MoonDragon's Womens Health Information
(Cause, Treatment & Nutrition)
For Informational Use Only.
For more detailed information, contact your health care provider
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Description Frequent Signs & Symptoms Causes Osteoporosis Risk Factors Preventive Measures Prognosis - Expected Outcome Potential Complications Medical Diagnosis Conventional Medical Treatment Osteoporosis Medication Activity & Exercise Recommendations & Restrictions Diet & Nutrition Notify Your Health Care Provider Osteoporosis Supplement Products
Osteoporosis is a progressive disease in which the bones gradually weaken, resulting in poor posture and brittle bones that are prone to fracture (breaks). Any bone in the body can be affected by osteoporosis, but fractures of the wrist, spine and hip are most common. Spine and hip fractures are of great concern because they often result in serious consequences, including major surgery, deformity, diminished height, permanent disability and death. Osteoporosis affects approximately 15 to 20 million people in the United States today. Women are four times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to the physiological, nutritional and hormonal differences between males and females. The condition affects 25-percent of post-menopausal women. The risk of developing osteoporosis increases with age, as peak bone mass is achieved at or near the age of 30 to 35 years.
Both men and women slowly lose bone as they age. A woman may lose 30 to 50 percent of her cortical bone thickness over a lifetime. Bone disintegration with pain in the hips, lower back, or legs and vertebral fractures (usually affecting people over 50 years old) is common. When osteoporosis (the progressive disease where bone breakdown increases faster than bone formation) is diagnosed, a combination of treatment methods are available to stop or slow down the loss and help rebuild bones. Maintaining bone health is an important step in preventing bone fractures (especially of the hip and spine) and subsequent disability that often occurs in women over age 50.
Bone is constantly restoring itself. Cells called osteoblasts are responsible for making bone, and other cells, called osteoclasts, are needed to remove old bone as its minerals are absorbed for use elsewhere in the body. If the osteoclasts break down the bone more quickly that it is replaced, then bone tends to become less dense and is therefore likely to break more easily.
Bone is strongest when a person is around age 30, and thereafter begins to decline. In women, this decline begins to accelerate at menopause. If you have not accumulated sufficient bone mass during those formative times in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, or if you lose it too quickly in later years, you are at increased risk of osteoporosis.
OSTEOPOROSIS PREVALENCE IN WOMEN
Eighty percent of those affected by osteoporosis are women. Twenty percent of non-Hispanic white and Asian women aged 50 and older are estimated to have osteoporosis, and 52-percent are estimated to have low bone mass. Five percent of non-Hispanic black women over age 50 are estimated to have osteoporosis; an estimated additional 35-percent have low bone mass that puts them at risk of developing osteoporosis. Ten percent of Hispanic women aged 50 and older are estimated to have osteoporosis, and 49-percent are estimated to have low bone mass. Osteoporosis is under-recognized and under-treated not only in Caucasian women, but in African-American women as well.
OSTEOPOROSIS PREVALENCE IN MEN
Twenty percent of those affected by osteoporosis are men. Seven percent of non-Hispanic white and Asian men aged 50 and older are estimated to have osteoporosis, and 35-percent are estimated to have low bone mass. Four percent of non-Hispanic black men aged 50 and older are estimated to have osteoporosis, and 19-percent are estimated to have low bone mass. Three percent of Hispanic men aged 50 and older are estimated to have osteoporosis, and 23-percent are estimated to have low bone mass. Klinefelter's syndrome, which results in low testosterone levels in men, also leads to osteoporosis.
One in two women and one in four men over age 50 will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in her/his remaining lifetime. Osteoporosis is responsible for more than 1.5 million fractures annually, including: over 300,000 hip fractures; and approximately 700,000 vertebral fractures; 250,000 wrist fractures; and 300,000 fractures at other sites. Hip fracture risk is increasing most rapidly among Hispanic women. Women with a hip fracture are at a four-fold greater risk of a second one, and the risk factors are similar to those for the first hip fracture. Osteoporotic fractures lower a patient's quality of life.
Senior citizens who take tranquilizers suffered 70-percent more hip fractures than other people their age. The information did not state whether the tranquilizers made the seniors more prone to accidents due to the tranquilizer effects on balance and perception or whether the tranquilizers themselves had some influence on the bone itself.
The most typical sites of fractures related to osteoporosis are the hip, spine, wrist and ribs, although the disease can affect any bone in the body. The rate of hip fractures is two to three times higher in women than men; however, the one year mortality following a hip fracture is nearly twice as high for men as for women. A woman's risk of hip fracture is equal to her combined risk of breast, uterine and ovarian cancer. In 2001, about 315,000 Americans age 45 and over were admitted to hospitals with hip fractures. Osteoporosis was the underlying cause of most of these injuries. An average of 24-percent of hip fracture patients aged 50 and over die in the year following their fracture. One in five of those who were ambulatory before their hip fracture requires long-term care afterward. At six months after a hip fracture, only 15-percent of hip fracture patients can walk across a room unaided. Not just hip fractures, but vertebral fractures are also linked with an increased risk of death. One in five hip fracture patients ends up in a nursing home, a situation that participants in one study described as less desirable than death. White women aged 65 or older have twice the incidence of fractures as African-American women.
The estimated national direct care expenditures (including hospitals, nursing homes, and outpatient services) for osteoporotic fractures is 18 billion dollars per year in 2002, and costs are rising.
