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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Vitamins
VITAMIN K


"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Vitamin K Description
  • Vitamin K Health Benefits
  • Vitamin K Uses & Scientific Evidence
  • Vitamin K Dietary Sources
  • Vitamin K Dosage Information
  • Vitamin K Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Vitamin K Supplement Products




  • Vitamin K


    VITAMIN K DESCRIPTION

    Vitamin K is needed for the production of prothrombin, which is necessary for blood clotting. It is also essential for bone formation and repair; it is necessary for the synthesis of osteocalcin, the protein in bone tissue on which calcium crystallizes. Consequently, it may help prevent osteoporosis.

    Vitamin K plays an important role in the intestines and aids in converting glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver, promoting healthy liver function. It may increase resistance to infection in children and help prevent cancers that target the inner linings of the organs. It aids in promoting longevity.

    Vitamin K - Glucose-Glycogen Pathway


    A deficiency of Vitamin K can cause abnormal and/or internal bleeding.

    TYPES OF VITAMIN K

    Vitamin K exists in three forms:
    • Vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone or phytonacetone). Phylloquinone is the natural version of K-1 and phytonadione is the synthetic type of K-1.
    • Vitamin K-2 (menaquinone. K-2 is a family of substances called menoquinones), which occur naturally.
    • Vitamin K-3 (menadione or menaphthone). K-3 is a synthetic substance.

    Vitamin K-1 is the only form available in the U.S. as a supplement. It is available as part of multivitamin complexes or alone in 5 mg tablets. Water soluble chlorophyll is the most common form of vitamin K found in over-the-counter dietary supplements. It is available in tablet, capsule and liquid forms. As with all supplements, check with a health care provider before taking vitamin K or giving it to a child. People whose bodies cannot absorb enough vitamin K, because of gallbladder or biliary disease, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, or Crohn's disease, will probably get more benefit from a multivitamin containing vitamin K than an individual vitamin K supplement. In certain circumstances, your health care practitioner may give you a vitamin K injection.

  • Vitamin K Supplement Products


  • Vitamin K Structures





    VITAMIN K HEALTH BENEFITS

    Vitamin K, often called the "forgotten vitamin". It is best known for its role in blood clotting but it also has many other essential roles in keeping your body healthy. This special fat-soluble vitamin is found in three different forms. Vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone) is found naturally in green vegetables such as collard greens, spinach, kale, salad greens, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and cabbage. Vitamin K-2 (menaquinone) is made by the bacteria that line the gastrointestinal tract and also found in fermented foods such as Natto (fermented soybeans) and Kefir (fermented raw milk). The last form of Vitamin K is a synthetic form called Vitamin K-3 or menadione. The most natural and safest forms of Vitamin K are K-1 or K-2. Here are just some of the benefits of eating your daily dose of Vitamin K.

    BLOOD CLOTTING: vitamin K is best known for its role in blood clotting. Blood clotting is essential for many things from allowing an open wound to close up to stopping and preventing nosebleeds. Signs of vitamin K deficiency related to poor blood clotting can give symptoms of heavy menstrual bleeding, easy bruising, hemorrhaging and anemia.

    OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION: Vitamin K along with calcium, Vitamin D and weight bearing exercise is essential for preventing bone loss and fractures. Vitamin K ensures healthy bones two ways, by preventing bone breakdown and by helping bones rebuild. First vitamin K blocks the formation of too many osteoclasts (cells that break bones down). The release of minerals from existing bone is essential, but we do not want too much of this activity or else we end up with osteoporosis or weakening of the bones. Vitamin K also strengthens bones by activating a protein called osteocalcin. Osteoclacin in turn acts like a glue to help hold calcium into bones. Studies have actually shown Vitamin K to be equivalent to Fosamax-type osteoporosis medications, without all the side effects.

    ARTERIAL PLAQUE & HEART DISEASE PREVENTION: Research suggests Vitamin K may prevent arteriosclerosis (or hardening of the arteries) by keeping calcium out of the arterial linings. Hardening of the arteries causes the arteries to lose their normal elasticity and can lead to high blood pressure and heart failure. Optimal levels of Vitamin K have also been shown to be helpful in preventing strokes.

    CANCER PREVENTION: Studies in leading cancer journals have shown Vitamin K to be beneficial against many types of cancer including: lung, leukemia, prostate and liver cancer.

    OXIDATIVE STRESS CELL PROTECTION: Oxidative stress has been linked to many chronic conditions including arthritis, autoimmune diseases, cancer and aging. Vitamin K-1 and Vitamin K-2, have been shown to protect cells from oxidative stress.

    BRAIN FUNCTION HEALTH: Vitamin K has been shown to be essential for the synthesis of sphingolipids (a crucial fat) that helps form the myelin sheath or outer wrapping around the nerve. These crucial fats are essential for proper brain and nervous system function. Healthy brain function is essential for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.





    VITAMIN K USES & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Vitamin K is an essential vitamin that is needed by the body for blood clotting, bone health and other important processes. Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, so your body stores it in fat tissue and the liver. Vitamin K is a vitamin found in leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. The name vitamin K comes from the German word "Koagulationsvitamin." Several forms of vitamin K are used around the world as medicine. In the U.S., Vitamin K-1 (phytonadione) is generally the preferred form of vitamin K because it is less toxic, works faster, is stronger, and works better for certain conditions.

    VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY PREVENTION & TREATMENT

    Vitamin K is also given to treat and prevent vitamin K deficiency, a condition in which the body does not have enough vitamin K. It is rare to have a vitamin K deficiency. That is because in addition to being found in leafy green foods, the bacteria in your intestines can make vitamin K. Sometimes taking antibiotics can kill the bacteria and lead to a mild deficiency, mostly in people with low levels to begin with. Vitamin K deficiency can lead to excessive bleeding, which may begi as oozing from the gums or nose. Other things that may lead to a vitamin K deficiency include health problems that can prevent your body from absorbing vitamin K, such as gallbladder or biliary disease, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, and Crohn's disease. Other health conditions include liver disease, long term hemodialysis, serious burns and taking blood-thinning medications such as warfarin (Coumadin).

    EXCESSIVE BLEEDING TREATMENT & BLEEDING RISK PREVENTION

    In the body, vitamin K plays a major role in blood clotting. So it is used to reverse the effects of blood thinning medications when too much is given; to prevent clotting problems in newborns who do not have enough vitamin K; and to treat bleeding caused by medications including salicylates, sulfonamides, quinine, quinidine, or antibiotics. Vitamin K is effective for preventing certain bleeding or blood clotting problems and reversing the effects of too much warfarin used to prevent blood clotting. Healthcare providers also give vitamin K by injection to treat clotting problems. Vitamin K is used to reduce the risk of bleeding in liver disease, conditions where your body does not absorb enough vitamin K, or if you take antibiotics for a long time.

    In the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, and many other countries, all newborns receive vitamin K injections to prevent the possibility of bleeding, particularly in the brain. Babies are born without any bacteria in their intestines and do not get enough vitamin K from breast milk to tide them over until their bodies are able to make it. Even though vitamin K deficiency in newborns is very rare, it is dangerous enough that doctors give the injections. Newborns at greatest risk for vitamin K deficiency are premature or those whose mother had to take seizure medications during pregnancy. Mothers on seizure medications are often given oral vitamin K for 2 weeks before delivery.

