Been Misled?
  • IPT Journal: Medical Findings & Child Sexual Abuse
  • CDC: Gonorrhea Laboratory Information
  • CDC Gonorrhea Lab Information: Identification of Neisseria and related species
  • Stability & Viability of N. Gonorrhoeae in Various Solutions & Buffers
  • Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Neisseria Gonorrhoeae


  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Information: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)





    QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS



    GONORRHEA & CHLAMYDIA STD SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS


    Supplements and products for gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease that is the result of a bacterial infection of the urethra in men or the urethra and/or cervix in women. Information, supplements and products for Chlamydia, a bacterial infection of the urethra in men and the urethra, cervix and/or reproductive organs in women.These supplements should be used in addition to conventional medical treatment to help strengthen the immune system and should not replace conventional medical therapy.

  • Acidophilus Supplement Products
  • AHCC Supplement Products
  • Alive Multinutrient Supplement Products
  • Aloe Vera Herbal Products
  • Andiroba Herbal Products
  • Antibiotic Supplement Products
  • Arjuna Herbal Products
  • Astragalus Herbal Products
  • Barberry Herbal Products
  • Beta Carotene Products
  • Bifa-15 Probiotic Products
  • Bifidus Supplement Products
  • Bioflavonoids Supplement Products
  • Bittermelon Herbal Products
  • Blackseed Herbal Products
  • Calendula Herbal Products
  • Carotene Complex Products
  • Cat's Claw Herbal Products
  • Coenzyme A Supplement Products
  • Colloidal Silver Supplement Products
  • Copaiba Herbal Products
  • Copper Supplement Products
  • Coptis Herbal Products
  • Coenzyme Q10 Supplement Products
  • Curcumin (Turmeric) Herbal Products
  • Dioxychlor/Bio-Chlor-Dox Products
  • Dong Quai Herbal Products

  • Echinacea Herbal Products
  • Garlic Herbal Products
  • Gentian (Gentiana) Herbal Products
  • Goldenseal Herbal Products
  • Horny Goat Weed Herbal Products
  • Hydrangea Herbal Products
  • Kelp Herbal Products
  • Kyo-Dophilus Supplement Products
  • Licorice Herbal Products
  • Multimineral Supplement Products
  • Multivitamin Supplement Products
  • Myrrh Herbal Products
  • Oregon Grape Herbal Products
  • Pau D'Arco Herbal Products
  • Peony Herbal Products
  • Primadophilus Supplement Products
  • Pro-Flora Probiotic Products
  • Red Clover Herbal Products
  • Rehmannia Herbal Products
  • Skullcap Herbal Products
  • TCM Formula Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-Complex Products
  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Vitamin D Supplement Products
  • Vitamin E Supplement Products
  • Zinc Supplement Products







  • TCM FORMULA: DONG QUAI, GENTIAN & ALOE PRODUCTS

  • Dong Quai, Gentiana Long Dan Cao, and Aloe Pill: A traditional Chinese herbal formula that treats gonorrhea and chlamydia with accompanying herpes infection. Do not use these herbs if you are trying to become pregnant. Unable to find specific formula with these ingredients.

  • CHINESE HERBS DIRECT PRODUCTS

    Chinese Herbs Direct: Aloe Vera Resin (Lu Hui) Whole Herb, 500 Grams
    Aloe Vera Leaf drains fire and reduces accumulation, kills parasites and strengthens digestion.

    Chinese Herbs Direct: Advanced Formula Menopause Support, Chinese Herbs Direct, 90 Caps
    Chinese Herbs Direct's Advanced Formula Menopause Support is specially formulated to naturally ease menopausal symptoms without harmful side effects. Our unique menopausal support product contains optimal potencies of key ingredients that have been shown to support normal hormonal levels during menopause. This synergistic blend includes standardized herbal extracts traditionally used in China (such as Dong Quai, Ginger, Licorice and Ginkgo), combined with Native American and other Western nutrients (such as Black Cohosh, Red Clover and Wild Yam) to form a well-balanced and effective product for women.

    Chinese Herbs Direct: Gentiana (Long Dan Cao; Scabra Root) Herbal Powder, 500 Grams
    Chinese Gentian Root eliminates heat and damp from the Liver and Gallbladder channels. Sedates Liver Fire.