FRISK FORMULA FOR PREDICTING BONE FRACTURES
Sept. 26, 2006 - Australian researchers have come up with a mathematical formula to help predict bone fractures in women 60 and older. The formula, described in Radiology's October edition, factors in bone mineral density at the hip and spine, history of fractures and falls, and weight. Researchers included Margaret Joy Henry, BSc(Hons), PhD, at Australia's University of Melbourne. Henry's team calls the formula the FRISK (fracture risk) score. They created it by looking at 679 women age 60 and older. Participants included 231 women (average age: 74) who had minor bone fractures in the two years prior to the study. The other 448 women (average age: 72) had not had any bone fractures during that time. Both groups included women with normal bone mineral density, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Osteopenia is bone mineral density that is lower than normal but not in the osteoporosis range. Osteoporosis is bone mineral density that's dangerously low, making fractures more likely. Henry's team plugged the women's weight, bone mineral density at the hip and spine, history of falls, and previous fractures into their formula to get a FRISK score. Then the researchers tracked the women's fractures for the next five to six years. During the first two years, the FRISK formula accurately predicted 75 percent of the women's fractures. The odds of having a new fracture were higher for women with low bone-mineral density, past fractures, and a history of falls. The findings about weight were a little more complex. Lighter women tend to have lower bone mineral density; heavier women often have higher density. And lighter women have been considered at greater risk for osteoporosis. But after taking bone-mineral density into account, lighter women were not at greater risk of fractures. That is, lighter women with strong bones were not especially likely to have fractures. In fact, adjusting for bone-mineral density showed that heavier women are at greater risk of fractures. Heavier weights apply more force to the skeleton during falls, the researchers note. The formula's accuracy faded as the years passed, possibly due to factors not included in the formula, write Henry and colleagues. The researchers are currently gauging fracture risk factors in men age 60 and older, according to a news release from the Radiological Society of North America, which publishes Radiology.
MoonDragon's Womens Health Information: Osteoporosis - A Description & Overview
MoonDragon's Womens Health Information: OsteoTherapy/a>
FREQUENT SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
Osteoporosis usually progresses without symptoms until the vertebrae become so compressed that a severe backache or fracture occurs. A drastic loss of height is another sign of the disease. Osteoporosis is best diagnosed with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), a technique that scans the body to measure bone density.
Backache. No symptoms (often).
Sudden back pain with a cracking sound indicating fracture. Deformed spinal column with a dowager's hump (severely rounded upper back). Loss of height. Fractures occurring with minor injury, especially of the hip or arm.
Many people think osteoporosis is caused by an insufficient amounts of calcium in the diet, but this is only half true. Although the amount of calcium consumed is important, the real issues related to osteoporosis are the way calcium is absorbed by the body and the type of calcium consumed.
There are three types of osteoporosis, each with its own distinct cause:
- Type I is believed to be caused by hormonal changes, particularly the loss of estrogen that occurs during menopause, which robs the bones of essential minerals. The loss of estrogen causes a loss of minerals from the bones to accelerate.
- Type II is linked to dietary deficiencies, with a focus on insufficient amounts of calcium and vitamin D, which is necessary for absorption of calcium.
- Type III occurs in men and women at any age and is caused by and is a result of drug treatment for other conditions, illnesses or diseases unrelated to osteoporosis.
FACTORS INFLUENCING OSTEOPOROSIS
Factors that contribute to the loss of bony structure and strength include:
- Prolonged lack of adequate calcium and protein in the diet.
- Low estrogen levels after menopause.
- Decreased activity with increased age.
- Smoking (possibly).
- Use of steroid (cortisone/corticosteroids) drugs.
- Prolonged disease, including alcoholism.
- Vitamin deficiency (especially of vitamin C).
- Genetic predisposition.
Although most people believe osteoporosis is a condition women need to address only after menopause, research shows that the disorder can begin in early adulthood and is not strictly a post-menopausal problem. Although bone loss accelerates and comes into full strength in later years after menopause as a result of dropping estrogen levels, it begins much earlier.
A number of factors are known to influence an individual's risk of developing osteoporosis. The first, and probably the most important, is the peak bone mass achieved in adulthood; the larger and denser the bones are to begin with, the less debilitating bone loss is likely to be. Small women with delicate or fine-boned frames have more reason for concern than women with larger, heavier, and denser bone structures.
Race and ethnicity also appear to play a role. Women of northern European and Asian decent are at a greater risk of developing osteoporosis, while women of African descent are less likely to be affected.
LIFESTYLE & NUTRITION
Lifestyle and dietary habits are important as well. The factors that can adversely affect bone health include poor diet, insufficient exercise, smoking, late puberty, early menopause, hyperthyroidism, family history of bone disease, chronic liver or kidney disease and long-term use of corticosteroids, anti-seizure medications or anti-coagulants. Insufficient calcium intake is only one factor, but equally important are other dietary practices that affect calcium metabolism.
Caffeine, alcohol, and many other drugs appear to have a detrimental effect on calcium absorption. Bone density also depends on exercise. When the body gets exercise (such as walking), it responds by depositing more mineral in the bones, especially the bones of the legs, hips, and spine. Conversely, a lack of regular exercise accelerates the loss of bone mass. Other factors that make one more likely to develop osteoporosis include smoking, late puberty, early menopause (natural or artificially induced), a family history of the disease, hyperthyroidism, chronic liver or kidney disease, and the long-term use of corticosteroids, anti-seizure medications, or anti-coagulants.
OSTEOPOROSIS RISK FACTORS
Certain people are more likely to develop osteoporosis than others. Factors that increase the likelihood of developing osteoporosis and fractures are called "risk factors." These risk factors include:
- Personal history of fracture after age 50.
- Current low bone mass.
- History of fracture in a 1 degree relative.
- Being female.
- Being thin and/or having a small frame.
- Advanced age.
- A family history of osteoporosis.
- Estrogen deficiency as a result of menopause, especially early or surgically induced.
- Abnormal absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea).
- Anorexia nervosa.
- Low lifetime calcium intake.
- Vitamin D deficiency.
- Use of certain medications (corticosteroids, chemotherapy, anticonvulsants and others).
- Presence of certain chronic medical conditions.
- Low testosterone levels in men.
- An inactive lifestyle.
- Current cigarette smoking.
- Excessive use of alcohol.
- Being Caucasian or Asian, although African Americans and Hispanic Americans are at significant risk as well.
Women can lose up to 20-percent of their bone mass in the five to seven years following menopause, making them more susceptible to osteoporosis.