    OSTEOPOROSIS & BONE HEALTH

    Vitamin K is also used to prevent and treat weak bones (osteoporosis). Your body needs vitamin K to use calcium to build bone. People who have higher levels of vitamin K have greater bone density, while low levels of vitamin K have been found in those with osteoporosis. There is increasing evidence that vitamin K improves bone health and reduces risk of bone fractures, particularly in postmenopausal women who are at risk for osteoporosis. In addition, studies of male and female athletes have also found that vitamin K helps with bone health. However, some studies have found that vitamin K did not help with bone density.

    OTHER VITAMIN K USES

  • Vitamin K is used to relieve itching that often accompanies a liver disease called biliary cirrhosis.

  • People apply vitamin K to the skin to remove spider veins, bruises, scars, stretch marks, and burns. It is also used topically to treat rosacea, a skin condition that causes redness and pimples on the face.

  • After surgery, vitamin K is used to speed up skin healing and reduce bruising and swelling.

  • An increased understanding of the role of vitamin K in the body beyond blood clotting led some researchers to suggest that the recommended amounts for dietary intake of vitamin K be increased. In 2001, the National Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board increased their recommended amounts of vitamin K slightly, but refused to make larger increases. They explained there was not enough scientific evidence to make larger increases in the recommended amount of vitamin K.





    Vitamin K Foods


    VITAMIN K DIETARY SOURCES

    Vitamin K is found in some foods, including asparagus, avocado, blackstrap molasses, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, canola oil, carrot, cauliflower, cottonseed oil, dark green leafy vegetables, egg yolks, green beans, liver, looseleaf lettuce, oatmeal, oats, olive oil, peapods, rye, safflower oil, soybeans & soybean oil, spinach, strawberry, Swiss chard, and wheat.

    Herbs that can supply Vitamin K include Alfalfa, Green Tea, Kelp, Nettle, Oat Straw, and Shepherd's Purse. However, the majority of the body's supply of this vitamin is synthesized by the "friendly" bacteria normally present in the intestines.


    VITAMIN K-1 (PHYLLOQUINONE) CONTENT OF COMMON FOODS


    A.
      Fruits
    F.
      Grain Products
    K.
      Fats & Dressings
    B.
      Milk & Cheese
    G.
      Vegetables
    L.
      Desserts
    C.
      Eggs
    H.
      Snacks
    M.
      Beverages
    D.
      Legumes & Nuts
    I.
      Condiments & Sweeteners
    N.
      Infant & Junior Foods
    E.
      Meat, Poultry & Fish
    J.
      Mixed Dishes & Meals
    References


    A. FRUITS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Apple, green peel      N/A      60*
      Apple, red peel       N/A       20*
      Apple, red raw       1 medium       1.8
      Applesauce, bottled       1/2 cup       0.6
      Apricot, raw       3 medium       3.3
      Avocado, raw       1 small       14
      Banana, raw       1 medium       0.2
      Blueberries, canned       1/2 cup       6*
      Cantaloupe, raw       2/3 cup       0.4
      Cherries, sweet, raw       15 cherries       1.5
      Cranberry sauce       1/3 cup       1*
      Fruit cocktail, canned in heavy syrup       1/2 cup       2.6
      Grapefruit, raw       1/2 medium       Less than 0.01
      Grapes, red/green, seedless, raw       1 cup       8.3
      Kiwi fruit       1 1/4 medium       25*
      Lemon, fresh       2 medium       0.2*
      Orange, raw       3/4 medium       Less than 0.01
      Peach, raw       1 medium       2.1
      Pear, canned in light syrup       1/2 cup       0.2
      Pear, raw       3/4 pear       4.9
      Pineapple, canned in juice       1/3 cup, pieces       0.3
      Pineapple, fresh       1/2 cup, pieces       0.1*
      Plums, raw       1 1/2 medium       8.2
      Prunes, dried       12 prunes       1.4
      Pumpkin, canned       1/2 cup       16*
      Raisins, dried       2/3 cup       1.7
      Strawberries, raw       2/3 cup       1.5
      Watermelon, raw       2/3 cup       0.2


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    B. MILK & CHEESE


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Cheese, American processed       3.5 oz       1.6
      Cheese, cheddar       3.5 oz       2.1
      Cheese, cottage, 4% milk fat       3.5 round Tbsp.       0.4
      Cheese, cream       7 Tbsp.       2.9
      Cheese, Swiss       3.5 oz       2.8
      Cream, sour       8 Tbsp.       1*
      Milk, chocolate, fluid       3 fl oz       0.2
      Milk, evaporated, canned       3 fl oz       1.6
      Milk, low fat (2%) chocolate       3 fl oz       0.4*
      Milk, low fat (2% fat), fluid       3 fl oz       0.2
      Milk, skim, fluid       3 fl oz       0.01
      Milk, whole (dry)       3/4 cup       2*
      Milk, whole, fluid       3 fl oz       0.3
      Yogurt, fruit-flavored, low fat (fruit mixed in)       3.5 fl oz       3.0
      Yogurt, plain, low fat       3.5 fl oz       0.1


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    C. EGGS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Eggs, boiled       2 (large)       0.3
      Eggs, fried       2 (large)       6.9
      Eggs, scrambled       2 (large)       12


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    D. NUTS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Nuts, mixed, no peanuts, dry roasted       3.5 oz       13
      Peanut butter, smooth       6 Tbsp.       0.3
      Peanut, dry, roasted       3.5 oz       0.3
      Peanut, raw       3.5 oz       0.2*
      Pecan, dry       3.5 oz       10*
      Pistachio nut       3.5 oz       70*


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    E. MEAT, POULTRY, & FISH


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Albalone       3.5 oz       23*
      Beef, chuck roast, baked       3.5 oz       0.7
      Beef, ground, pan-cooked       3.5 oz       2.4
      Beef, steak, loin, pan-cooked       3.5 oz       1.8
      Bologna, sliced       4 slices       0.3
      Bream, butterfly       3.5 oz       0.2*
      Chicken breast, roasted       3.5 oz       Less than 0.01
      Chicken nuggets, fast food       5 nuggets       1.5
      Chicken, fried (breast, leg, & thigh), fast food       1 piece       1.3
      Chicken, fried (breast, leg, & thigh), homemade       1 piece       4.5
      Clam       5 large       0.2*
      Eel       3.5 oz       0.02*
      Fish sticks, frozen, heated (1 stick = 4" x 2" x 1/2")       3.5 sticks       6.8
      Frankfurters, beef, boiled       2 franks       1.8
      Haddock, pan-cooked       3.5 oz       5.2
      Ham luncheon meat, sliced       5 slices       Less than 0.01
      Ham, baked       3.5 oz       Less than 0.01
      Lamb chop, pan-cooked       3.5 oz       4.6
      Liver, beef, fried       3.5 oz       2.7
      Mackerel       3.5 oz       5*
      Octopus       3.5 oz       0.07*
      Oyster       7 medium       0.1*
      Pork bacon, pan-cooked       16 med slices       0.1
      Pork chop, pan-cooked       3.5 oz       3.1
      Pork roast, baked       3.5 oz       Less than 0.01
      Pork sausage, pan-cooked       7 1/2 links or 3 1/2 patties       3.4
      Prawn       3.5 oz       0.03*
      Salami, sliced       4 slices       1.3
      Salmon, pink       3.5 oz       0.4*
      Sardine       3.5 oz       0.09*
      Saury, Pacific       3.5 oz       0.02*
      Shrimp, boiled       N/A       Less than 0.01
      Squid       3.5 oz       0.02*
      Tuna, bluefin       3.5 oz       0.03*
      Tuna, canned in oil, drained       3.5 oz       24
      Turkey breast, roasted       3.5 oz       Less than 0.01
      Veal cutlet, pan-cooked       3.5 oz       6.6
      Yellowtail, young       3.5 oz       0.08*


