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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics


(Pantothenic Acid / Pantethine)

"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.

  • Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid / Pantethine) Description
  • Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid / Pantethine) Health Benefits
  • Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid / Pantethine) Uses & Scientific Evidence
  • Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid / Pantethine) Dietary Sources
  • Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid / Pantethine) Dosage Information
  • Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid / Pantethine) Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid / Pantethine) Supplement Products

  • Vitamin B-5


    Vitamin B-5, also known as Pantothenic acid of Pantothenate, is a water-soluble and important nutrient for the synthesization and metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Small amounts of Pantothenic Acid are found in almost all foods with varying higher amounts in certain foods such as legumes, whole grains and eggs, Pantothenic acid is also a common ingredient found in various hair and skin products.

    Known as the anti-stress vitamin, Vitamin B-5 plays a role in the production of the adrenal hormones and the formation of antibodies. This vitamin aids in vitamin utilization, and helps to convert fats, carbohydrates, and proteins into energy. It is required by all cells in the body and it is found in high concentrations in the organs. It is also involved in the production of neurotransmitters. This vitamin produces numerous enzymes and helps maintain precise communication between the central nervous system and the brain. This vitamin is an essential element of coenzyme A, a vital body chemical involved in many necessary metabolic functions. Pantothenic Acid is also a stamina enhancer and prevents certain forms of anemia. It is needed for normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and may be helpful in treating depression and anxiety. It is used in the treatment of hair loss, acne, allergies, ADHD, heart disease, asthma, celiac diseae, premature aging, colds, shingles, skin disorders, mouth ulcers, chronic fatigue syndrome, and t he prevention of mental and physical stress and anxiety. Pantothenic acid can also protect against vertigo and assist with the healing of wounds. Pantothenic acid can improve low blood pressure, insomnia, hypoglycemia, alcoholism, cramps during pregnancy, obesity, athletic performance, muscular dystrophy, neuralgia and multiple sclerosis.


    Extremely important in the balance and regulation of hormones as well as wound healing, Vitamin B-5 can help prevent and treat certain types of acne and skin infections and ailments. Pantothenic acid can prevent and treat hair loss as well as maintaining the color condition of hair as well as reducing pore size in the skin. Vitamin B-5 acts as a conditioner for the skin and hair, moisturizing, rejuvenating and healing both.

    Vitamin B-5 Structures


    Pantothenic Acid comes in two forms: calcium pantothenate and pantethine. The former is widely used for treating ailments from stress to heartburn, while pantethine is mainly recommended for lowering blood cholesterol levels in those who do not respond to other natural treatments. Many multivitamin and vitamin B-complex supplements contain pantothenic acid.


    A deficiency of Pantothenic Acid is quite rare in humans because a large number of foods contain this vitamin (in fact, the name is derived from the Greek pantos, meaning everywhere. Even so, a supplement may be needed to get the higher doses of Pantothenic Acid recommended for the treatment of specific ailments. A deficiency of Pantothenic Acid may cause fatigue, headache, nausea, and tingling in the hands. Pantothenic Acid deficiency as not been studied too thoroughly because of its unlikely and rare occurrance, but in the few cases in which deficiency has been shown, when Pantothenic Acid is returned to the patient's diet, all symptoms may be reversed. Symptoms of deficienc include fatigue, irritability, numbness, muscle cramps and hypoglycemia among others.


    Vitamin B-5, also called pantothenic acid, is one of eight B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is used to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B-complex vitamins, also help the body use fats and protein. B complex vitamins are needed for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly. All B vitamins are water-soluble, meaning that the body does not store them. It is rare for anyone to be deficient in vitamin B-5. Symptoms of a vitamin B-5 deficiency may include fatigue, insomnia, depression, irritability, vomiting, stomach pains, burning feet, and upper respiratory infections.

    In addition to playing a role in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy, vitamin B-5 is critical to the manufacture of red blood cells, as well as sex and stress-related hormones produced in the adrenal glands, small glands that sit atop the kidneys. Vitamin B-5 is also important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract, and it helps the body use other vitamins, particularly Vitamin B-2 or Riboflavin. It is sometimes called the "anti-stress" vitamin, but there is no real evidence whether it helps the body withstand stress. Vitamin B-5 is often found with other B vitamins in anti-stress supplement formulas. Vitamin B-5 work closely with the adrenal gland, which produces stress hormones. Pantothenic acid supports the adrenal gland, renewing its supply of stress hormones and generally and keeping the gland in optimal health.

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: Some early evidence suggests that pantothenic acid might help with symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the evidence is weak. Rheumatoid arthritis sufferers are often low in pantothenic acid, lower than healthy people, and the lowest levels were associated with the mores severe symptoms. This leads many to believe that the vitamin has a place in the treatment of this disease. A small study conducted in 1980 concluded that 2,000 mg (2 grams) per day of calcium pantothenate improved symptoms of RA, including morning stiffness and lessened arthritis pain for many participants. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  • High Cholesterol & High Triglycerides: Your body needs pantothenic acid to synthesize cholesterol. A derivative of pantothenic acid called pantethine is being studied to see if it may help lower cholesterol levels in the body. Pantethine may be helpful for lowering blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Several small, double-blind studies suggest that pantethine may help reduce triglycerides, or fats, in the blood in people who have high cholesterol. In some of these studies, pantethine has also helped lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol. In some open studies, pantethine seems to lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in people with diabetes. At a dosage of 300 mg taken three times a day, it raised "good" HDL cholesterol levels while significantly lowering "bad" LDL cholesterol levels. It helps the body use fat more efficiently and puts the brakes on cholesterol synthesis. People with diabetes and high cholesterol levels have benefited from pantethine supplementation too. Although studies have shown not everyone is helped by pantethine therapy, it does seem to work for some.

