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MoonDragon's Nutrition Information
FOOD & NUTRIENT GUIDE: FRUIT

APPLES
(Raw with Skin)


apple




Scientific Name:    Malus sylvestris

  • Nutrition Basics: Apple Herbal Information & Products





  • APPLES REALLY ARE GOOD FOR YOU!

    Eating fresh apples is always good for you, but to get the full nutritional benefits associated with eating apples you should eat at least one fresh apple every day. The average U.S. consumer eats about 19 pounds of fresh apples a year - about one apple per week. Ongoing consumer attitude tracking in nine major markets across the United States has shown that Washington apples remain number one as far as consumers are concerned. According to a one report, 56 percent of those surveyed named Washington as the brand they look for when buying apples. (Washington Apple Commission)

    WHOLE-BODY HEALTH BENEFITS

    Apples lower blood cholesterol, improve bowel function, reduce risk of stroke, prostate cancer, type II diabetes and asthma. The disease-fighting profile of apples provides a multitude of health benefits, including a potential decreased risk of cancer and heart disease. Several recent studies suggest apples may provide a "whole-body" health benefit. A number of components in apples, most notably fiber and phytonutrients have been found in studies to lower blood cholesterol and improve bowel function, and may be associated with a reduced risk of ischemic heart disease, stroke, prostate cancer, type II diabetes and asthma. Preliminary research from Finland indicates diets with the highest intake of apple phytonutrients were associated with a 46 percent reduction in the incidence of lung cancer. Findings indicate that two apples a day or 12 ounces of 100% apple juice reduced the damaging effects of the "bad" LDL cholesterol. (Interpoma 2002 Conference, Bolzano, Italy, Dianne Hyson, Ph.D., M.S., R.D., University of California-Davis)

    CANCER PREVENTION

    Over the past four years, apple consumption has been linked with reduced cancer risk in several studies. A 2001 Mayo Clinic study indicated that quercetin, a flavonoid abundant in apples, helps prevent the growth of prostate cancer cells. A Cornell University study indicated phytochemicals in the skin of an apple inhibited the reproduction of colon cancer cells by 43 percent. The National Cancer Institute has reported that foods containing flavonoids like those found in apples may reduce the risk of lung cancer by as much as 50 percent. (Carcinogenesis, March, 2001, Nature, June, 2000, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, January, 2000)

    HEALTHY LUNGS

    Two recent British studies indicated that eating apples can improve lung health. A study of Welsh men indicated that people who ate at least five apples per week experience better lung function. Researchers at the University of Nottingham reported that those who ate five apples per week also had a lower risk for respiratory disease. In the Netherlands at the University of Groningen, apples were singled out as a fruit that could cut smokers risk of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in half. Scientists believe antioxidants found in apples may ward off disease by countering oxygen's damaging effects on the body. (American Thoracic Society Meeting, May 2001, Thorax, January 2000)

    HEART DISEASE & STROKE PREVENTION

    A Finnish study published in 1996 showed that people who eat a diet rich in flavonoids have a lower incidence of heart disease. Other studies indicate that flavonoids may help prevent strokes. (The British Medical Journal, 1996)

    WEIGHT LOSS

    Apples are a delicious source of dietary fiber, and dietary fiber helps aid digestion and promotes weight loss. A medium apple contains about five grams of fiber, more than most cereals. Also, apples contain almost zero fat and cholesterol, so they are a delicious snack and dessert food that is good for you.

    APPLES ARE HEART-HEALTHY

    Researchers at the University of California-Davis recently reported that apples and apple juice may help protect arteries from harmful plaque build-up. In the first study conducted in humans, adults who added two apples, or 12 ounces of 100 percent apple juice, to their daily diet demonstrated a significant slowing of the cholesterol oxidation process that leads to plaque build-up - thereby giving the body more time to rid itself of cholesterol before it can cause harm.

