MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Therapy
GLYCERIN (VEGETABLE GLYCERINE) INFORMATION
Homemade Bath Recipes & Products
"For Informational Use Only"
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Note: The pure chemical product is called Glycerol (the -ol shows that it is an alcohol, but it is also known as Glycerin or Glycerine). Glycerol is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorles, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations Glycerol has 3 hydroxyl group that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hydroscopic nature. The glycerol backbone is central to all lipids known as triglycerides. Triglycerides found in fats and oils are by definition esters of glycerol with long-chain carboxylic acids; the hydrolysis (saponification) or transesterifaction of these triglyderides produce stoichiometric quantities of glycerol. In this scheme, glycerol is produced as a co-productin the production of long-chain carboxylate salts used in soaps. Glycerol is sweet-tasting and of low toxicity. The impure commercial product is called Glycerin or Glycerine. This is a technical complexity, so for the sake of this article, the term Glycerin will be used throughout.
Glycerin is a neutral, sweet-tasting, colorless, thick liquid which freezes to a gummy paste and which has a high boiling point. Glycerin can be dissolved into water or alcohol, but not oils. On the other hand, many things will dissolve into glycerin easier than they do into water or alcohol. So it is a good solvent. Approximately 950,000 tons are produced annually in the USA and Europe. Production will increase over the next several years due to a directive that requires the replacement of 5.75% of petroleum fuels with biofuel is implemented. It is projected that by the year 2020, production will be six times more than demand.
Glycerin is also highly "hygroscopic" which means that it absorbs water from the air. For example, if you left a bottle of pure glycerin exposed to air in your kitchen, it would take moisture from the air and eventually, it would become 80 percent glycerin and 20 percent water.
Because of this hygroscopic quality, pure, 100 percent glycerin placed on the tongue may raise a blister, since it is dehydrating. Diluted with water, however, it will soften your skin. (Note: While people say this softening is the result of the glycerin attracting moisture to your skin, there is heated debate as to whether or not the glycerin has some other properties all its own which are helpful to the skin. Summed up, the current thinking is "We know glycerin softens the skin. Some people think its because it attracts moisture, but there could be other reasons.")
GLYCERIN & SOAPMAKERS
Cold Process Soapmakers state that one of the reasons their soap is better than store-bought commerical brands because of the natural glycerin. Glycerin is a humectant, meaning it attracts moisture to your skin. Glycerin is a natural by-product of the soapmaking process and while commercial manufacturers remove the glycerin for use in their more profitable lotions and creams, handcrafted soap retains glycerin in each and every bar.
Melt and Pour Soapmakers have a similar statements that commercial soaps remove the glycerin for use in more profit producing lotions and creams, that their soap has extra glycerin added to it. This helps to make their soaps clear, and also makes it a lot more moisturizing.
WHERE GLYCERIN COMES FROM
Up until 1889, people did not know how to recover glycerine from the soapmaking process, so commercially produced glycerin mostly came from the candlemaking industry (remember, back then candles were made from animal fats).
In 1889, a viable way to separate the glycerin out of the soap was finally implemented. Since the number one use of glycerin was to make nitroglycerin, which was used to make dynamite, making soap suddenly became a lot more profitable. There is an untested theory that one could trace the roots of most big soapmakers (and the "fall" of the small, local soapmaker) to about this time in history.
The process of removing the glycerin from the soap is fairly complicated. In the most simplest terms, you make soap out of fats and lye. The fats already contain glycerin as part of their chemical makeup (both animal and vegetable fats contain from 7% - 13% glycerin). When the fats and lye interact, soap is formed, and the glycerin is left out as a "byproduct&quo;t. But, while it is chemically separate, it is still blended into the soap mix.
While a cold process soapmaker would simply pour into the molds at this stage, a commercial soapmaker will add salt. The salt causes the soap to curdle and float to the top. After skimming off the soap, they are left with glycerin (and lots of "impurities" like partially dissolved soap, extra salt, etc.). They then separate the glycerin out by distilling it. Finally, they de-colorize the glycerin by filtering it through charcoal, or by using some other bleaching method.
Glycerin has a number of besides being used to make nitroglycerin (note: glycerin is not an explosive substance by itself. It has to be turned into nitroglycerin before it becomes explosive, so it is safe to work with in your kitchen). Some uses for glycerin include the conserving preserved fruit, as a base for lotions, to prevent freezing in hydraulic jacks, to lubricate molds, in some printing inks, in cake and candy making, and (because it has an antiseptic quality) sometimes to preserve scientific specimens in jars in your high school biology lab.