One study purports to have identified a link between osteoporosis and high blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine is involved in methionine metabolism, and is normally recycled into methionine or converted into cysteine in the body. High levels result in possible increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
Hormone Replacement Therapy starting at menopause. Be aware of potential risks associated with hormone therapy. Keep in mind, once started HRT has to be continued for it to be effective. Women who discontinue HRT after a few years, usually due to side effects or risks, will then be faced with usual menopausal symptoms and outcomes. Any benefits of HRT are lost when therapy is discontinued.
Ensure an adequate calcium intake up to 1500 mg a day with milk and milk products or Calcium supplements. Menopausal women do best when eating 1500 mg or more of calcium daily. If you are taking a calcium supplement, be sure to include Magnesium to help with calcium absorption. For 1500 mg of calcium, you should have 750 mg of magnesium.
Regular exercise, such as brisk walking (which is weight-bearing), which is better for preventing osteoporosis than swimming (non weight-bearing).
Seek nutritional and/or medical advice about taking estrogen, calcium and fluoride after menopause begins or the ovaries have been removed.
Avoid risk factors where possible.
Eat plenty of foods high in calcium and Vitamin D, including broccoli, chestnuts, clams, dark green vegetables, flounder, salmon, sardines, shrimp and soybeans. Eat whole grain and calcium-rich foods at different times of the day to prevent grains from binding to calcium, impeding its absorption in the body. Take calcium supplements at bedtime, when it is best absorbed by the body and can aid sleep. Eat sulfur-rich foods, like garlic and onions, to make bones healthy. Avoid soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, smoking, yeast products, sugar and salt. Limit citrus fruits and tomatoes because they inhibit calcium intake.
PROGNOSIS - EXPECTED OUTCOME
Diet, Calcium and Fluoride supplements, Vitamin D, exercise and estrogen may slow down or halt bone bone deterioration. Fractures will heal with standard treatment.
FLUORIDE THERAPY FOR OSTEOPOROSIS - NEW DATA FROM RECENT STUDIES
Due to its ability to increase bone mass, fluoride has been used as an experimental treatment for osteoporosis. The results, however, have generally been disastrous. Rather than prevent bone fractures in osteoporosis patients, fluoride therapy (at doses of 20-34 mg/day) was repeatedly found to increase fracture rates. One of the most common sites for fluoride-induced fracture has been the hip, specifically the femoral neck. Several clinical trials found that fluoride treatment caused the hip to "spontaneously" fracture -- meaning the hip fractured in the absence of any physical trauma. Fluoride's ability to cause spontaneous hip fracture is likely the result of fluoride-induced stress fractures, which have also been well documented in the clinical trials.
Besides bone fracture, other reported side effects of fluoride treatment included gastrointestinal disorders, lower-extremity pain syndrome (which, in some cases, may be the result of stress fractures), and osteomalacia. Based on this track record, the Food & Drug Administration has rejected fluoride therapy as an approved way of treating osteoporosis.
Falls that cause bone fractures, especially of the hip or spine. Sometimes a bone will break or collapse without injury or fall. Severe, disabling pain. Reduced quality of life. Possible shortened life span as a result of a serious fall and fracture.
A diagnosis of osteoporosis is reached by measuring bone density. The standard of measurement for that diagnosis has been determined by the World Health Organization and was obtained by measuring the bone mass of people who have not had fractures related to low bone mass. The standard measurement is therefore the bone density of a 30-year old pre-menopausal woman. The bone density measurement is referred to as a T-score or a DS (standard deviation) score. T-scores of less than 1 standard deviation (SD) indicate a low risk of fracture, T-scores of 1 to 2 are considered to indicate osteopenia, T-scores of more than 2.5 standard deviation from the norm confirm a diagnosis of osteoporosis. But the T-score alone is not the only determinant of fracture risk. Heavy women are less likely to fracture a bone in a fall than thin women; women taking medications that may cause disturbances in balance are more likely to fall and suffer a fracture. So two women with the same T-score may have a different fracture risk.
Many women, then, can be diagnosed with osteoporosis yet suffer few, if any, ill effects from the condition. The T-score is based on a comparison with the bone of a 30-year old, so the standard is set very high. Moreover, it is possible to have osteoporosis in one area of the skeleton and not in another. The spine and hips are the areas that cause most concern because hip fractures in older adults take a long time to heal and osteoporosis in the spine may lead to loss of height and curvature of the spine. With the techniques now being used to diagnose this condition early, so that treatment can begin before fractures occur, many people will probably discover the beginnings of osteoporosis before it is diagnosed due to a fracture. Osteoporosis is not a curable condition, as yet, but there are various methods that may slow down the process of bone loss.
BMD TESTING FOR BONE LOSS
Tests for bone loss are very easy and non-invasive. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is probably the most reliable method of determining osteoporosis. Exposure to radiation from this test is less than in other methods used to detect this condition. Another type of test, the collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) test is particularly useful for women in that it shows how fast you are losing bone mass. It is performed on a urine sample.
Bone-density tests using machines called densitometers determine the presence or risk of osteoporosis (bone loss). These tests can show a bone loss of as little as one percent and indicate whether a woman's bones are healthy or that moderate to extensive bone loss exists. These specialized tests called bone mineral density (BMD) tests can measure bone density in various sites of the body. A BMD test can:
- Detect osteoporosis before a fracture occurs.
- Predict chances of fracturing in the future.
- Determine rate of bone loss and/or monitor the effects of treatment if a DXA BMD test is conducted at intervals of one year or more.
Medicare reimburses for BMD testing every two years.
An increase in BMD testing and osteoporosis treatment was associated with a decrease in hip fracture incidence. Bone density is an important determinant of fracture risk even in nursing home patients. There has been a five-fold increase in office visits for osteoporosis (from 1.3 to 6.3 million) in the past 10 years. In the United States alone, 25 million people - 80 percent of them women - are affected by osteoporosis. Osteoporosis can appear at any age. It is responsible for more than 1.5 million fractures annually, including 300,000 hip fractures, approximately 700,000 vertebral fractures, 250,000 wrist fractures, and more than 300,000 fractures at other sites. Hospitals and nursing homes in the United States spend an estimated 14 billion dollars each year in direct costs for osteoporosis and related fractures. As baby-boomers age and are now reaching retirement age, these figures are expected to increase with the growing older population.