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    F. GRAIN PRODUCTS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Bagel, plain       2 bagels       0.4
      Biscuit, from refrigerated dough, baked       3 1/2 biscuits       4.6
      Bread, corn, homemade       1 piece       7.4
      Bread, cracked wheat       4 slices       3.5
      Bread, rye       4 slices       3.0
      Bread, white       4 slices       1.9
      Bread, white roll       3 1/2 rolls       2.1
      Bread, whole wheat       4 slices       3.4
      Cereal, bran, raisin       3.5 oz       1.6
      Cereal, Fruit-flavored, sweetened       3.5 oz       0.2
      Cereal, granola       3.5 oz       1.8
      Cereal, oat ring       3.5 oz       0.8
      Cereal, shredded wheat       3.5 oz       1.5
      Cereal, wheat, farina, quick (1-3 min), cooked       1/2 cup       0.06
      Cereal, crisped rice       3 1/2 cups       Less than 0.01
      Corn grits, regular, cooked       1/2 cup       Less than 0.01
      Cornflakes       3.5 oz       0.03
      Crackers, graham       14 crackers       8.9
      Crackers, saltine       33 crackers       3.6
      Crackers, butter-type       28 crackers       13.1
      Egg noodles, boiled       3/4 cup       0.09
      Flour, Barley       N/A       1*
      Flour, Buckwheat       3/4 cup       7*
      Flour, Rice       2/3 cup       0.04*
      Flour, Wheat       3/4 cup       0.6*
      Macaroni, boiled       3/4 cup       0.05
      Muffin, blueberry, commercial       2 1/2 muffins       25
      Muffin, English, plain, toasted       2 muffins       0.3
      Oatmeal, quick (1-3 min), cooked       1/2 cup       0.4
      Pancakes from mix       Three 4" pancakes       6.5
      Rice cake       20 rice cakes       0.6*
      Rice, white cooked       1/2 cup       Less than 0.01
      Sesame seed, dry       11 Tbsp.       8*
      Spaghetti, dry       3.5 oz       0.2*
      Tortilla, flour      3 tortillas       3.1


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    G. VEGETABLES


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Algae, Green laver       3.5 oz       4*
      Algae, Purple laver       3.5 oz       1385*
      Algae, Konbu       N/A       66*
      Algae, Hijiki       N/A       327*
      Amaranth, raw leaf       N/A       1140*
      Artichoke, globe       1/3 medium       14*
      Asatsuki, leaf       N/A       190*
      Ashitaba, leaf       N/A       590*
      Asparagus, fresh/frozen, boiled       7 spears       80
      Basella, raw leaf       N/A       160*
      Beans, green, fresh/frozen, boiled       3/4 cup       16
      Beans, kidney, dry, boiled       1/2 cup       8.4
      Beans, lima, immature, frozen, boiled       1/2 cup       5.1
      Beans, pinto, dry, boiled       1/2 cup       3.7
      Beets, fresh/frozen, boiled       1/2 cup       1.2
      Bell tree dahlia, raw leaf       N/A       630*
      Bell tree dahlia, cooked leaf       N/A       1110*
      Broccoli, fresh/frozen, boiled       1/2 cup       113
      Brussels sprouts, fresh/frozen, boiled       5 sprouts       289
      Cabbage, fresh, boiled       2/3 cup       98
      Carrot, fresh, boiled       2/3 cup       15
      Cauliflower, fresh/frozen, boiled       1/2 cup, pieces       20
      Celery, raw       2.5 stalks       32
      Chard, Swiss, raw leaf       N/A       830*
      Chingentsuai, raw green       N/A       120*
      Chive, raw       33 Tbsp., chopped       190*
      Chrysanthemum, garland       1 cup, pieces boiled       350*
      Coleslaw with dressing, homemade       3/4 cup       100
      Collards, fresh/frozen, boiled       1/2 cup       440
      Coriander, raw leaf       6 1/4 cups       310*
      Coriander, cooked leaf       N/A       1510*
      Corn, cream style, canned       1/3 cup       0.03
      Corn, fresh/frozen, boiled       2/3 cup       0.3
      Cucumber, raw       1 cup, slices       2.2
      Eggplant, fresh, boiled       1 cup, pieces       2.9
      Endive, raw       2 cups, chopped       231*
      French fries, fast food       20 pieces       4.4
      French fries, frozen, heated       3.5 oz       7.1
      Fungi, Shitake, raw       5 mushrooms       0*
      Fungi, Shimeji       N/A       0*
      Fungi, Nameko       N/A       0*
      Kaiwaredaikon, raw leaf       N/A       80*
      Kale, raw leaf       N/A       817*
      Komatsuna, raw leaf       N/A       280*
      Leek, raw       1 cup, chopped       14*
      Lettuce, raw, heading & bib       N/A       122*
      Lettuce, red leaf       N/A       210*
      Lettuce, Iceberg, raw       5 leaves       31
      Malabar gourd, raw leaf       N/A       22*
      Mushrooms, raw       1 1/3 cups, pieces       0.06
      Okra, fresh/frozen, boiled       1/2 cup, slices       40
      Onion, green scallion, raw       2/3 cup, chopped       207*
      Onion, mature, raw       2/3 cup, chopped       0.3
      Osh, raw leaf       N/A       310*
      Parsley, raw leaf       1 1/2 cups       540*
      Parsley, cooked leaf       Chopped       900*
      Parsnip       N/A       1*
      Peas, green, fresh/frozen, boiled       1/2 cup       24
      Peas, mature, dry, boiled       2/3 cup       5
      Pepper, green, raw       1 cup, chopped       2.5
      Perilla, raw, leaf       N/A       650*
      Potato, raw       1 potato       0.8*
      Potato, white, baked with skin       1/2 potato       1.1
      Potato, white, boiled without skin       2/3 potato       0.3
      Potatoes, mashed, from flakes       1/2 cup       5.1
      Potatoes, scalloped, homemade       1/2 cup       3.3
      Purslane, raw       N/A       381*
      Radish, raw       1 cup, slices       0.4
      Roctish, raw leaf       N/A       290*
      Roctish, cooked leaf       N/A       420*
      Samat, raw leaf       N/A       350*
      Samat, cooked leaf       N/A       960*
      Sauerkraut, canned       1/2 cup       13
      Spinach, fresh/frozen, boiled       1/2 cup       360
      Squash, summer, fresh/frozen, boiled       1/2 cup, slices       4.4
      Squash, summer, peel only       N/A       80*
      Squash, winter, fresh/frozen, baked, mashed       1/2 cup       1.1
      Sweet potato, canned       1 cup       4*
      Sweet potato, fresh, baked       1 potato       2.4
      Tofu       1/2 cup       2*
      Tomato sauce, plain, bottled       1/2 cup       2.9
      Tomato, red, raw       1 tomato       3
      Tomato, stewed, canned       1/2 cup       2.4
      Toumyao (Chinese)       N/A       380*
      Turnip, fresh/frozen, boiled       3.5 oz       0.07
      Tziton, raw leaf       N/A       250*
      Vegetables, mixed, frozen, boiled       1/2 cup       19
      Watercress, raw       3 cups       250*


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    H. SNACKS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Chips, corn       3.5 oz       7.3
      Chips, potato       3.5 oz       15
      Popcorn, popped in oil       9 cups       20
      Pretzel, hard, salted, any shape       3.5 oz       2.9