    AGE-RELATED MEMORY IMPROVEMENT LINKED WITH CONSUMPTION OF APPLE PRODUCTS

    New Study Finds Consuming Apple Juice Associated With Brain Health In Older Animals

    LOWELL, MASS. (January 19, 2006) - "An apple a day" now has new meaning for those who want to maintain mental dexterity as they age. New research from the University of Massachusetts Lowell suggests that consuming apple juice may protect against cell damage that contributes to age-related memory loss, even in test animals that were not prone to developing Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.

    "This new study suggests that eating and drinking apples and apple juice, in conjunction with a balanced diet, can protect the brain from the effects of oxidative stress - and that we should eat such antioxidant-rich foods," notes lead researcher Thomas B. Shea, Ph.D., director of the University of Massachusetts Lowell's Center for Cellular Neurobiology and Neurodegeneration Research, whose study was just published in the latest issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. Although more research is needed, Shea is excited about these brain health findings, which are encouraging for all individuals who are interested in staying mentally sharp as they age.

    Using a well-established animal protocol, Shea and his research colleagues assessed whether consumption of apple juice was protective against oxidative brain damage in aging mice, damage that can lead to memory loss. "These newer findings show that there is something in apples and apple juice that protects brain cells in normal aging, much like the protection we previously saw against Alzheimer-like symptoms," says Shea.

    The researchers evaluated adult and aged mice using a standard diet, a nutrient-deficient diet, and a nutrient-deficient diet supplemented with apple juice concentrate in drinking water. Although the adult mice tested were not affected negatively by the deficient diets, the aged mice were, which is consistent with normal aging due to oxidative neurodegeneration. The effect on cognition among the aged mice was measured through well-established maze tests, followed by an examination of brain tissue. However, the aged mice who consumed the diets supplemented with apple juice performed significantly better on the maze tests and all had less oxidative brain damage than those on the standard diet.

    Supplementation by apple juice fully protected the aged mice from the oxidative stress caused by the nutrient-deficient diet. In addition, stronger mental acuity resulted when the aged mice consumed the human equivalent of 2 to 3 cups of apple juice or approximately 2 to 4 apples per day. "We believe that this effect is due to the apple's naturally high level of antioxidants," states Shea. Previous research with his colleagues also determined that it is not the sugar and energy content of the apple juice, but the antioxidant attributes of apple juice that are responsible for the positive effects.

    This study was sponsored through an unrestricted grant by the U.S. Apple Association and the Apple Products Research and Education Council. The research abstract can be found at http://www.j-alz.com/issues/8/vol8-3.html.





    apples on a plate


    NUTRIENT GUIDE: APPLES (RAW, WITH SKIN)