CONVENTIONAL MEDICAL TREATMENT
Medical tests include bone x-rays and bone density studies. Bone disintegration with pain in the hips, lower back, or legs and vertebral fractures (usually affecting people over 50 years old, is common. The best way to monitor bone loss is with a bone mineral density test. X-rays do not detect bone loss until 25 percent of more of bone mass has been lost.
Treatment goals are directed to relieving pain and preventing any fractures and sometimes, rebuilding bone.
Avoid all circumstances which may lead to injury. Stay off icy streets and wet or waxed floors. Hold banisters when using stairs, and make sure banisters are sturdy. If you need extra stabilization when walking, use a sturdy cane with a rubber tip to help you to keep from falling.
If estrogen (ERT) is prescribed, get regular medical pelvic exams and Pap smears. Note and be aware of serious potential side effects of medication. Medications are usually not recommended by holistic practitioners due to the high risk of cancer associated with ERT/HRT. Examine your breasts for lumps once a month. Report any vaginal bleeding or discharge or any other unexplained symptoms.
Use heat or ice in any form to ease pain.
Sleep on a firm mattress.
Use a back brace, if prescribed.
Use correct posture when lifting. Lift with your legs, not your back.
Avoid mind altering medication, such as sedatives or tranquilizers, which may cause falls and fractures.
If you wear bifocal or trifocal glasses or glasses with thick lenses that can alter your depth perception, or any other vision impairment, be extra careful when using stairs, cracks in the sidewalks, or stepping off of curbs when you are walking. A miss-step could result in a serious fall.
Make your home as safe as possible.
- Remove any rugs or carpets that do not have a rubber backing for grip control.
- Throw out worn rugs or mats.
- A rug, mat, or bath towel on the floor that slides can be a accident waiting to happen.
- If you must reach for something on a shelf, use a hand-held extended "gripper": or a stool or ladder that has rubber grips on the bottom.
- Do not use chairs or other furniture items that could slide on you.
- Keep your outside stairs and walkways free of ice and snow in the winter.
- Wear shoes that have gripping soles when it is wet or icy outside.
- Be careful with wet floors and pets that may get underfoot.
- At night, turn on a light when you are walking through a room so you can see if there are any items on the floor you can trip over.
- Do not have extension cords, telephone cords, or other non-secured items crossing a walking path.
- Keep the floor picked up of clothing or other items that can be a trip or slip hazard.
- If you need extra help getting in and out of a tub, attach hand rails where they can be easily used.
Accidents in the home are common with older people. Eliminate as many hazards and take as many precautions as you can to safeguard yourself from falling. A broken hip or leg can be very dangerous and painful and make take several weeks or months to recover from. If you have a fall-risk, consider obtaining a emergency-contact response system that you can wear on your wrist or around your neck. In the event of a fall, EMTs will be contacted and will be able to assist you.
There are a number of different prescription medications that can slow bone loss or increase bone growth may be prescribed for people with osteoporosis. All of these drugs have potential side effects. They are not suitable for everyone. If bone mass is still decreasing after 2 years on the same medication, health care providers usually prescribe another drug.
Although there is no cure for osteoporosis, the following medications are approved by the FDA for post-menopausal women to prevent and/or treat osteoporosis:
ESTROGEN & HORMONE THERAPY: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) consisting of estrogen plus a progestin or estrogen alone is currently recommended (to prevent and treat osteoporosis) for all post-menopausal women unless contraindications exist or the medication is not tolerated. HRT also offers other health factors, as well (such as protection against heart problems and some cancers). For most women the benefits of hormonal replacement may outweigh the possibility of any risks. For best results, the therapy should be started right after menopause and continue indefinitely. However, HRT has some serious risk factors involved with it. A woman should do extensive research about HRT before using this therapy.
- Estrogens (brand names, such as Climara, Estrace, Estraderm, Estratab, Ogen, Ortho-Est, Premarin, Vivelle and others).
- Estrogens and Progestins (brand names, such as Activella, FemHrt, Premphase, Prempro and others).
- Parathyroid Hormone - Teriparatide (PTH (1-34) (brand name Fortéo) works by increasing the action of osteoblasts, the body's bone-building cells. This causes bones to become denser and more resistant to fractures.
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs):
- Raloxifene (brand name Evista) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) - a drug that acts like estrogen in some respects but is not estrogen.
MoonDragon's Menopause Information: Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
BISPHOSPHONATES: For corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis - that is, osteoporosis that develops as a result of taking corticosteroids for a major illness such as arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, or cancer - treatment with biphosphonates appears to prevent bone loss.
Ibandronate (brand name Boniva). December 2004, Roche and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) announced the submission of a new drug application (NDA) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a novel intravenous (IV) injection formulation of its bisphosphonate Boniva (ibandronate sodium) for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. The proposed IV injection regimen is 3 mg administered once every three months. Bisphosphonates, the most frequently prescribed medicines for treating osteoporosis, currently are available only in once-daily or once-weekly oral dosing formulations. Boniva Injection is expected to be the first IV bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis, and may be a helpful alternative for health care providers who want greater control in administering bisphosphonate therapy. Boniva Injection may offer a new option for patients who experience gastrointestinal side effects with oral bisphosphonates, or are unable to comply with oral bisphosphonate dosing guidelines. FDA approved a once-daily oral formulation of Boniva in May 2003, but Roche and GSK have been exploring less frequent oral dosing regimens, as well as the IV formulation, before marketing Boniva. In May 2004, a supplemental NDA was filed with FDA for a once-monthly oral dosing formulation of Boniva, which may offer added convenience for patients compared to the daily and weekly oral bisphosphonates currently available.
The Boniva Injection should not be administered to patients with hypocalcemia. The most common side effects observed in clinical trials were bone, muscle or joint pain; flu-like illness; and headache.