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    I. CONDIMENTS & SWEETENERS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Catsup, tomato       7 Tbsp.       3.6
      Honey       5 Tbsp.       Less than 0.01
      Jelly, any flavor       5 Tbsp.       12
      Mustard, yellow       7 Tbsp.       2.2
      Olives, black       23 large       1.4
      Pickles, dill cucumber       1.5 large (3 3/4-inches long,
          1 1/4-inches diameter)
          13
      Pickles, sweet cucumber       3 large (3-inches long,
          3/4-inch diameter)
          23
      Sugar, white, granulated       1/2 cup       Less than 0.01
      Syrup, chocolate dessert topping       5 Tbsp.       0.2
      Syrup, pancake       5 Tbsp.       Less than 0.01


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    J. MIXED DISHES & MEALS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Beef chow mein, from Chinese carryout       1/3 cup       31
      Beef stew with potatoes, carrots and onion, homemade       1/3 cup       4.8
      Beef stroganoff, homemade       3.5 oz       1.7
      Cheeseburger, quarter-pound on bun, fast food       1/2 sandwich       4.1
      Chicken pot pie, frozen, heated       3.5 oz       2.7
      Chili con carne with beans, homemade       3.5 oz       4.7
      Chowder, clam, New England, canned, condensed       1/3 cup       0.3
      English muffin, egg, cheese, & ham, fast food       1 muffin       3.7
      Fish sandwich on bun, fast food       2/3 sandwich       17
      Frankfurter on bun, fast food       1 frankfurter       4.4
      Hamburger, quarter-pound on bun, fast food       2/3 sandwich       3.8
      Lasagna with meat, homemade       3.5 oz       5.3
      Macaroni & cheese, from box mix       1/3 cup       5.3
      Meatloaf, homemade       3.5 oz       12
      Peppers, green, stuffed with beef and rice, homemade       1/2 stuffed pepper       7.4
      Pizza, cheese and pepperoni, regular crust, from carryout       1/8 of 12-inch pizza       3.8
      Pizza, cheese, regular crust, from pizza carryout       1/4 of 12-inch pizza       4.2
      Pork & beans, canned       1/3 cup       1.1
      Soup, bean with bacon/pork, canned, condensed       3.5 oz       0.9
      Soup, chicken noodle, canned condensed       3.5 oz       0.1
      Soup, mushroom, canned, condensed       3.5 oz       2.0
      Soup, tomato, canned, condensed       3.5 oz       1.5
      Soup, vegetable beef, canned, condensed       3.5 oz       0.6
      Spaghetti with tomato sauce and meatballs, homemade       1/3 cup       5.7
      Spaghetti with tomato sauce, canned       1/3 cup       0.7
      Steak, Salisbury with gravy, frozen meal       3.5 oz       2.3
      Taco/tostada, from Mexican carryout       1/2 taco/tostada       16
      Tuna noodle casserole, homemade       3.5 oz       20
      Turkey with gravy, frozen meal       3.5 oz       5.3


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    K. FATS & DRESSINGS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Butter, regular (salted)       7 Tbsp.       7.0
      Cream substitute, frozen       3.5 fl oz       5.7
      Cream, sour       8 Tbsp.       1
      Gravy, brown, homemade       3.5 oz       0.3
      Half and half       7 Tbsp.       1.3
      Margarine, stick, regular       7 Tbsp.       33
      Mayonnaise, regular, bottled       7 Tbsp.       41
      Oils, Almond       7 Tbsp.       7*
      Oils, Canola (Rapeseed)       7 Tbsp.       141*
      Oils, Corn       7 Tbsp.       3*
      Oils, Olive/Safflower       7 Tbsp.       28
      Oils, Peanut       7 Tbsp.       0.7*
      Oils, Salad       7 Tbsp.       148*
      Oils, Sesame       7 Tbsp.       10*
      Oils, Soybean       7 Tbsp.       193*
      Oils, Sunflower       7 Tbsp.       9*
      Oils, Walnut       7 Tbsp.       15*
      Salad dressing, French, regular       7 Tbsp.       51
      Salad dressing, Italian, low calorie       7 Tbsp.       2.9
      Sauce, white, homemade       3.5 oz       6.9


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    L. DESSERTS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Brownies, commercial       5 brownies (3 X 1 X 7/8")       14
      Cake doughnuts with icing, any flavor       3 doughnuts       9.8
      Cake, chocolate, with chocolate icing, commercial       2 pieces       13
      Cake, snack, chocolate, with chocolate icing       3.5 oz       5.7
      Cake, yellow with white icing       1 piece       8.5
      Candy bar, milk chocolate, plain       3.5 oz       0.4
      Candy, caramel       13 pieces       1.7
      Cookies, chocolate chip, commercial       8 cookies       10
      Cookies, sandwich with creme filling, commercial       10 cookies       8.7
      Cookies, sugar, commercial       6 cookies       11
      Danish, sweet roll, commercial       2 rolls       11
      Gelatin dessert, any flavor       1/3 cup       0.02
      Ice cream, vanilla       3/4 cup       0.3
      Milkshake, chocolate, fast food       3.5 fl oz       0.2
      Pie, apple, fresh/frozen, commercial       1/8 pie       11
      Pie, pumpkin, fresh/frozen, commercial      1/8 pie       10
      Popsicle, any flavor       3.5 fl oz bar       Less than 0.01
      Pudding, chocolate, from instant mix       1/3 cup       0.4
      Sherbet, fruit flavor       1/2 cup       0.3
      Suckers, any flavor       17 lollipops       Less than 0.01


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    M. BEVERAGES


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Beer       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Coffee, decaffeinated, from instant       3.5 fl oz       0.02
      Coffee, from ground beans       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Cola, carbonated beverage       3.5 fl oz       0.02
      Cola, low-calorie, carbonated beverage       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Fruit drink, canned       3.0 fl oz       0.02
      Fruit drink, from powder       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Ginger ale, regular       3.5 fl oz       0.01*
      Ginger ale, diet       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.005*
      Juice, apple, bottled       3 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Juice, cranberry       3 fl oz       0.005*
      Juice, grape, from frozen concentrate       3 fl oz       0.4
      Juice, grapefruit, from frozen concentrate       3 fl oz       0.05
      Juice, Orange, from frozen concentrate       3 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Juice, pineapple, from frozen concentrate       3 fl oz       0.3
      Juice, prune, bottled       3 fl oz       3.4
      Juice, tomato, bottled       3.5 fl oz       2.3
      Lemonade, from frozen concentrate       3.5 fl oz       0.06
      Martini       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Sake       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.005*
      Soy milk       3.5 fl oz       3*
      Tea, Tea bag       3.5 fl oz       0.08
      Tea, Black, brewed       3.5 fl oz       0.05*
      Tea, Black, leaves (dry)       N/A       262*
      Tea, Decaffeinated, brewed       3.5 fl oz       0.03*
      Tea, Green, leaves (dry)       N/A       1428*
      Tea, Green, leaves, brewed       3.5 fl oz       0.03#
      Water, tap       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Whiskey       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Wine, dry, table       3.5 fl oz       Less than 0.01


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    N. INFANT AND JUNIOR FOODS


