MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Diets
PREGNANCY NUTRITION DIET
This diet is designed to provide the increased nutrients during pregnancy that are essential for the health of the mother and the well-being of the baby. If a woman is expecting multiple babies, then she will have to have her nutritional plan adjusted for the extra fetuses.
The diet can also be adapted to a mother that is breastfeeding her infant by adding about 200 more calories or the equivalency of an extra peanut butter sandwich to be eaten at some point during the day. If a mother is breastfeeding multiple babies, the dietary requirements would have to be adjusted accordingly.
Foods from all basic food groups are included in quantities to meet the increased nutrient needs of pregnancy. Nutrient needs that are markedly increased include calories, protein, iron, folic acid and calcium. Junk or empty calorie foods, sweets, fast foods, processed and packaged foods should be kept to a minimum. Alcohol should be avoided during pregnancy.
Weight Gain: Recommendations for the range of total weight gain and the pattern of weight gain should be based on the pre-pregnancy weight for height. The pattern of weight gain is as important as total weight gain during pregnancy. Weight gain should be recorded on a chart that shows weight gain by gestational age.
NOTE: Weight gain appears to be more of a concern to the allopathic medical community than among many midwives. Allopathic health care providers may attempt to limit calories and weight gain, especially in over-weight women, thus possibly compromising the well-being of both mother and unborn infant. Midwives, on the other hand, are more concerned with preventive holistic care by utilizing proper nutrition than they are about counting pounds gained and calories consumed. Many midwives do not record weight on a regular basis, but prefer to assess dietary patterns and habits, making changes and improvements, when necessary. A woman expecting twins or multiple births must increase her consumption of nutritious food accordingly to maintain a healthy pregnancy. An exception to this would be a sudden weight gain during the latter part of pregnancy (usually with other symptoms, such as edema and hypertension) that could be indicative of pre-eclampsia. Pregnancy (and postpartum while breastfeeding) is not a time to diet and limit calories, regardless of pre-pregnancy weight.
MoonDragon's Women's Health Information: Pregnancy - Twins
PREGNANCY WEIGHT GAIN RECOMMENDATIONS
PRE-PREGNANCY WEIGHT TOTAL WEIGHT GAIN RATE OF GAIN FOR 2nd & 3rd TRIMESTERS Normal Weight 25 to 35 pounds 1 pound per week Underweight 28 to 40 pounds More than 1 pound per week Overweight 15 to 25 pounds More than 2/3 pound per week Twins 30 to 35 pounds 1.5 pounds per week
Note: These recommendations are used as a guideline only. Each woman and pregnancy is unique and individualized. Nutritional counseling and assessment should be a part of prenatal care and proper adequate nutrition is encouraged for optimal health for the mother and her baby.
Assessment of dietary intake should be completed for every pregnant woman. The increased nutrient needs of pregnancy can generally be met with slight changes in dietary habits.
Pregnant women are usually prescribed daily supplementation of 30 mg ferrous iron in the second and third trimester. For those women with limited intakes of fruit, juices, leafy green vegetables or whole grains, folate may be recommended.
Prenatal vitamin and mineral supplements should be provided for women with inadequate diets and for high risk populations. Excessive vitamin and mineral intakes should be avoided because of potential toxic effects in pregnancy. Your midwife or health care provider may assist you in choosing a prenatal supplement that is right for you and your specific situation. If this assistance is not available, then choose a natural food-based supplement for use in pregnancy that does not contain more than twice the recommended amount for adults.
Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in pregnancy. Iron needs markedly increase in pregnancy. Women taking iron supplements of more than 30 mg per day may have supplements of 2 mg copper and 15 mg zinc per day recommended. Do not take iron supplements unless prescribed by your midwife or health care provider.
Eat foods high in iron such as beef, pork, lamb and organ meats; iron fortified cereals, dried beans, peas, or lentils; dark green leafy vegetables; peanut butter and molasses. Combine foods high in Vitamin C with iron-rich foods. Use cast-iron cookware, if possible.
Consult with your midwife or health care provider about natural herbal supplements and recommendations.
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information - MoonDragon's Nutritional Guidelines & Client Handouts Pregnant Mothers.