Boniva Once-Daily Oral Tablets (2.5 mg once-daily) is indicated for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. In post-menopausal women with osteoporosis, Boniva increases bone mineral density and reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures. Boniva also may be considered for post-menopausal women who are at risk for developing osteoporosis and for whom the desired clinical outcome is to maintain bone mass and reduce the risk of vertebral fracture. Boniva Tablets are contraindicated in patients unable to stand or sit upright for at least 60 minutes, patients with hypersensitivity to any component of this product, and patients with uncorrected hypocalcemia. Boniva, like other bisphosphonates administered orally, may cause upper gastrointestinal disorders such as dysphagia, esophagitis and esophageal or gastric ulcer.
Alendronate (Fosamax) is a type of drug known as a bisphosphate. In inhibits the resorption of bone. Alendronate and alendronate plus vitamin D (brand name Fosamax and Fosamax plus D) - Alendronate (brand name, Fosamax), a non-hormonal drug, that slows down the loss of bone tissue and increases bone mass in women with osteoporosis. Alendronate is approved as a treatment for osteoporosis in men and is approved for treatment of glucocorticoid (steroid)-induced osteoporosis in men and women. Take it in the morning at least 30 to 60 minutes before eating. The tablet is swallowed with a full glass of water (6 to 8 ounces). To help the medicine reach the stomach faster and to prevent throat irritation, do not lie down for 30 minutes after taking it. Any other medications should be taken at least 30 minutes after taking alendronate. Side effects may include stomach pain, muscle or joint pain, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Long-term safety has not been established and medical studies are continuing. For information about injuries and side effects associated with Fosamax, see the following link: Fosamax-Injury.com.
Risedronate and risedronate with calcium (brand name Actonel and Actonel with Calcium). Risedronate is approved for prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in men and women.
Parathyroid hormone is approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in men who are at high risk of fracture.
The prescription drug calcitonin (sold under the brand names of Calimar, Cibacalcin, and Miacalcin) is sometimes prescribed for people with osteoporosis. Studies show that calcitonin prevents further loss of bone mass in 70 percent of the people who take it. Calcitonin (brand name Miacalcin), a treatment for post-menopausal osteoporosis. The exact mechanism of how it works is not fully understood. It slows down the loss of bone tissue and increases bone mass in women with osteoporosis. It comes in the form of a nasal spray. Use one spray per day in a nostril, alternating nostrils daily. Follow directions on the label about activating and using the pump supplied with the medication. A skin test may be performed before beginning treatment with calcitonin. It was said to have no side effects even with long term use, however, side effects can include nasal symptoms (irritation, dryness, stuffiness or runny nose, and others). It should not be taken by anyone with a history of kidney stones.
Endocrineweb.com: Drugs For The Treatment of Osteoporosis: Calcitonin & Bisphosphonates
OTHER OSTEOPOROSIS DRUGS
The use of sodium fluoride, which was once thought to be helpful in building bone, has been shown to be ineffective in the treatment of osteoporosis. While sodium fluoride does increase bone mass in the vertebral column, the bone itself is of inferior quality. Women participating in a study at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, were three times as likely to suffer from a fracture of the arm, leg, or hip if they took sodium fluoride than if they took a placebo. Some of the participants also suffered from unusual lower leg pain, perhaps due to stress fractures. Slow release sodium fluoride, a mineral encapsulated in a wax tablet is being researched. In medical studies, this drug therapy appears to slow down bone loss and to help build bone. In the past, high doses of sodium fluoride have caused some unwanted side effects, but this slow release formula appears to avoid them. Once approved, women taking this drug will need to have an annual blood test to check levels of fluoride to be sure it remains under toxic levels.
Calcitriol, a hormone drug, helps with the absorption of calcium and slows bone loss. It is used in many other countries for osteoporosis, but has not been approved for this disorder in the United States. It can cause kidney stones when taken in high doses. It is approved and used for the treatment of a bone disorder caused by kidney dialysis.
Other agents are under active investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some of these are new drugs and others are existing drugs approved for other purposes, but which also may help bone loss.
A balloon kyphoplasty, in which a balloon is inserted into a spinal fracture, inflated, and injected with a bone cement, can provide support and pain relief for people with some spinal fractures.
For minor pain, you may use non-prescription drugs such as acetaminophen.
Calcium and Vitamin D nutritional supplements.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Human Growth Hormone (HGH) are two hormones whose production progressively declines with age. Research suggests that supplements with either of these hormones may help increase bone strength and treat osteoporosis.
MoonDragon's Health Therapy: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Therapy
MoonDragon's Health Therapy: Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
MoonDragon's Womens Health Information: Osteoporosis & Osteotherapy
ACTIVITY & EXERCISE
Stay active, but avoid the risk of falls. Exercise is important, especially weight-bearing exercise, such as walking or running to maintain bone strength. Take extra care when the ground is wet or icy.
Physical exercise is important in developing and maintaining bone strength. Exercise also aids in strengthening back muscles, improves flexibility and mobility (which can reduce the risk of falls and bone fractures), and helps one's sense of well-being.
A basic exercise routine should consist of 30 minutes of aerobic activity and weight bearing activity at least 3 times a week and more often if possible. Brisk walking is a good aerobic activity. Lifting weights is a weight bearing activity. There is no one exercise program that suits everyone. Choose one that you will follow regularly and faithfully.
Keep active, and exercise regularly. A lack of exercise can result in the loss of calcium, but this can be reversed with sensible exercise. Walking is probably the best exercise for maintaining bone mass.
Walking a mile a day will help to prevent chemical buildup of by-products resulting from increased hormonal activity of pregnancy. If these are allowed to build up in the body, morning sickness can occur.
DIET & NUTRITION
Eat a healthful Osteoporosis Diet that follows the adult diet guidelines established by the U.S. Government. Your health care provider may recommend dietary restrictions for salt, fat, animal protein, alcohol, caffeine or other substances depending upon individual circumstances.
It is important to balance what you eat with physical activity. If your weight is not in the healthiest range, try to reduce health risks through better eating and exercise habits. Walking at least a mile a day is a good form of low stress exercise.