    FOOD NAME
    ESTIMATED PORTION SIZE
    Equivalent to 100 grams+
    MEAN VITAMIN K-1 CONTENT
    (µg/100 gm)++
      Applesauce, strained/junior       3.5 oz       1.3
      Banana with tapioca, strained/junior       3.5 oz       0.1
      Beans, green, strained/junior       3.5 oz       26
      Beef, strained/junior       3.5 oz       1.7
      Beets, strained/junior       3.5 oz       0.1
      Biscuits, teething       9 biscuits       4.5
      Carrots, strained/junior       3.5 oz       5.8
      Chicken & noodle dinner, strained/junior       3.5 oz       0.9
      Chicken, strained/junior       3.5 oz       Less than 0.01
      Corn, creamed, strained/junior       3.5 oz       0.05
      Egg yolk, strained/junior       3.5 oz       0.4
      Fruit dessert/pudding, strained junior       3.5 oz       0.5
      Juice, apple, strained       3 fl oz       0.01
      Juice, orange, strained       3 fl oz       Less than 0.01
      Macaroni, tomatoes, & beef, strained/junior       3.5 oz       1.7
      Milk-based infant formula, high iron, ready-to-feed       3.5 fl oz       12
      Milk-based infant formula, low iron, ready-to-feed       3.5 fl oz       13
      Peaches, strained/junior       3.5 oz       4.9
      Pears, strained/junior       3.5 oz       4.3
      Peas, split, with vegetables & ham/bacon, strained/junior       3.5 oz       3.0
      Peas, strained/junior       3.5 oz       17
      Pudding, custard, strained/junior       3.5 oz       Less than 0.01
      Rice cereal, strained/junior       3.5 oz       0.3
      Rice infant cereal, instant, prepared with whole milk       3.5 oz       0.3
      Soy-based infant formula, ready-to-feed       3.5 fl oz       16
      Spinach, creamed, strained/junior       3.5 oz       292
      Sweet potatoes, strained/junior       3.5 oz       1.0
      Turkey & rice, strained/junior       3.5 oz       4.2
      Vegetables & beef, strained/junior       3.5 oz       4.1
      Vegetables & chicken, strained/junior       3.5 oz       3.5
      Vegetables & ham, strained/junior       3.5 oz       1.6
      Vegetables, mixed, strained/junior       3.5 oz       7.4





    REFERENCES

  • Booth SL, Madabushi HT, Davidson KW, et al. Tea and coffee brews are not dietary sources of vitamin K-1 (Phylloquinone). J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:82-3
  • Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Pennington JAT. Phylloquinone (Vitamin K-1) content of foods in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. J Agric Food Chem 1995,43:1574-79.
  • Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Weihrauch JL, Ferland G. Vitamin K-1 (Phylloquinone) content of foods: A provisional table. J Food Comp Anal 1993;6:109-20
  • Pennington JA, Church HN: Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 16th Edition, J.P. Lippincott Company, 1994.
  • +

    Calculated based on estimated portions to equal 100 gm from Pennington JA, Church HN: Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 16th Edition, J.P. Lippincott Company, 1994.
     
    ++

    Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Pennington JAT. Phylloquinone (Vitamin K-1) content of foods in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. J Agric Food Chem 1995,43:1574-79.
     
    *

    Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Weihrauch JL, Ferland G. Vitamin K-1 (Phylloquinone) content of foods: A provisional table. J Food Comp Anal 1993;6:109-20.
     
    #

    Booth SL, Madabushi HT, Davidson KW, et al. Tea and coffee brews are not dietary sources of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone). J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:82-3
     
    N/A

    Not available


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    VITAMIN K DOSAGE INFORMATION

    Antibiotics increase the need for dietary or supplemental Vitamin K. Because vitamin K is synthesized by bacteria in the intestines, taking antibiotics - which kill the bacteria - interfere with this process. Antibiotics also interfere with the absorption of vitamin K.

    Taking supplemental doses of Vitamin K may prevent, or correct deficiencies caused by, or be helpful with atherosclerosis, capillary fragility (bruising), Celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Osteoporosis, and ulcerative colitis. Vitamin K is prescribed by health care providers when treating an overdose of the drug Warfarin, and to prevent excessive bleeding in people taking Warfarin who require surgery.

    The standard dietary allowance for Vitamin K is about 1 mcg per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day or about 65 to 80 mcg per day for most adults and can usually be achieved by consuming adequate amounts of leafy green vegetables. The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

    BY MOUTH

  • For bleeding disorders such as hypoprothrombinemia: 2.5 to 25 mg of vitamin K-1 (phytonadione).

  • For counteracting bleeding that can occur when too much of the anticoagulant warfarin is given: 1 to 5 mg of vitamin K is typically used; however, the exact dose needed is determined by a lab test called the INR.

  • There is not enough scientific information to determine recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for vitamin K, so daily adequate intake (AI) recommendations have been formed instead: The AIs are:

    VITAMIN K ADEQUATE INTAKE (AI) RECOMMENDATIONS

    LIFE STAGE
    DOSAGE
    Infants: 0 to 6 Months
    2 mcg
    Infants: 6 to 12 Months
    2.5 mcg
    Children: 1 to 3 Years
    30 mcg
    Children: 4 to 8 Years
    55 mcg
    Children: 9 to 13 Years
    60 mcg
    Adolescents: 14 to 18 Years
    (Includes Pregnant or Breastfeeding Teens)
    75 mcg
    Men: Over 19 Years
    120 mcg
    Women: Over 19 Years
    (Includes Pregnant or Breastfeeding Women)
    90 mcg





    VITAMIN K SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    Vitamin K is safe for most people. Most people do not experience any side effects when taking in the recommended amount each day. There are no known side effects or interactions with foods; however, Menadione, the synthetic form, is somewhat toxic in large amounts. Megadoses of this vitamin can accumulate in the body and cause flushing and sweating. Because of potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

    DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Coenzyme Q-10: Coenzyme Q-10 is chemically similar to vitamin K and, like vitamin K, can promote blood clotting. Using these two products together can promote blood clotting more than using just one. This combination can be a problem for people who are taking warfarin to slow blood clotting. Coenzyme Q-10 plus vitamin K might overwhelm the effects of warfarin and could allow the blood to clot.

    Tiratricol: There is a concern that tiratricol might interfere with vitamin K's role in blood clotting.

    Vitamin A: In animals, high doses of vitamin A interfere with vitamin K's ability to clot blood. But it is not known if this also happens in people.

    Vitamin E: High doses of vitamin E (e.g. greater than 800 units/day) can make vitamin K less effective in clotting blood. In people who are taking warfarin to keep their blood from clotting, or in people who have low vitamin K intakes, high doses of vitamin E can increase the risk of bleeding.

    HEALTH CONDITIONS

    Pregnancy & Breast-feeding: When taken in the recommended amount each day, vitamin K is considered safe for pregnant and breast-feeding women, but do not use higher amounts without the advice of your healthcare professional or midwife. Vitamin K crosses the placenta and is also found in breast milk. Do not take large doses of synthetic vitamin K during the last few weeks of pregnancy. It can result in a toxic reaction in the newborn.

    G6PD Metabolic Disorder: People with a rare metabolic condition called Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficienc should avoid vitamin K.

    Kidney disease: Too much vitamin K can be harmful if you are receiving dialysis treatments due to kidney disease.

    Liver disease: Vitamin K is not effective for treating clotting problems caused by severe liver disease. In fact, high doses of vitamin K can make clotting problems worse in these people.