MoonDragon's Anemia Index - MoonDragon's Anemia Disorders and Recommendations
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Anemia
Although data from human studies do not provide significant evidence that caffeine affects pregnancy outcome, the Food and Drug Administration advises that pregnant women eliminate or limit consumption of caffeine-containing beverages such as coffee, tea, or colas. Substitute specific herbal teas (talk to your midwife before using herbs), juices, milk or soy milk, and water in place of caffeine products. If you must have your morning cup of coffee, make it de-caffeinated or drink a coffee substitute like Chicory or Barley Tea.
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives - Caffeine - Information about caffeine and how it affects people and pregnancy.
Pregnant women with any type of diabetes need special medical and nutritional care. Women with diabetes mellitus should achieve good blood sugar control prior to becoming pregnant. All other women at risk (family history or glucose testing positive in urine) should be screened for diabetes at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
MoonDragon's Women's Health Information: Diabetes & Pregnancy
MoonDragon's Women's Health Information: Gestational Diabetes Index - Articles about gestational diabetes and diabetes.
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Diabetes
Foodborne illness is especially dangerous for pregnant women. To avoid exposure to Listeria, pregnant women should avoid unpasteurized milk and soft cheeses; carefully follow "keep refrigerated" and "use by" dates; and thoroughly reheat processed meats such as hot dogs. To prevent toxoplasmosis, pregnant women should wash hands after handling cats, should not clean cat litter boxes, should avoid eating raw or partially cooked meats and wash hands after handling raw meat.
To avoid other foodborne diseases, proper food handling procedures should be followed including storing foods at proper temperatures; washing cutting boards and knives after contact with raw meat, poultry and seafood; and careful handwashing before and after handling food.
Regularly wipe down food counters, cutting boards and other items that come into regular contact with food with a 10 percent bleach solution (1 cup household bleach to 9 cups water - this is the formula we used in the clinical lab to kill hepatitis and HIV viruses as well as other pathogens). This solution is used to kill any bacteria, viruses or other microbes that may be present. Using the commercially packaged "bleach wipes" are a good alternative and these can be tossed away after use.
Keep in mind... "IF IN DOUBT, THROW IT OUT!". Better to be safe than sick.
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Food Poisoning
MoonDragon's Women's Health Information: Toxoplasmosis
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
HYPERTENSION (HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE)
A diet to meet the nutrient needs of pregnancy with ample but not excessive amounts of calories and protein should be encouraged. Sodium intake should not be restricted. Stress should be kept to a minimum and stress management techniques should be learned and used. Immediate referral for medical treatment is essential for pregnant women with pathological increases in blood pressure.
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hypertension
MoonDragon's Women's Health Information: Toxemia (Preelampsia/Eclampsia)
Pica is the practice of eating substances (usually non-food items) with little or no nutritional value. Pica literally means "magpie," a bird that has undiscerning tastes. People affected by this disorder are compelled to eat things that are not generally intended for consumption. During pregnancy, some women develop cravings for these non-food items. If you have been experiencing cravings or have been eating non-nutritive items for more than a month, you could be suffering from pica.
The pica eating disorder is most commonly seen in children between the ages of two and three. It is believed that between 1 to 5 percent of children in the United States suffer from the eating disorder, though this number is probably greatly under reported. Pica is also very common among those with development disorders, such as autism. Though pica is seldom seen in healthy adults, some pregnant women do seem to develop the disease. Pica commonly occurs in pregnant women who are experiencing their first pregnancy, under the age of 20, and have suffered from pica as a child.
Pica in pregnancy often involves consumption of ice, dirt, laundry detergent, clay or cornstarch. Less frequently, matches, hair, newsprint, soap, charcoal, cigarette ashes, mothballs, baking soda and coffee grounds may be eaten. One woman was found eating the foam-like stuffing inside her sofa. Pica often appears in the first or second trimester of pregnancy, and persists for more than a month. Though symptoms tend to disappear after pregnancy, there is a chance that your pica cravings could continue after labor and delivery.
Nutritious food may be displaced by pica substances. Items such as starch that provide calories may result in excessive weight gain. Pica substances may contain toxic elements or interfere with mineral absorption, such as iron.
There are no known causes of the pica eating disorder in pregnancy. However, there are a number of theories as to why the disorder may develop:
- Nutritional Deficiency: Pica may be your body's natural response to a nutritional depletion, such as iron deficiency. When your body becomes deficient in certain vitamins and minerals, it tries to get these minerals by causing you to have strange dietary cravings. However, not every person with pica has a nutritional deficiency.