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information - Adult Regular Diet
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information - Osteoporosis Diet
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information - Fat & Cholesterol Diet
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information - Sodium Controlled Diet
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information - Weight Loss Diet
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information - Weight Control Suggestions
While Calcium supplementation is important in dealing with osteoporosis, there are other considerations as well. The correct balance of Magnesium, Boron, Potassium, Folic Acid, and Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K, all play vital roles in battling osteoporosis, as does Protein. There is some debate on the subject of osteoporosis and dietary protein. Some research has indicated that consuming large quantities of protein may cause an acid imbalance in the body, which the body attempts to counteract by releasing minerals from the bone - including calcium. A contrary point of view holds that protein consumption increases the production of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which is responsible for maintaining muscle and bone strength.
HERBAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OSTEOPOROSIS
Feverfew is good for pain relief and acts as an anti-inflammatory. Caution: Do not use feverfew during pregnancy.
Alfalfa, Barley Grass, Black Cohosh, Boneset, Dandelion Root, Nettle, Parsley, Poke Root, Rosehips, and Yucca help to build strong bones. Caution: Do not use boneset on a daily basis for more than one week, as long term use can lead to toxicity.
Horsetail and Oat Straw contain Silica, which helps the body to absorb calcium.
Calcium-rich herbs include Nettle, Sage, Chickweed, Red Clover, Comfrey Leaf, Red Raspberry Leaf, and Oatstraw. A tasty infusion of any one or a combination of these herbs every day should be taken. Count a large cup of infusion as 250 to 300 mg calcium. Add a pinch of Horsetail to the brew and increase calcium by 10-percent.
MOONDRAGON'S PREGNANCY TEA RECIPE
2 parts Red Raspberry Leaf
1 part Nettle Leaf
1 part Alfalfa Leaf
1 part Peppermint Leaf
Mix dried herbs thoroughly and use a portion to make up a half gallon to a gallon of tea. Store remaining dry herbal blend in an airtight jar to preserve freshness. This blend makes a nice sun tea that can them be refrigerated for a refreshing iced tea to be consumed throughout the day. It provides red raspberry leaf for hormonal balance and uterine toning, Nettle and Alfalfa are high in blood building vitamins and minerals, and the peppermint leaf is good for soothing the digestive system and getting it back to normal as well as giving the tea a nice minty flavor. It tastes fine unsweetened, but if the mom would like a little sweetener, use honey. Honey is high in nutrients and digests easily. This is a good all-around woman's tonic-tea, adding calcium, iron, and several vitamins and minerals to the diet and the peppermint adds a nice flavor while aiding in digestion. A great tea blend for not only pregnancy, but postpartum recovery and during perimenopause and menopausal years as well. It makes a great basic herbal tea blend for adding recovery tinctures to, if needed, since the flavor of the tea will help "hide" some of the flavors of the tinctures (not all of them taste good).
BENEFICIAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS FOR OSTEOPOROSIS
Calcium is essential for development of normal bone. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for calcium is 1000 mg each day. Many health experts believe women over age 40 need 1000 to 1500 mg daily. This amount is achieved with diet or supplements or both. Sufficient calcium intake is necessary in addition to any type of prescription medication that may be taken for bone loss.
Vitamin D is also necessary for maintaining bone density. It aids in the uptake of calcium in the body. It is often difficult to get sufficient vitamin D in unfortified foods or sunlight exposure. Daily supplementation of 400 to 800 international units (IU) is usually recommended for post-menopausal women.
Magnesium balances with calcium and helps calcium to be absorbed. It should be taken with calcium at a 2;1 ratio. For 1,000 mg of calcium, 500 mg of magnesium should also be taken, for 1,500 mg calcium, 750 mg of magnesium is required. Look for quality supplements that provide this 2 to 1 ratio. For people who find it difficult to swallow pills, osteo-supplements in a calcium-magnesium and trace mineral formula are available in liquid or powder form.
Boron improves calcium absorption. Raisins and onions are good food sources of boron.
Silicon (Silica) enhances calcium utilization and strengthens bones. Horsetail is an herb high in dietary silica and can be taken as an herbal tea or dietary supplement. It can be added to the Pregnancy Tea Blend given above.
Soy Isoflavones works like estrogen in the body.
Glucosamine and Chondroitin are needed for bone & joint health and development.
Vitamin K is essential for the production of bone protein. Alfalfa, Wheatgrass, and Barley Grass are all good Green Food sources of Vitamin K.
Manganese may help prevent osteoporosis. A report from a biologist in California found that rats on a low-manganese diet developed porous bones.
A study reported in the March 2000 issue of The Journal of Family Practice found that taking Vitamin C can help to prevent nerve pain after a fracture.
Research conducted by the World Health Organization concluded that people who were given a Protein supplement recovered more quickly from hip fractures than those who were not. In addition, they found that people who took protein supplements were less likely to suffer a hip fracture in the first place.
A study conducted by the Journal of Clinical Nutrition reported that women who are vegetarians experience significantly less bone loss than women who consume meat. Soy, beans, peas, and lentils supply proteins, and green vegetables are all very rich in calcium, as well as containing abundant amounts of other vitamins and minerals.
Cooked greens provide abundant, highly suable calcium. One cup of cooked broccoli, kale, turnip greens, or mustard greens contains about 200 mg of calcium. One cup of cooked collard greens, wild onions, lamb's quarter, or amaranth greens, about 400 mg calcium.
Take at least a tablespoon of Old Sour Puss Mineral Mix (from Susun Weed's Wise Woman Ways Menopausal Years) daily; it supplies 200 to 300 mg calcium. If you add a tablespoon of >Blackstrap Molasses, the calcium leaps to 350 to 400 mg.
Eat plenty of foods that are high in Calcium and Vitamin D. Good sources of easily assimilable calcium include broccoli, chestnuts, clams, dandelion greens, most dark green leafy vegetable (see above), flounder, hazelnuts, kelp, kale, molasses, oats, oysters, salmon, sardines (with the bones), sea vegetables, sesame seeds, shrimp, soybeans, tahini (sesame butter), tofu, turnip greens, and wheat germ.