    Courtesy of Rick Hall, About.com Nutrition Guide nutrition.about.com

    NUTRIENT UNITS 1 medium (2-3/4 inches diameter)
    (approximately 3 per pound)
    -------
    138.000 g
       PROXIMATES
          Water
    g
    115.823
          Energy
    kcal
    81.420
          Energy
    kj
    340.860
          Protein
    g
    0.262
          Total lipid (fat)
    g
    0.497
          Carbohydrate, by difference
    g
    21.045
          Fiber, total dietary
    g
    3.726
          Ash
    g
    0.359
       MINERALS
          Calcium, Ca
    mg
    9.660
          Iron, Fe
    mg
    0.248
          Magnesium, Mg
    mg
    6.900
          Phosphorus, P
    mg
    9.660
          Potassium, K
    mg
    158.700
          Sodium, Na
    mg
    0.000
          Zinc, Zn
    mg
    0.055
          Copper, Cu
    mg
    0.057
          Manganese, Mn
    mg
    0.062
          Selenium, Se
    mcg
    0.414
       VITAMINS
          Vitamin C, ascorbic acid
    mg
    7.866
          Thiamin - B-1
    mg
    0.023
          Riboflavin - B-2
    mg
    0.019
          Niacin - B-3
    mg
    0.106
          Pantothenic Acid - B-5
    mg
    0.084
          Vitamin B-6
    mg
    0.066
          Folate
    mcg
    3.864
          Vitamin B-12
    mcg
    0.000
          Vitamin A, IU
    IU
    73.140
          Vitamin A, RE
    mcg_RE
    6.900
          Vitamin E
    mg_ATE
    0.442
       LIPIDS
             Fatty Acids, Saturated
    g
    0.080
             4:0 Butyric
    g
    0.000
             6:0 Caproic
    g
    0.000
             8:0 Caprylic
    g
    0.000
             10:0 Capric
    g
    0.000
             12:0 Lauric
    g
    0.001
             14:0 Myristic
    g
    0.003
             16:0 Palmiti
    g
    0.066
             18:0 Stearic
    g
    0.010
          Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
    g
    0.021
             16:1 Palmitol
    g
    0.001
             18:1 Oleic
    g
    0.019
             20:1 Eicosen
    g
    0.000
             22:1 Erucic
    g
    0.000
          Fatty Acids, Polyunsaturated
    g
    0.145
             18:2 Linoleic
    g
    0.120
             18:3 Linolenic
    g
    0.025
             18:4 Stearidon
    g
    0.000
             20:4 Arachidon
    g
    0.000
             20:5 EPA
    g
    0.000
             22:5 DPA
    g
    0.000
             22:6 DHA
    g
    0.000
             Cholesterol
    mg
    0.000
             Phytosterols
    mg
    16.560
       AMINO ACIDS
          Tryptophan
    g
    0.003
          Threonine
    g
    0.010
          Isoleucine
    g
    0.011
          Leucine
    g
    0.017
          Lysine
    g
    0.017
          Methionine
    g
    0.003
          Cystine
    g
    0.004
          Phenylalanine
    g
    0.007
          Tyrosine
    g
    0.006
          Valine
    g
    0.012
          Arginine
    g
    0.008
          Histidine
    g
    0.004
          Alanine
    g
    0.010
          Aspartic Acid
    g
    0.047
          Glutamic Acid
    g
    0.028
          Glycine
    g
    0.011
          Proline
    g
    0.010
          Serine
    g
    0.011


    USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 12 (March 1998)





    APPLE VARIETIES

    red delicious


    RED DELICIOUS: This is a classic, American favorite snacking apple. The heart-shaped fruit is bright red and sometimes striped. Red delicious apples are great in salads since they are crunchy with a mildly sweet flavor. These apples have been grown in the State of Washington since the 1920's. They are harvested in September and October and are available throughout the year. They were introduced to the American market in 1874 and originated in Peru, Iowa. Their source is unknown, but they were discovered as a chance seedling on the farm of Jesse Hiatt. The variety was originally known as Hawkeye.

    For recipes using the Red Delicious Apple, see:
    BestApples.com: Red Delicious Apple Recipes


    golden delicious


    GOLDEN DELICIOUS: This apple is THE all-purpose apple. The Golden Delicious is mellow and sweet in flavor and are great for eating right out of your hand, cooked and in salads. In salads and other dishes, their flesh stays white longer than other apples. They are excellent in pies, sauces, baking, and freezing. These apples are grown in the dry, warm climate of Eastern Washington State. They are harvested in September and are available throughout the year. They were introduced to the American market in 1914 and originated in Clay County, West Virginia. Their source is unknown, but they may the result of a chance seedling traced to Golden Reinette and Grimes Golden.

    For recipes using the Golden Delicious Apple, see:
    BestApples.com: Golden Delicious Apple Recipes


    gala


    GALA: This apple has pinkish-orange stripes over a yellow background as a signature. It is a crisp, aromatically-sweet, snappy apple. Galas have gained popularity among consumers in the last 15 years or so. Snacking and salads are their primary uses. They are good for pies and baking. Gala harvest begins in the middle of August and lasts through early September. Galas are stocked September to May. There origin on the market was in 1965 and their place of origin is New Zealand. Gala is a cross of Cox's Orange Pippin and Golden delicious developed by New Zealand plant breeders.