    MEDICATIONS

    Antibiotic Interactions: Antibiotics, especially those known as cephalosporins, reduce the absorption of vitamin K in the body. Using them for more than 10 days may lower levels of vitamin K. People who already have low levels of vitamin K, such as those who are malnourished, elderly, or taking warfarin (Coumadin) are at greater risk. Cephalosporins include:
    • Cefamandole (Mandol)
    • Cefoperazone (Cefobid)
    • Cefmetazole (Zefazone)
    • Cefotetan (Cefotan)

    Phenytoin (Dilantin); Phenytoin interferes with the body's ability to use vitamin K. Taking anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, during pregnancy or while breastfeeding may lower vitamin K in newborns.

    Warfarin Medication: If you are on blood thinner medication, consult with your health care provider before taking any Vitamin K supplements. Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with vitamin K. Vitamin K blocks the effects of blood-thinning medication warfarin, so that it does not work. There is a major interaction, so do not take this combination. Vitamin K is used by the body to help blood clot. Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. By helping the blood clot, vitamin K might decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed. You should not eat foods containing high amounts of vitamin K, while you are taking warfarin.

    Orlistat (Xenical, Alli) & Olestra: Orlistat, a medication used for weight loss, and olestra, a substance added to some foods, lowers the amount of fat you body can absorb. Because vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, these medications may also lower levels of vitamin K. The Food and Drug Administration now requires that vitamin K and other fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) be added to food products containing olestra. Health care providers who prescribe orlistat usually recommend taking a multivitamin with these vitamins. If you should not be taking vitamin K, then you should avoid foods that contain olestra.

    Cholesterol-Lowering Medications: Bile acid sequestrants, used to reduce cholesterol, reduce how much fat your body absorbs and may also reduce absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. If you take one of these drugs, your health care provider may recommend a vitamin K supplement:
    • Cholestyramine (Questran)
    • Colestipol (Colestid)
    • Colsevelam (Welchol)

    Supporting Research
    Booth SL, Al Rajabi A. Determinants of vitamin K status in humans. Vitam Horm. 2008;78:1-22.
    Borrelli F, Ernst E. Alternative and complementary therapies for the menopause. Maturitas. 2010 Aug;66(4):333-43. Review.
    Breen GA, St. Peter WL. Hypoprothrombinemia associated with cefmetazole. Ann Pharmacother. 1997;31(2):180-184.
    Bugel S. Vitamin K and bone health in adult humans. Vitam Horm. 2008;78:393-416.
    Crowther MA, Julian J, McCarty D, et al. Treatment of warfarin-associated coagulopathy with oral vitamin K: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2000;356(9241):1551-1553.
    Dennehy C, Tsourounis C. A review of select vitamins and minerals used by postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2010 Aug;66(4):370-80. Review.
    Goldman L, Ausiello D. Cecil Medicine, 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier. 2007;181.
    Kitchin B, Morgan SL. Not just calcium and vitamin D: other nutritional considerations in osteoporosis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2007 Apr;9(1):85-92. Review.
    McCormick RK. Osteoporosis: integrating biomarkers and other diagnostic correlates into the management of bone fragility. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Jun;12(2):113-45. Review.
    Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15(3):515-523.
    Thornquist MD, Kristal AR, Patterson RE, et al. Olestra consumption does not predict serum concentrations of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in free-living humans: early results from the sentinel site of the olestra post-marketing surveillance study. J Nutr. 2000;130(7):1711-1718.
    Tucker KL. Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2009 Dec;7(4):111-7. Review.
    Whitlock RP, Crowther MA, Warkentin TE, Blackall MH, Farrokhyar F, Teoh KH. Warfarin cessation before cardiopulmonary bypass: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of oral vitamin K. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007 Jul;84(1):103-8.
    Wilson DC, Rashid M, Durie PR, et al. Treatment of vitamin K deficiency in cystic fibrosis: effectiveness of a daily fat-soluble vitamin combination. J Pediatr. 2001;138(6):851-855.





    Vitamin K Supplement Capsules


    VITAMIN K SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

  • Chlorophyll Supplement Products

  • Vitamin K Supplement Products


  • QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS


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    VITAMIN K SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Humans get most of their vitamin K from green vegetables in the form of vitamin K-1. The problem is that K-1 is tightly bound to plant fiber and only a small fraction absorbs into the bloodstream. Vitamin K-2 (menaquinones) is found in meat, eggs, and dairy products and is also made by bacteria in the human gut, which provides a certain amount of the human vitamin K requirement. Human studies show that vitamin K-2 is up to ten times more bioavailable than K-1. Vitamin K-2 remains biologically active in the body far longer than K-1. For instance, K-1 is rapidly cleared by the liver within eight hours, whereas measurable levels of K-2 (MK-7) have been detected 72 hours after ingestion.Vitamin K-1 is the form found in plants and vegetables and should be part of most peoples daily supplement regimen. Even more important is inclusion of the MK-4 and MK-7 forms of vitamin K-2. Based on data substantiating the long-acting effects of MK-7, it is now possible to ingest fewer total micrograms of vitamin K but achieve far higher sustained blood levels of this critical nutrient. A typical supplement dosage is about 100 mcg Vitamin K from naturals sources such as alfalfa or green leafy vegetables.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Vitamin K-2, Source Naturals, 30 Tabs (70102)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K-2, Source Naturals, 60 Tabs (70103)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin D & K With Sea-Iodine, Life Extension, 60 Caps (109038)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K-2 Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), Low Dose, Life Extension, 90 Softgels (91932)
    HerbsPro: Bone Restore With Vitamin K-2, Life Extension, 120 Caps (109054)
    HerbsPro: Natural Vitamin K-2 Featuring MenaQ7, Doctors Best, 45 mcg, 60 VCaps (77526)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin D-3 & K-2, Now Foods, 45 mcg, 120 VCaps (75313)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K-2 Plus, FoodScience of Vermont, 50 mcg, 60 Caps (74959)
    HerbsPro: MK-7 (Vitamin K-2) NattooMax Extract, Jarrow Formulas, 90 mcg, 60 Softgels
    Jarrow Formulas NattoMax is an extract from genetically unmodified (non-GMO) soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilus natto. MK-7 is concentrated without solvents. MK-7 (Menaquinone-7) is an enhanced bioactive form of vitamin K-2, also known as Menaquinones. MK-7 from Natto is ten times better absorbed than K-1 from spinach. While vitamin K-1 is primarily absorbed by the liver, MK-7 is absorbed in extrahepatic tissues, such as the arterial wall, pancreas, and testes. Vitamin K functions primarily as a co-factor for the enzyme gamma-glutamyl-carboxylase, responsible for carboxylation of specific bone proteins. Each softgel of MK-7 offers the amount of menaquinone-7 (MK-7) found in 120 grams of cheese.
    HerbsPro: Natural Vitamin K-2 (MK-7), Solgar, 100 mcg, 50 VCaps (100281)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K-2 (MK-7), Now Foods, 100 mcg, 60 VCaps (91418)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K-2, Now Foods, 100 mcg, 100 VCaps (74467)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K-1, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 100 mcg, 100 Caplets (100631)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K-1, Country Life, 100 mcg, 100 Tabs (37588)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K Triple Play, Futurebiotics, 550 mcg, 60 Caps (94783)
    Vitamin K Triple Play provides a total of 550 mcg of Vitamin K from both Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2 sources. Vitamin K is a set of structurally-similar fat-soluble vitamins. This collection of vitamins includes two vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. While both vitamers support health benefits, vitamin K2 has been shown to be more bioavailable and remain biologically active in the body longer than vitamin K1. Vitamin K1 can be found in leafy green foods. Chlorophyll is the substance in the leafy green foods that provides vitamin K and gives the plants their color. Vitamin K2 can be found in meat and dairy products. Vitamin K Triple Play is a full spectrum complex providing multiple forms of vitamin K. In addition to delivering vitamin K1, Vitamin K Triple Play supplies two different forms of vitamin K2: Menatetrenone-4 (MK-4) and Menaquinone-7 (MK-7).
    HerbsPro: K-1 Phylloquinone, Natures Life, 1000 mcg, 50 VCaps (89582)
    HerbsPro: Super K With Advanced K-2 Complex, Life Extension, 2100 mcg, 90 Softgels (109060)
    Super K formula provides vitamin K-1 and the MK-4 and MK-7 forms of vitamin K-2 in just one daily softgel. The virtue of this formula is that it provides the precise amount of the long-acting MK-7 form of vitamin K-2 that recent human studies have shown provides optimal K-2 levels over a 24-hour period. The MK-4 is included to provide the rapid increase in vitamin K blood levels that may account for its beneficial effects in certain studies. The Rotterdam Heart Study, a large-scale, well-controlled clinical trial that tracked 4,800 participants for seven years, revealed that participants who ingested the greatest quantities of vitamin K-2 in their diet experienced a better cardiovascular condition than people who ingested the least. High intakes of vitamin K-2 also corresponded to less calcium deposition in the aorta, whereas participants who ingested less K-2 were more likely to show moderate or severe calcification. Animal studies suggest vitamin K intake not only blocks the progress of further calcium accumulation, but also induces 37% regression of preformed arterial calcification.
    HerbsPro: Full Spectrum Vitamin K, Nutricology-Allergy Research Group, 4050 mcg, 90 Softgels (66975)
    HerbsPro: K-2 Menatetrenone, Natures Life, 5000 mcg, 60 Tabs (89619)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin D-3 & K-2 Liposomal Spray, Now Foods, 1000 IU/100 mcg, 2 fl. oz. (84909)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K Healing Cream, Life Extension, 1 oz. (92027)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin K Cream, Reviva, 1.5 oz. (18982)