Below is a list of calcium rich foods which if incorporated into the diet can give the approximate amounts listed. The total daily calcium intake should approximate 1,500 mg.
CALCIUM-RICH FOODS Skim Milk 8 ounces 300 mg Calcium Yogurt 8 ounces 400 to 450 mg Calcium Cheese 1 ounce 150 to 250 mg Calcium Ice Cream 1/2 cup 100 mg Calcium Salmon, Canned 2 ounces 125 mg Calcium Sardines, Canned 2 ounces 200 mg Calcium Tofu 1/2 cup 250 mg Calcium Broccoli 1/2 cup 100 mg Calcium Collard Greens 1/2 cup 175 mg Calcium
Consume whole grains and calcium foods at different times. Whole grains contain a substance that binds with calcium and prevents its uptake. Take calcium at bedtime when it is best absorbed and also aids in sleeping.
Include Garlic and Onions in the diet, as well as eggs (if your cholesterol level is not too high). These foods contain sulfur, which is needed for healthy bones.
If you are a menopausal or post-menopausal woman with osteoporosis, include plenty of Soy products in your diet. Soy is rich in phytoestrogens, which may, to some extent, substitute for your body's own estrogen if it is manufacturing too little. The latter effect is very important for osteoporosis. Estrogen depletion is strongly associated with osteoporosis. There are many Soy Protein powder supplements available, flavored and unflavored.
Limit your intake of almonds, asparagus, beet greens, cashews, chard, rhubarb, and spinach. These foods are high in oxalic acid, which inhibits calcium absorption.
Avoid phosphate-containing drinks and foods such as soft drinks, high-protein animal foods, and alcohol. Avoid smoking, sugar, and salt. Limit your consumption of citrus fruits and tomatoes; these foods may inhibit calcium intake.
Dried fruit is a fairly good place to look for calcium. There is 65 mg of calcium in 3 small figs, a handful of raisins, 4 dates or 8 prunes.
Corn tortillas are an excellent source of calcium since they are made with lime, which is a form of calcium. Two tortillas supply 120 mg. of calcium.
If you are over 55 years of age, include a calcium lactate (if you are not allergic to milk) or calcium phosphate supplement in your daily regimen, and take hydrochloric acid (HCl) supplements. In order for calcium to be absorbed, there must be adequate supply of vitamin D as well as sufficient HCl in the stomach. Older people often lack sufficient stomach acid.
If you are taking thyroid hormone or an anti-coagulant drug, increase the amount of calcium you take by 25 to 50-percent.
Avoid yeast products. Yeast is high in phosphorus, which competes with calcium for absorption by the body.
Vitamin K, found in dark green vegetables like cooked greens, spinach, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, asparagus, and some lettuce, retards bone loss.
If you take a diuretic, consult your health care provider or nutritionist before beginning calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Thiazide-type diuretics increase blood calcium levels, and complications may result if these drugs are taken in conjunction with calcium and vitamin D supplements. Other types of diuretics increase calcium requirements, however.
Eat a well balanced diet high in Protein, Calcium and Vitamin D or a reducing diet if you are overweight.
Caffeine has been linked to calcium loss. It was shown that when adults were given 300 mg of caffeine, more than normal amounts of calcium being excreted in the urine. Avoid caffeine drinks (coffee, tea, sodas). If you would like something hot to drink, consider drinking herbal teas or coffee substitutes such as Postum, made from Chicory root with a coffee like flavor. Barley tea also tastes similar to coffee without the bitterness (I get mine from a local Japanese restaurant, it can be found in some specialty stores or Asian markets and may be available through Amazon.com). Herbal teas not only do not contain caffeine, but they often will contain needed nutrients to your diet.
Carbonated soft drinks contain high amounts of phosphates. These cause the body to eliminate calcium as the phosphates themselves are excreted, even if calcium must be taken from the bones to do this.
Calcium-Enhanced Osteoporosis Diet
Calcium-Rich Fruit Spread
Calcium-Rich Herbal Vinegar
The dosages given below are for adults over the age of 18 years. The followind nutrients are important for women (and men) going through midlife and aging for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, the loss of bone mass with an increased risk of bone fractures and other skeletal problems.
NUTRIENTS Supplement Suggested Dosage Comments Essential Bone Support Formula As directed on label. Complex formulas that contains nutrients for bones, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and other valuable bone-reinforcing nutrients. Boron 3 mg daily. Do not exceed this amount. Take one capsule daily with a meal or water. Improves calcium absorption. Note: If you are taking a complex containing boron, omit this supplement. Calcium Women under 50 and men under 65: 1,200 mg daily.
Women over 50 and men over 65: 1,500 to 2,000 mg daily.
Necessary for maintaining strong bones. Use chelate form. Injections (under a health care provider's supervision) may be needed. Magnesium 1,000 mg daily. Important in Calcium uptake. Calcium and magnesium should be in a 2:1 ratio, 2,000 mg calcium to 1,000 mg magnesium, as an example. Copper 3 mg daily. Aids in the formation of bone. Needed to balance with Zinc. Floradix Iron Plus Herbs As directed on label. Provides organic iron and other nutrients needed for optimum health. GlucosamineChondroitin As directed on label, 3 times daily. Necessary for development of bone and connective tissue. Iron (Organic) As directed on label. Provides iron and other nutrients needed for optimum health. Phosphorus As directed on the label. Works with calcium to increase bone strength. Silica As directed on the label. Supplies silicon, for calcium utilization and bone strength. Soy Isoflavones As directed on the label. These have an estrogenic effect on the body. Estrogen promotes bone mass. Vitamin B-Complex As directed on label. Provides strength to protein in bone tissue and promotes the production of progesterone. Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) 200 mg daily. Do not exceed this amount. Provides strength to protein in bone tissue and promotes the production of progesterone. Vitamin B-12 1,000 to 2,000 mcg daily Promotes normal growth. Vitamin D-3 400 IU daily. Plays a role in calcium uptake and absorption. Vitamin K As directed on label. Essential for the production of bone protein. Very Important L-Lysine
As directed on label, on empty stomach. Take with water or juice. Do not take with milk. Take with 50 mg of Vitamin B-6 and 100 mg Vitamin C for better absorption. Aid calcium absorption and connective tissue strength. See Amino Acids for more information. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) As directed on label. Do not exceed the recommended dose. A natural sulfur compound found in foods and present in body tissues. It is used by the body to build healthy new cells. MSM provides the flexible bond between the cells and provides support for tendons, ligaments, and muscles. Use a capsule form for easier absorption. Multi-Enzyme Complex
Betaine Hydrochloride (HCl)
As directed on label.