- Cultural Factors: Cultural factors do play a role in some cases of pica. Pica is accepted in some cultures as a way of increasing spirituality or treating certain physical illnesses, like morning sickness.
- Psychological Reasons: Mental illness or psychological trauma can trigger pica in some people. Pica is often a hallmark of extreme stress, fear, or abuse.
COMPLICATIONS OF PICA
Complications of Pica can quickly become harmful, serious and even life threatening. Pica can result in a number of different health complications that could cause you serious harm. This is why it is important to seek treatment as soon as possible for your pica cravings. Complications include:
- Lead Poisoning: Eating substances that contain lead, s/uch as soil, clay, or paint, could lead to lead poisoning (or other types of poisonings), which can seriously harm both you and your baby, and can even result in death.
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Lead Toxicity
- Bowel Obstruction: Eating non-food items, especially rocks, hair, and dirt, can cause your bowel to become obstructed. This can lead to severe constipation, bowel inflammation, and infection.
- Parasite Infection: Items from the earth, including clay, soil, and grass, can be home to parasites. When you ingest these items, parasites can then infect your gastrointestinal tract causing pain, weight loss, and other side effects.
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Worms & Parasites
- Dental Injury: Your teeth were not made to process non-food items. Hard substances like rocks, clay, and ice can cause serious damage to your teeth, and you may experience broken and fractured teeth.
Unfortunately, pica cravings can cause serious harm to your baby. Eating non-food items can actually prevent your body from absorbing the proper minerals and nutrients. This could mean that your baby is not receiving the proper nutrition, increasing his risk for a variety of complications, including low birth weight, pre-term labor, and stillbirth.
Pica has been associated a nutritional deficiency, such as with iron deficiency. If either iron deficiency or pica is identified during pregnancy, assessment should be initiated to see if the other problems exists. Review your blood work and your diet for nutrient levels and deficiencies. Correct deficiencies with an optimal dietary plan and nutritional supplements to correct the problem.
Do not panic if you have problems with non-food cravings (pica). It happens and is not abnormal. The most important thing is to inform your health care provider or your midwife to make sure you have a complete understanding of the specific risks associated with your cravings. Here are some suggestions to help you deal with pica cravings:
- Inform your health care provider and review your prenatal health records.
- Consider psychological counseling or behavioral therapy, if necessary.
- Your health care provider may recommend medications to control cravings, stress, or depression.
- Monitor your iron status along with other vitamin and mineral intake. Take remedial nutritional supplements.
- Consider potential substitutes for the cravings such as chewing sugarless gum.
- Inform a friend and/or your partner of your craving. They may be able to help you avoid non-food items.
You might consider contacting a homeopathic practitioner to assist you with your cravings. he or she might be able to treat you with a selection of homeopathic ingredients that will bring your nutritional needs back into alignment.
Normal sodium intake is needed during pregnancy to support the large prenatal expansion of tissues and fluids. Sodium should not be restricted. The basic rule is salt to taste, but do not over-do it either. Use some common sense when eating. Most Americans get plenty of salt in their daily diets, some sources are hidden within the processed foods. During hot weather days, be sure to watch your fluid intake and electrolyte balances.
Teens should gain weight at the upper end of the appropriate weight for height ranges. Teens are at high risk for iron deficiency and inadequate calorie intake. Eating regular meals and choosing healthy foods are especially important for teenagers and their still-growing bodies.
Pregnant women consuming vegetarian diets need careful nutritional assessment. The type of vegetarian diet will determine the potential for nutrient deficiencies with increased risk as more foods are excluded. Most pregnant women consuming milk and milk products and eggs (lacto-ovo vegetarian diet) can meet the increased nutrient needs of pregnancy.
Vegan diets will require careful planning to consume adequate protein from complementary plant proteins. Alternate sources of vitamin B-12 and calcium will be needed in a vegan diet. Iron status should be carefully monitored. Low pre-pregnancy weight and less than optimal weight gain are common problems for vegans. High caloric foods such as nuts, nut butter, wheat germ, avocados, dried fruit, coconut, honey and salad dressings may be needed.
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Nutrition Guide for Vegetarian Diets
This diet is designed to provide adequate amounts of calories, protein, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients to meet the nutritional needs of a pregnant woman.