Glycerin is also used to make clear soaps. Highly glycerinated clear soaps contain about 15% to 20% pure glycerin. Known as "Melt and Pour" soaps, these soaps are very easy for the hobbyist to work with. They melt at about 160°F and solidify fairly rapidly. Because of their high glycerin content, the soaps are very moisturizing to the skin. Unfortunately, this high glycerin content also means that the soaps will dissolve more rapidly in water than soaps with less glycerin, and that if the bar of soap is left exposed to air, it will attract moisture and "glisten" with beads of ambient moisture.
These downsides, however are more than compensated by the emollient, skin loving and gentle nature of this soap which is especially good for tender skin and children.
FOOD INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS
In foods and beverages, glycerin serves as a humectant, solvent, and sweetener, and may help preserve foods. It is also used as a filler in commercially prepared low-fat foods (e.g. cookies), and is a thickening agent in liqueurs. Glycerin and water are used to preserve certain types of leaves. As a sugar substitute, it has approximately 27 kilocalories per teaspoon (sugar has 20) and is 60% as sweet as sucrose. It does not feed the bacteria that form plaques and cause dental cavities. As a food additive, glycerin is labeld as E number E422. As used in foods, glycerin is categorized by the American Dietetic Association as a carbohydrate. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) carbohydrate designation includes all caloric macronutrients excluding protein and fat. Glycerin has a caloric density similar to table sugar, but a lower glycemic index and different metabolic pathway within the body, so some dietary advocates accept glycerin as a sweetener compatible with low carbohydrate diets.
PHARMACEUTICAL & PERSONAL CARE APPLICATIONS
Glycerin is used in medical, pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication and as a humectant. It is found in allergen immunotherapies, cough syrups, elixirs and expectorants, toothpaste, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving cream, hair care products, soaps, and water-based personal lubricants. In solid dosage forms, like tablets, glycerin is used as a tablet holding agent. For human consumption, glycerin is classified by the U.S. FDA among the sugar alcohols as a caloric macronutrient.
Glycerin is a component of glycerin soap. Essential oils are added for fragrance. This kind of soap is used by people with sensitive, easily irritated skin because of it prevents skin dryness with its moisturizing properties. It draws moisture up through skin layers and slows or prevent excessive drying and evaporation.
Glycerine can be used as a laxative - when introduced into the rectum in suppository or small-volume (2 to 10 ml) enema form it irritates the anal mucosa and induces a hyperosmotic effect. Taken orally (often mixed with fruit juice to reduce its sweet taste), glycerin can cause a rapid, temporary decrease in the internal pressure of the eye. This can be a useful initial emergency treatment of severly elevated eye pressure.
BOTANICAL EXTRACT APPLICATIONS
When utilized in 'tincture' method extractions, specifically as a 10% solution, glycerin prevents tannins from precipitating in ethanol extracts of plants (tinctures). It is also used as an alcohol-free alternative to ethanol as a solvent in preparing herbal extractions. It is less extractive when utilized in a standard tincture methodology. Glycerol is approximately 30% more slowly absorbed by the body resulting in a much lower glycemic load. Alcohol-based tinctures can also have the alcohol removed and replaced with glycein for its preserving properties. Such products are not 'alcohol-free' in either a scientific or consumable sense, but should in all instances more accurately be referred to as "Alcohol-Removed" products. Fluid extract manufacturers often extract herbs in hot water before adding glycerin to make glycerites.
When used as a primary 'true' alcohol-free (e.g. no alcohol [ i.e. ethanol] ever being used) botanical extraction solvent in innovative non-tincture based 'dynamic' methodologies, glycerin has been shown, both in literature and through extraction applications, to possess a high degree of extractive versatility for botanicals including removal of numerous constituents and complex compounds, with an extractive power that can rival that of alcohol and water-alcohol solutions. That glycerin possess such high extractive power assumes that glycerin, with its tri-atomic structure, is utilized with dynamic methodologies as opposed to standard passive 'tincturing' methodologies that are better suited to alcohol's di-atomic structure. Glycerin possesses the intrinsic property of not denaturing or rendering a botanical's constituents inert (as di-atomic alcohols - i.e. ethanolic (grain) alcohol, methanolic (wood) alcohol, etc., do). Glycerin is a stable preserving agent for botanical extracts that, when utilized in proper concentrations in an extraction solvent base, does not allow inverting or reduction-oxidation of a finished extract's constituents, even over several years. Both glycerin and ethanol are viable preserving agents. Glycerin is bacteriostatic in its action, and ethanol is bactericidal in its action.