Take with meals.
Take between meals.
Needed for proper absorption of calcium and all nutrients. Note: Do not use a formula containing HCl if you have an ulcer or suffer from stomach acidity. Sulfur (Sulphur) As directed on label. Necessary for calcium uptake. Increases bone and connective tissue strength. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) As directed on label. Inhibits an enzyme that is involved in fat production. Vitamin A 50,000 IU daily for 1 month, then reduce to 25,000 IU daily. If you are pregnant, do not exceed 10,000 IU daily. Important in retarding the aging process. Use emulsion forms for easier assimilation. Mixed Carotenoids 10,000 IU daily. Important in retarding the aging process. Vitamin E 200 to 400 IU daily. Aids in the use of Vitamin A and protects it from destruction by oxygen. Use d-alpha-tocopherol form. Zinc 50 mg daily. Do not exceed a total of 100 mg daily from all supplements. Important for calcium uptake and immune function. Use zinc gluconate lozenges or OptiZinc for best absorption. Helpful Chromium Picolinate 400 to 600 mcg daily. Improves insulin efficiency, which improves bone density. Cod Liver Oil 3 teaspoons daily. A natural source for vitamin A and vitamin D. DL-Phenylalanine (DLPA) As directed on label, on an empty stomach. Take with water or juice. Do not take with milk. Take with 50 mg Vitamin B-6 and 3,000 mg Vitamin C for better absorption. Good for bone pain. Do not take this supplement if you suffer from diabetes, panic attacks, high blood pressure, or PKU. Kelp 2,000 to 3,000 mg daily. A rich source of important minerals. Manganese As directed on label. Take separately from calcium. A rich source of important minerals and vital in mineral metabolism. Multi-Vitamin & Mineral Complex As directed on label. To supply essential minerals. Use a high-potency formula. Trace Mineral Complex As directed on label. Trace minerals (called micro-minerals) are important for healthy bone formation. Vitamin C With Bioflavonoids 3,000 mg and up daily. Important for collagen and connective tissue formation.
NOTIFY YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER
You or your family member has symptoms of osteoporosis. Pain develops, especially after injury. New, unexplained symptoms develop, such as vaginal bleeding. Drugs used in treatment may produce side effects.
MoonDragon's Womens Health Information: Osteoporosis - A Description & Overview
MoonDragon's Womens Health Information: Osteoporosis, Nutrition & Holistic Suggestions
MoonDragon's Womens Health Information: Osteoporosis Therapy (Osteotherapy)
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Osteoporosis & Calcium
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Rickets (Osteomalacia)
MoonDragon's Womens Health Information: Obesity
Osteoporosis Canada: Osteoporosis Education & SupportOnline
NIH National Resource Center: Osteoporosis & Related Bone Diseases
MFP Fluorides for Osteoporosis
National Osteoporosis Foundation: Osteoporosis Information
Foundation for Osteoporosis Research and Education
QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS
OSTEOPOROSIS SUPPLEMENTAL PRODUCTS
Information, products and supplements for osteoporosis, a progressive disease in which the bones gradually weaken, resulting in poor posture and brittle bones that are prone to fracture (breaks).
Alfalfa Herbal Products Arginine Amino Acid Supplement Products Arthritis Formula Products Barley Grass Herbal Products Beta Carotene Products Bioflavonoid Supplement Products Black Cohosh Herbal Products Bone & Joint Formula Products Boneset Herbal Products Boron Supplement Products Calcium Supplement Products Carotene Complex Supplement Products Chickweed Herbal Products Chondroitin Supplement Products Chromium Supplement Products Cod Liver Oil Supplement Products Comfrey Herbal Products Copper Supplement Products Dandelion Herbal Product DHEA Supplement Products >DLPA Supplement Products EFA Supplement Products Estrogen-Balance Products Feverfew Herbal Products Floradix Supplement Products Garlic Herbal Products Glucosamine Supplement Products Green Foods Supplement Products HCl Supplement Products Honey Products Horsetail Herbal Products Iron Supplement Products Kelp Herbal Products Lysine Supplement Products Magnesium Supplement Products Manganese Supplement Products Menopause Support Supplement Products Molasses Products MSM Supplement Products
Multi-Enzyme Complex Products Multimineral Complex Supplement Products Multivitamin Complex Supplement Products Nettle Herbal Products Oats, Oat Bran & Meal Products Oat Straw Herbal Products Onion Herbal Products Osteoporosis Supplement Products Parsley Herbal Products Peppermint Herbal Products Phosphorus Supplement Products Poke Root Herbal Products Prenatal Multinutrient Products Progesterone Supplement Products Protein Supplement Products Red Clover Herbal Products >Red Raspberry Herbal Products Rosehips Herbal Products Sage Herbal Products Salmon Fish Oil Supplement Products Sesame Seed Herbal Products Silica Supplement Products Soybean Herbal Products Soy Isoflavones Supplement Products Soy Protein Supplement Products Sulfur Supplement Products Trace Minerals Supplement Products Vitamin A Supplement Products Vitamin B-6 Supplement Products Vitamin B-12 Supplement Products Vitamin B-Complex Products Vitamin C Supplement Products >Vitamin D Supplement Products Vitamin E Supplement Products Vitamin K Supplement Products Wheat Germ Herbal Products Wheat Grass Herbal Products Yucca Herbal Products Zinc Supplement Products
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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