DAILY FOOD GUIDE FOR PREGNANT WOMEN
FOOD GROUP & RECOMMENDED SERVING SERVING SIZE
Rich in calcium, protein, vitamins & minerals
Milk, yogurt, cheese, salmon, dark leafy greens, cottage cheese
1 cup milk or yogurt
1/3 cup dry milk powder
1.5 ounces cheese
2 cups cottage cheese
1/2 cup canned salmon
2 cups dark leafy greens
Rich in protein, iron and B vitamins
Beef, pork, lamb, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, cottage cheese, tofu, peanut butter, dried beans or peas, nuts, seeds.
1 ounce meat, chicken or fish
1/4 cup tuna, cottage cheese or tofu
1 egg, or 1 ounce cheese
2 tablespoons peanut butter
1/2 cup dried beans or peas
1/3 cup nuts, or 1/4 cup seeds
Vitamin A Rich Fruits & Vegetables
Rich in vitamin A and fiber
Carrots, spinach, dark leaf greens, sweet potatoes, winter squash, chili peppers, red peppers, tomatoes, cantaloupe, mango, papaya, apricots, vegetable juice cocktail.
1/2 cup cooked vegetables
1 cup raw dark leafy greens
2 tablespoons chili peppers
1/2 cup red pepper
2 medium tomatoes
6 ounces vegetable juice cocktail
1/2 cup raw green onions
1/4 cup dried or 3 raw apricots
1/2 cup medium papaya
1/4 medium cantaloupe or mango
Vitamin C Rich Fruits & Vegetables
Rich in vitamin C & Fiber
Oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, lemons, cantaloupe, kiwi fruit, strawberries, mango, papaya, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbages, cauliflower, chili peppers, red & green peppers, tomatoes
6 ounces citrus juice
1 orange or lemon
2 medium tangerines
1/4 medium cantaloupe or papaya
1 medium kiwi fruit or mango
1/2 cup strawberries
1/2 cup broccoli
1/2 cup Brussels sprouts
1/2 cup cauliflower
1 cup raw or 1/2 cup cooked cabbage
2 tablespoons raw chili pepper
1/2 red or green peppers
2 medium tomatoes
Other Fruits & Vegetables
(3 to 7 Servings)
Rich in other vitamins, minerals and fiber
Apples, bananas, grapes, peaches, pears, pineapple, plums, watermelon, green beans, beets, corn, cucumbers, lettuce, peas, potatoes, radishes, zucchini
1 piece fresh fruit
1/2 cup canned or cooked
1 cup raw
1/4 cup dried
Bread & Cereals
(6 to 11 Servings)
Rich in B vitamins, iron & fiber
Breads, tortilla, crackers, hot & cold cereals, rice, noodles, macaroni
1 slice bread
1/2 cup rice or pasta
3/4 cup cold cereal
1/2 cup cooked cereal
1 ounce cracker
Provide vitamin A & essential fatty acids
Butter, margarine, oils, bacon, salad dressings, olives, avocados
As needed to meet caloric needs. Use in moderation. Fats occur normally in many foods such as meat, poultry, & dairy products.
Drink at least 8 glasses of liquids each day. Avoid drinks high in sugar and caffeine.
Do not drink any alcoholic beverages.
PREGNANCY NUTRITION DIET - Sample Menu
SUGGESTED MEAL PLAN SUGGESTED FOODS & BEVERAGES
Citrus Fruit Juice
Meat / Meat Substitute
Milk / Beverage
Whole Wheat Toast, Jelly, Margarine*
Skim Milk*, Decaffeinated Coffee
DINNER - NOON OR EVENING MEAL
Vegetable and/or Salad
Green Beans, Coleslaw
Whole Wheat Roll / Margarine*
Skim Milk*, Water
SUPPER - EVENING OR NOON MEAL
Soup or Juice
Vegetable and/or Salad
Meatballs with Tomato Sauce
Spinach Salad with Dressing, Zucchini
Skim Milk*, Decaffeinated Iced Tea
Milk, Bread, Fruit
Whole Wheat Toast
* To reduce the fat in your diet, omit margarine, use non-fat salad dressing.
Calories Protein Carbohydrate Fat Cholesterol Dietary Fiber Vitamin A Vitamin C Niacin Riboflavin Thiamin Folate Calcium Phosphorus Zinc Iron Sodium Potassium
2563 Kcal 130 gm 355 gm 76 gm 427 mg 34 gm 4631 IU 209 mg 29 mg 3.0 mg 1.7 mg 392 mcg 1741 mg 2332 mg 7 mg 19 mg 4637 mg 5473 mg
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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