Like ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, glycerin is a non-ionic kosmotrope that forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules, competing with water-water hydrogen bonds. This disrupts the crystal lattice formation of ice unless the temperature is significantly lowered. The minimum freezing point temperature is at about -36°F / -37.8°C corresponding to 70% glycerol in water.
Glycerin was historically used as an anti-freeze for automotive applications before being replaced by ethylene glycol, which has a lower freezing point. While the minimum freezing point of a glycerin-water mixture is higher than an ethylene glycol-water mixture, glycerin is not toxic and is being re-examined for use in automotive applications.
In the labforatory, glycerin is a common component of solvents for enzymatic reagents stored at temperatures below 0°C due to the depression of the freezing temperature of solutions with high concentrations of glycerin. It is also used as a cryoprotectant where the glycerol is dissolved in water to reduce damage by ice crystals to laboratory organisms that are stored in frozen solutions, such as bacteria, nematodes, and mammalian embryos.
CHEMICAL INTERMEDIATE APPLICATIONS
Glycerin is used to produce nitroglycerin, which is an essential ingredient of smokeless gunpowder and various explosives such as dynamite, gelignite, and propellants like cordite. Reliance on soap-making to supply co-product glycerin made it difficult to increase production to meet wartime demand. Hence, synthetic glycerin processes were national defense priorities in the days leading up to World War II. Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is commonly used to relieve angina pectoris, taken in the form of sub-lingual tablets, or as an aerosol spray.
A great deal of research is being conducted to try to make value-added products from crude glycerin (typically containing 20% water and residual esterification catalyst) obtained from biodiesel production. The use of crude glycerin as an additive to biomass for a renewable energy source when combusted or gasified is also being explored.
- Hydrogen gas production unit
- Glycerine acetate (as a potential fuel additive).
- Conversion to propylene glycol.
- Conversion to acrolein.
- Conversion to ethanol.
- Conversion to epichlorohydrin, a raw material for epoxy resins.
Glycerol (glycerin) is a precursor for synthesis of triacylglycerols and of phospholipids in the liver and adipose tissue. When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. In some organisms, the glycerol component can be converted into glucose by the liver and, thus, provide energy for cellular metabolism. Before glycerol can enter the pathway of glycolysis or gluconeogenesis (depending on physiological conditions), it must be converted to their intermediate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme glycerol kinase is present only in the liver. In adipose (fat) tissue, glycerol 3-phosphate is obtained from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) with the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
For more Herbal Recipes and Information:
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Glycerin Vegetable Information & Products
MoonDragon's Health Therapy: Herbal Baths Index
GLYCERIN & RELATED PRODUCTS
QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS
GLYCERIN (VEGETABLE GLYCERINE) PRODUCTS
MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS
Mountain Rose Herbs: Vegetable Glycerine, Organic Bulk Miscellaneous Ingredients
This pure 100% USP grade vegetable glycerine (glycerin) is used in cosmetics and body care products to assist in retaining moisture and is helpful in pulling oxygen into the skin. Vegetable glycerine is a natural emollient that adds a cooling effect on the skin and has become a predominant ingredient in most skin care products and soaps. Vegetable glycerine is also the principal medium for the manufacturing of non-alcohol based herbal extracts, which are called glycerites. This makes for a sweet alcohol free extract that can be easily administered to children, animals and those with alcohol sensitivities. Kosher certified and suitable for food and cosmetic use. Choose from 3 different sizes (16 fl. oz., 1 gallon, and 5 gallons).
STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS
Starwest Botanicals: Vegetable Glycerine, 4 fl. oz.
Starwest Botanicals: Vegetable Glycerine, Organic, 4 fl. oz.
Starwest Botanicals: Vegetable Glycerine, 16 fl. oz.
Starwest Botanicals: Vegetable Glycerine, Organic, 16 fl. oz.