    For recipes using the Golden Delicious Apple, see:
    BestApples.com: Gala Apple Recipes


    fuji


    FUJI: This apple is immensely flavorful. As new variety of apple, it was introduced to the U.S. from Japan in the 1980's, but now the U.S. produces more Fujis than Japan. Each year, this big, super-sweet crisp apple gains new fans. The Fuji holds its texture when baked. It is known for its hard texture and syrupy sweetness. It is also excellent for baking and salads. The Fuji apples grown in Washington's cool weather in the late fall helps develop its reddish-pink color and superb flavor. Fujis are harvested in October and can be purchased October to August. This variety is a cross of Red Delicious and Ralls Janet bred at a Japanese research station.

    For recipes using the Fuji Apple, see:
    BestApples.com: Fuji Apple Recipes


    granny smith


    GRANNY SMITH: This apple is extremely tart, crisp, juicy and versatile. They are available year-around. Grannies are a favorite of apple pie bakers. They are also excellent for snacking and salads. Warm days and cool nights ensure crunch and flavor for October harvest. Their introduction to the market was in 1868 and their place of Origin was Australia. They are believed to be descended from French crabapples cultivated by Australian grandmother Marie Ann Smith.

    For recipes using the Granny Smith Apple, see:
    BestApples.com: Granny Smith Apple Recipes


    braeburn


    BRAEBURN: This apple's rich, sweet-tart, spicy flavor is high-impact. Color varies from orange to red over a yellow background. Aromatic, juicy and crisp, this apple is very firm. Braeburns are great for snacking and baking. These apples are harvested in September and early October. Consumers can purchase Braeburns from October through July. Their introduction to the market was in 1952 and their place of origin is New Zealand. Their parentage is uncertain, discovered as a chance seedling. It is probable the parents are Lady Hamilton and Granny Smith.

    For recipes using the Braeburn Apple, see:
    BestApples.com: Braeburn Apple Recipes


    jonagold


    JONAGOLD: This juicy, orange-tinted apple has a tangy-sweet flavor. It's excellent for fresh eating, cooking and makes a great pie. A warm dry summer and cool fall ensure that the delicate flavor develops fully for September harvest. Washington Jonagolds are stocked from September through April. Their introduction to the market was in 1968 and their place of origin is New York. The parentage is a cross of Golden Delicious and onathan developed in a New York apple breeding program.

    For recipes using the Jonagold Apple, see:
    BestApples.com: Jonagold Apple Recipes


    cripps pink


    CRIPPS PINK: A firm, crisp flesh and a unique, tangy-tart, sweet-flavor are characteristic of this apple. Snackers and bakers give the variety high marks in consumer tastings. Cripps Pink is the last apple harvested in Washington State in late October. Crisp fall nights bring on the bright pink color that gives the apple its name. Supplies of Cripps Pink last from November to August. Cripps Pink was introduced to the market in 1985 and the place of origin is Australia. It is a cross of Golden Delicious and Lady Williams developed in a Western Australia breeding program.

    For recipes using the Cripps Pink Apple, see:
    BestApples.com: Cripps Pink Apple Recipes


    cameo


    CAMEO: With a zingy crunch, Cameo holds its texture for long periods. When shopping for apples, look for the variety's characteristic white spots on the skin. The variety was discovered as a chance seedling in a Washington state orchard in the 1980's. Cameos are harvested in September and October and are available from October to August. Their introduction to the market was in 1987 and their place of origin was Dryden, Washington. They were discovered as a chance seedling in Washington's Wenatchee River Valley.

    For recipes using the Cameo Apple, see:
    BestApples.com: Cameo Apple Recipes




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    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


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    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
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    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
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  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

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