    LIFE EXTENSION PRODUCTS

    LEF: Super K with Advanced K2 Complex, Life Extension, 90 Softgels
    Vitamin K-1 is the form found in plants and vegetables and should be part of most people's daily supplement regimen. Even more important is inclusion of the MK-4 and MK-7 forms of vitamin K-2. Based on data substantiating the long-acting effects of MK-7, it is now possible to ingest fewer total micrograms of vitamin K but achieve far higher sustained blood levels of this critical nutrient. The latest Super K with Advanced K-2 Complex formula provides vitamin K-1 and the MK-4 and MK-7 forms of vitamin K-2 in just one daily softgel. The virtue of this formula is that it provides the precise amount of the long-acting MK-7 form of vitamin K-2 that recent human studies have shown provides optimal K-2 levels over a 24-hour period. The MK-4 is included to provide the rapid increase in vitamin K blood levels that may account for its beneficial effects in certain studies.
    LEF: Vitamins D & K With Sea-Iodine, Life Extension, 60 Capsules
    Vitamin K can be found in small amounts in the diet, but obtaining the desired higher potencies requires supplementation. Many Life Extension members obtain optimal potencies of long-acting vitamin K in the Super Booster or Super K formulations. An increasing number of new members, however, are asking for high-potency vitamin D, but are not taking any supplemental vitamin K. To directly address this problem, Life Extension has put together a formula called Vitamins D & K with Sea-Iodine. Like vitamins D and K, few Americans obtain optimal amounts of iodine. As people seek to limit their salt intake, this deficit is exacerbated since iodized salt is the principal source of this mineral in many diets. The issue of iodine insufficiency is expected to receive more media attention as new studies uncover the problems this creates. Sea-Iodine is included in this formula to provide iodine without the harmful effects of sodium.


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Vitamin K, Thompson Nutritional, 100 mcg 30 capsules: K
    Vitamin K helps to prevent excessive bleeding and promote strong bones. A number of other health benefits are currently being researched. Vitamin K supplements may interfere with the actions of medications that thin the blood such as enoxaparin, warfarin, and aspirin (when taken long-term for its blood-thinning effect).
    Kalyx: Full Spectrum Vitamin K, Nutricology, 90 Softgels: HF
    A comprehensive vitamin K formula contains K-1 and vitamin K-2 with other fat-soluble antioxidant cofactors, such as vitamins A, D and E (as gamma and delta-tocotrienols).
    Kalyx: Full Spectrum Vitamin K, Nutricology, 90 Softgels: N
    A comprehensive vitamin K formula contains K-1 and vitamin K-2 with other fat-soluble antioxidant cofactors, such as vitamins A, D and E (as gamma and delta-tocotrienols).
    Kalyx: Vitamin K Bruise Cream, Reviva Labs, 1.5 oz.: K
    Helps Fade & Clear Bruises. For All Skin Types. Recent research has proven that vitamin K, in the proper formulation, can dramatically minimize the bruised or reddened look. This special formula helps fade and clear bruises; helps improve appearance of broken capillaries, spider veins, rosacea, and any reddened, irritated areas on face. Also useful prior to facial surgery (use two weeks prior) and after surgery.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Vitamin K Skin Care Products
    Amazon: Vitamin K-1 Supplement Products
    Amazon: Vitamin K-2 Supplement Products
    Amazon: Vitamin K Complex Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Vitamin K Supplement Information