Starwest Botanicals: Vegetable Glycerine, 1 Gallon
Starwest Botanicals: Vegetable Glycerine, Organic, 1 Gallon
Starwest Botanicals: Vegetable Glycerine, 5 Gallons
Starwest Botanicals: Vegetable Glycerine, Organic, 5 Gallons
HerbsPro: Vegetable Glycerine, Starwest Botanicals, 4 fl. oz. (71349)
HerbsPro: Vegetable Glycerine, Now Foods, 4 fl. oz. (68270)
HerbsPro: Vegetable Glycerin, Heritage Products, 4 fl. oz. (15620)
HerbsPro: Glycerin Extract, Alcohol Free, Coconut Derived, Natures Answer, 4 fl. oz. (17201)
HerbsPro: Glycerin USP, Sunmark, 6 fl. oz. (97621)
HerbsPro: Vegetable Glycerin, Heritage Products, 8 fl. oz. (78702)
HerbsPro: Vegetable Glycerine, Starwest Botanicals, 16 fl. oz. (71350)
HerbsPro: Vegetable Glycerine, Now Foods, 16 fl. oz. (68269)
HerbsPro: Glycerin Suppositories, Fleet Laxative - Pedia Lax Liquid, 6 Count (98310)
HerbsPro: Glycerin Suppositories, Adult Laxative, Fleet, 50 Count (96896)
Amazon: Vegetable Glycerine / Glycerin Products
Amazon: Vegetable Glycerine / Glycerin Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
Nutrition Basics: Glycerin Herbal Information
GLYCERINE (GLYCERIN) SOAP PRODUCTS
HerbsPro: Banana Glycerine Bar Soap, Sai Baba, 75 Grams Bar
Nag Champa Glycerine Soap in the traditional classic earthy fragrance Nag Champa from India. Hypo-allergic, 100% bio degradable, no detergents or additives. Satya Sai Baba Nag Champa Beauty Soap in the traditional classic earthy fragrance Nag Champa from India. Ingredients include distilled palm fatty acid-palm stearine, distilled rice bran fatty acid, coconut oil, titanium dioxide, sorebitol alkali, preservative and perfume. This soap is prepared from natural non-edible vegetable oil. It is free from animal fat. Recommended as a skin softener and natural deodorant soap that gives you a great lather!
HerbsPro: Peppermint Glycerine Bar Soap, Clearly Natural, 4 oz. Bar
HerbsPro: Lemongrass-Basil Glycerine Bar Soaps, Pure & Natural, Clearly Natural Essentials, 4 oz. Bar
HerbsPro: Tea Tree Glycerine Bar Soaps, Pure & Natural, Clearly Natural Essentials, 4 oz. Bar
HerbsPro: French Lavender Glycerine Bar Soaps, Pure & Natural, Clearly Natural Essentials, 4 oz. Bar
HerbsPro: Berry Glycerine Bar Soaps, Pure & Natural, Clearly Natural Essentials, 4 oz. Bar
HerbsPro: Almond Glycerine Bar Soaps, Pure & Natural, Clearly Natural Essentials, 4 oz. Bar
HerbsPro: Aloe Vera Glycerine Bar Soaps, Pure & Natural, Clearly Natural Essentials, 4 oz. Bar, Package of 3
HerbsPro: Vitamin E Glycerine Bar Soaps, Pure & Natural, Clearly Natural Essentials, 4 oz. Bar, Package of 3
HerbsPro: Unscented Glycerine Bar Soaps, Pure & Natural, Clearly Natural Essentials, 4 oz. Bar, Package of 3
Clearly Natural Glycerine Bar Soaps not only smell wonderful, they are non-drying, hypo-allergenic, dermatologist recommended and rinse off easily. The high glycerine content of our soaps help your skin retain moisture and will not clog your pores. To keep our environment safe, Clearly Natural Glycerine Soaps do not contain parabens, petroleum-based ingredients, or animal ingredients or by-products.
HerbsPro: Unscented Liquid Glycerine Hand Soap Refill, Clearly Natural Essentials, 32 oz.
Rinses off easily; leaves no sticky film on your skin or your tub. Glycerine formula will not dry out skin. All-vegetable formula (no pore-clogging animal ingredients). Biodegradable from making it to using it, this glycerine soap doesn't harm the environment. Attractive, transparent style.
HerbsPro: Vitamin E Liquid Glycerine Hand Soap Refill, Clearly Natural Essentials, 32 oz.
HerbsPro: Aloe Vera Liquid Glycerine Hand Soap Refill, Clearly Natural Essentials, 32 oz.
Amazon: Glycerin Soap Health & Personal Care Products
Amazon: Glycerin Soap Beauty Products
Nutrition Basics: Glycerin Herbal Information Nutrition Basics: Castile Soap Information
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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