    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Dong Quai Tea Products

    Amazon: Gentianai Tea Products

    Amazon: Aloe Tea Products

    TCM FORMULA: PEONY & LICORICE FORMULA PRODUCTS

  • Peony and Licorice Decoction: A traditional Chinese herbal formula that treats gonorrhea and chlamydia complicated by cramping and abdominal pain or pain around the anus. Do not use Peony and Licorice Decoction if you have an estrogen-sensitive disease, such as breast cancer, endometriosis, or fibrocystic breasts.

  • CHINESE HERBS DIRECT PRODUCTS

    Chinese Herbs Direct: Peony & Licorice Teapills (Shao Yao Gan Cao Wan), Plum Flower Herbs, 200 Count
    Ingredients include paeonia lactiflora root, Glycyrrhiza uralensis root-prep, activated carbon, botanical wax, talcum. - Bai shao, Zhi gan cao. Softens the liver, nourishes the sinews, calms spasms. Contraindicated during the early stages of acute illness such as colds and flu, or during an acute infection.

    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Peony Licorice Decoction TCM Products


    Amazon: Peony & Licorice Decoction Extract Powder Tea (Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang), Hanzung Pharmceutical, 180 Grams
    All natural TCM herbal formula in an easy to make herbal tea. Well soluble in hot water. Number one pain control choice by acupuncturists. Relieves backache, back sprain, and tension headaches, muscle spasms, pulled muscles, tight muscles and leg cramps.



    Amazon: Peonia Licorice Abdominal Formula Dietary Supplement (Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang), HerbalDr, 500 mg, 100 Caps
    All natural TCM herbal formula Number one pain control choice by acupuncturists. Relieves backache, back sprain, and tension headaches, muscle spasms, pulled muscles, tight muscles and leg cramps.


    TCM FORMULA: REHMANNIA-EIGHT COMBINATION PRODUCTS

  • Eight-Ingredient Pill with Rehmannia (Rehmannia-Eight Combination): A traditional Chinese herbal formula that increases urination, effectively flushing bacteria out of the genitourinary tract before they can cause damage. Use after suspected exposure.


  • CHINESE HERBS DIRECT PRODUCTS

    Chinese Herbs Direct: Rehmannia Vitalizer, Planetary Herbals, 150 Tabs
    Planetary Herbals Rehmannia Vitalizer is based on the classic Chinese tonifier Rehmannia Eight (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan), one of the most strengthening tonics of Chinese herbalism. Traditionally it was used to build warmth and vitality. Take 2 tablets twice daily between meals. Proprietary Blend: Desert Broomrape Aerial Parts, Rehmannia Root, Psoralea Fruit, Tree Peony Root Bark, Chinese Yam Rhizome, Dong Quai Root, Poria Sclerotium, Schisandra Fruit, Asian Water Plantain Rhizome, Saw Palmetto Berry, Cassia Bark, Morinda Root Extract (10:1), Chinese Dodder Seed Extract (8:1), Asian Ginseng Root Extract (3:1), Epimedium Aerial Parts Extract (10% flavonoids as icariin), Asiatic Dogwood Fruit Extract (5:1) and Lycium Fruit Extract (4:1) - 1.5 g. Calcium - 50 mg. Sodium - 5 mg.

    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Rehmannia Eight Combination TCM Products


    Amazon: Rehmannia Eight (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan), Kan Traditionals, 500 mg, 60 Tabs



    Amazon: Rehmannia Eight Formula (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan), Concentrated Granules, Sun Ten, 100 Grams



    Amazon: Rehmannia Eight Combination (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan), Kan Essentials Herbs, 550 mg, 120 Tabs


    Amazon: Rehmannia Eight Combination (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan), Kan Essentials Herbs, 500 mg, 60 Tabs



    Amazon: Rehmannia Eight Combination Liquid Extract )Ba Wei Di Huang Wan), Kan Essentials Herb, 1 fl. oz. (1)

    Amazon: Rehmannia Eight Combination Liquid Extract )Ba Wei Di Huang Wan), Kan Herbs Traditionals, 1 fl. oz. (2)

    Amazon: Rehmannia Eight Combination Liquid Extract )Ba Wei Di Huang Wan), Kan Herbs Traditionals, 1 fl. oz. (3)


  • Nutrition Basics: TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) Formula Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

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    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
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  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
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  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
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  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
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    Kalyx.com Herbs, Foods, Supplements, Bath & Body


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