  • CHLOROPHYLL SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Chlorophyll aids in cleansing the blood, preventing infections and supplies needed nutrients. Alfalfa, Wheat Grass, Barley and other greens contain chlorophyll, which aids in detoxifying the body. It is helpful in digestion and cleansing the breath. Chlorophyll is a good source of vitamin K.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Liquid, Jason Winters, 1 fl. oz. (35097)
    Chlorophyll has been called the "blood of plants." It is responsible for one of nature's greatest feats, which is harnessing solar energy and converting it into plant nutrition. In the human body, it performs even more wonders: It enhances the functioning of all tissues and organs and generally perks up basic metabolism. Cell growth is heightened. Heart and hermatogenic action and dilation of distal blood vessels are stimulated. Even Hemoglobin building elements in the blood, vital to proper delivery of cell nutrition in the body, get a boost. Chlorophyll has also been shown to act against bacteria growth thus minimizing infections. It is anti-allergenic, a fast healing stimulant for gastric ulcers and hyper-acidity, and a lot more.
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll, World Organics, 100 mg, 4 oz. (73233)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Mint Liquid, Bernard Jensen Products, 8 fl. oz. (24450)
    Bernard Jensen's Chlorophyll extracted from alfalfa. A food supplement to be added to regular diet. An Isontonic solution supplying per 15ml (approx. 1 tablespoon) 70mg of pure water soluble chlorophyllins. Chlorophyll with mint is a mineral rich supplement, which has been suggested to assist with tissue repair, blood purification, red blood cell building, tissue healing, and internal deodorizing with a refreshing peppermint flavor.
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Natural Liquid, Bernard Jensen Products, 8 fl. oz. (49683)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Liquid, DeSouza, 8 fl. oz. (83474)
    This product contains a legendary alfalfa-derived Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin, the water-soluble form of chlorophyll. Uniquely, our liquid chlorophyll contains NO preservatives nor flavorings. For your additional protection, our alfalfa is grown in a pesticide-free environment. DeSouza's Liquid Chlorophyll is a versatile product that can be taken either as a dietary supplement or used as a mouthwash and breath freshener.
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Liquid, World Organics, 100 mg, 8 fl. oz. (20233)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Mint Liquid, Bernard Jensen Products, 16 fl. oz. (24444)
    Bernard Jensen's Chlorophyll extracted from alfalfa. A food supplement to be added to regular diet. An Isontonic solution supplying per 15ml (approx. 1 tablespoon) 70mg of pure water soluble chlorophyllins. Chlorophyll with mint is a mineral rich supplement, which has been suggested to assist with tissue repair, blood purification, red blood cell building, tissue healing, and internal deodorizing with a refreshing peppermint flavor.
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Natural Liquid, Bernard Jensen Products, 16 fl. oz. (49684)
    Liquid Chlorophyll extracted from Alfalfa. A food supplement to be added to regular diet. An Isontonic solution supplying per 15ml (approx. 1 tablespoon) 70mg of pure water soluble chlorophillins. Liquid Chlorophyll is a mineral rich supplement, which has been suggested to assist with tissue repair, blood purification, red blood cell building, tissue healing, and internal deodorizing.
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll & Mint Liquid, Now Foods, 16 fl. oz. (67942)
    Chlorophyll is a unique substance found in all plant life. It is the pigment that gives plants their characteristic green color. Chlorophyll also absorbs light necessary for photosynthesis, which sustains plant life through the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Identified as sodium copper chlorophyllin, this water-soluble extract is derived exclusively from Alfalfa through a natural extraction process. Now's Triple Strength product delivers 94 servings vs. only 30 for most other liquid chlorophyll products, offering you a tremendous value.
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Liquid, 100% Pure, DeSouza, 16 fl. oz. (72663)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll With Peppermint Liquid, World Organics, 50 mg, 16 fl. oz. (20235)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Liquid, World Organics, 100 mg, 16 fl. oz. (20232)
    Chlorophyll is a mineral rich supplement which has been suggested to assist in tissue repair, purifies the blood, help the liver build red blood cells, natural internal deodorizer and tissue healer. Each tablespoon (15 cc) contains a concentrated solution of 100 mg of pure Chlorophyllins derived from alfalfa with certified organically grown alfalfa. Chlorophyll is a natural fat soluble nutrient which World Organics makes water dispersible for better absorption. Also look for World Organics Chlorophyll in convenient hard shell and soft gelatin capsules.
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll With Spearmint & Glycerin Liquid, World Organics, 100 mg, 16 fl. oz. (20234)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll, World Organics, 60 mg, 50 Caps (20226)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll, World Organics, 60 mg, 100 Caps (20225)
    HerbsPro: Mega Chlorophyll, World Organics, 100 mg, 60 Caps (20243)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll, Now Foods, 100 mg, 90 Caps (67941)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyllin, Life Extension, 100 mg, 100 VCaps (106788)
    Chlorophyllin has been shown to have DNA-protective and antioxidant properties, inhibiting DNA adduction. Chlorophyllin also quenches all major oxygen species and acts to protect mitochondria. Chlorophyllin also has a role in preventing unavoidable dietary exposure to aflatoxin, a naturally occurring mycotoxin, by reducing its oral bioavailability.
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Tabs, Bernard Jensen Products, 100 Tabs (49685)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Tabs, Peppermint Flavor, Ennds, 100 Tabs (96955)
    HerbsPro: Chlorophyll Tabs, Bernard Jensen Products, 200 Tabs (49690)
    Bernard Jensen's Chlorophyll. Dietary Supplement. For use as a contributory source of the desirable nutrients of chlorophyll to the daily diet. Chlorophyll is a mineral rich supplement which has been suggested to assist in tissue repair, purifies the blood, help the liver build red blood cells, natural internal deodorizer and tissue healer.
    HerbsPro: Papaya Enzyme With Chlorophyll, American Health, 100 Chewable Tabs (13656)
    HerbsPro: Papaya Enzyme With Chlorophyll, American Health, 250 Chewable Tabs (13657)
    HerbsPro: Papaya Enzyme With Chlorophyll, American Health, 600 Chewable Tabs (13655)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Chlorophyll Liquid, Mint Flavor, Bernard Jensen, 8 fl oz: HF
    Bernard Jensen's chlorophyll extracted from alfalfa. A food supplement to be added to regular diet. An Isontonic solution supplying per 15 ml (approx. 1 tablespoon) 70 mg of pure water soluble chlorophyllins. chlorophyll with mint is a mineral rich supplement, which has been suggested to assist with tissue repair, blood purification, red blood cell building, tissue healing, and internal deodorizing with a refreshing peppermint flavor.
    Kalyx: Chlorofresh Liquid Chlorophyll, Natural, Nature's Way, 16 fl oz: HF
    Internal Deodorant Premium Source Safe, Effective and Easy-to-Use No Artificial Colors or Preservatives Chlorofresh is a liquid chlorophyll complex extracted from premium alfalfa leaves that reduces digestive tract odors from a colostomy or ileostomy, as well as fecal odor from incontinence. Health and longevity through the healing power of nature-that's what is means to Trust the Leaf. Free Of Artificial coloring, preservatives.
    Kalyx: Liquid Chlorophyll, Dynamic Health, 100 mg, 16 fl oz: HF
    100 mg Per Serving. Dynamic Health Laboratories, Inc.'s Liquid Chlorophyll is sourced from the leaves of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Mulberry (Morus alba L.) plants. Chlorophyll is the green pigment of plants that is similar in structure to hemoglobin, a pigment in human blood. Our liquid chlorophyll is a nutritional goldmine of minerals and antioxidants traditionally used to detoxify and internally cleanse the body. It is an effective deodorant and mouth wash that is a natural and safe choice! Liquid Dietary Supplements are easier to swallow and digest than hard tablets, grainy chewables, or chalky powders. Free Of Preservatives, artificial color or artificial flavor.
    Kalyx: Chlorophyll, Bernard Jensen, 100 Tabs: HF
    Chlorophyll tabs is a mineral rich supplement, which has been suggested to assist with tissue repair, blood purification, red blood cell building, tissue healing, and internal deodorizing. For use as a contributory source of the desirable nutrients of chlorophyll to the daily diet.
    Kalyx: Chlorophyll, Bernard Jensen, 200 Tabs: HF
    Chlorophyll tabs is a mineral rich supplement, which has been suggested to assist with tissue repair, blood purification, red blood cell building, tissue healing, and internal deodorizing. For use as a contributory source of the desirable nutrients of chlorophyll to the daily diet.
    Kalyx: Papaya Enzyme with Chlorophyll, American Health, 100 Chewable Tabs: K
    Kalyx: Papaya Enzyme with Chlorophyll, American Health, 250 Chewable Tabs: K
    Kalyx: Papaya Enzyme with Chlorophyll, American Health, 600 Chewable Tabs: K
    Papaya helps to break down proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Papaya is primarily used to treat chronic diarrhea, celiac disease, gastrointestinal discomforts, intestinal parasites, used as a sedative and diuretic, fights allergies, infections, inflammations, treats soft tissue injuries, strains, sprains, hematomas, contusions, abrasions, and pulled muscles. These tablets are made from 100% natural ingredients including: ripe papaya, papain (a papaya enzyme), protease and alpha-amylase. Now with Chlorophyll. Sweetened with sucrose, date powder, fructose. The "after meal" supplement.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Chlorophyll Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Chlorophyll Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Alfalfa Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Barley Grass Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Chlorella Green Algae Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Greens Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Wheatgrass Herbal Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

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    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
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  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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