  • Wound Healing: Studies, mostly in test tubes and animals but a few on people, suggest that vitamin B-5 supplements may speed wound healing, especially following surgery. This may be particularly true if vitamin B-5 is combined with Vitamin C.

  • Gray Hair: At one time there was speculation that vitamin B-5 might keep hair from turning gray because the hair of laboratory rats turned gray when they were made deficient in this vitamin. This was only speculation; pantothenic acid has no such effect in humans.


  • Manage stress from psychological strain, migraines, chronic fatigue syndrome, and smoking and alcohol cessation. The body relies on Pantothenic Acid to help the adrenal glands produce stress hormones during times of both psychological and physical strain. This property makes it potentially useful for dealing with emotional upset, depression, anxiety, migraines, chronic fatigue, and withdrawal from alcohol or tobacco. It is commonly taken as part of a Vitamin B-Complex supplement for these purposes. In addition, pantothenic acid may reduce the occurrence of migraines by participating in the production of the brain chemical serotonin; some research indicates that serotonin is present at abnormally low levels in migraine sufferers.

  • Combat heartburn. The discomforts of heartburn may be soothed by Pantothenic Acid, particularly when it is combined with two other B vitamins - Choline and Thiamine (Vitamin B-1).

  • Reduce certain allergy symptoms and asthmatic reactions. Allergy sufferers may find Pantothenic Acid beneficial for controlling the nasal congestion that can develop during an allergic reaction. The vitamin is a smart choice during allergy season, when it can be safely taken along with more conventional remedies. An asthmatic response initiated by seasonal allergies may similarly improve with Pantothenic Acid.

  • Control cholesterol levels. The body converts Pantothenic Acid into a chemical called pantethine. When taken as a supplement, pantethine appears to lower the amount of lipids in the blood. A person with high cholesterol may see their level of total of cholesterol - including LDL ("bad") cholesterol - while at the same time increasing HDL ("good") cholesterol levels.

  • Note: Pantothenic Acid has also been found to be useful for a number of other disorders. Pantothenic Acid increases stamina and can prevent certain forms of anemia. It keeps the gastrointestinal tract functioning properly. This vitamin supplement also has been used to treat depression and anxiety.

    The body produces coenzyme A from three different components: adenosine triphosphate, cysteine, and Vitamin B-5. Adenosine triphosplate and cysteine are naturally produced within the body through various glands. They are always plentiful so long as the body's not terribly malnourished. Vitamin B-5 is the only one that must be supplied from outside the body through one's diet. When there is enough B-5 available in the diet, the deficiency in coenzyme A is eliminated. As a result, a person's fatty acids get broken down helping to reduce the release of oil in the skin. Without the over releasing of oil, acne is reduced. If fats that should have been broken down are not, they are re-circulated into the bloodstream and become deposited in the sebaceous glands (sweat glands) and secreted as oil. Oil is fat only in liquid form. Because teenagers have the highest hormone production rate, they are also the group with the highest amounts of acne.

    For information on these additional ailments, see the Dosage Recommendations Chart for Pantothenic Acid.

    Vitamin B-5 Foods


    A deficiency of vitamin B-5 is extremely unlikely in someone who eats an ordinary diet. Symptoms of deficiency, such as leg cramps and insomnia, have occurred only in test settings. The RDA for vitamin B-5 is 5 mg for both men and women with an estimated safe and adequate daily intake for adults between 4 and 7 mg. The average American gets about 10 to 20 mg, Bacteria living in the intestinal tract make some pantothenic acid, but no one know yet if this contributes to the body's supply. Vitamin B-5 deficiency is not likely to occur as long as people eat ordinary diets that consist of a variety of foods. Symptoms of deficiency, such as insomnia, leg cramps, or burning feet, have only occurred in experimental situations. Even then, severe symptoms have occurred only if people also take a drug that interferes with the vitamin.

    Pantothenic acid gets its name from the Greek root pantos, meaning "everywhere," because it is available in a wide variety of foods. A lot of vitamin B-5 is lost when you food is processed, however. Fresh meats, vegetables, and whole unprocessed grains have more vitamin B-5 than refined, canned, and frozen food. The best sources are Brewer's Yeast, corn, cauliflower, kale, broccoli, tomatoes, avocado, legumes, lentils, egg yolks, beef (especially organ meats such as liver and kidney), turkey, duck, chicken, milk, split peas, peanuts, soybeans, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, whole-grain breads and cereals, lobster, wheat germ, and salmon.

    The following foods also contain Pantothenic Acid: Cheese, fresh vegetables (cabbage, collard greens), legumes, mushrooms, nuts, port, royal jelly, saltwater fish, torula yeast, whole rye flour, and whole wheat.


    Pantothenic Acid is most commonly found included in Vitamin B-Complex supplements. It is more difficult to find it as a stand-alone vitamin supplement.

    • Tablet.
    • Softgel.
    • Liquid.
    • Capsule.
    There is no formal recommended daily allowance (RDA) for Pantothenic Acid, but experts recommend getting 4 to 7 mg a day to maintain normal body function. The amount present in a Multivitamin or Vitamin B-Complex supplement is more than adequate in most cases. To take Pantothenic Acid as a daily supplement, read and follow product label directions. For treating other conditions, it is best to consult your healthcare provider for use.


  • Infants
  • 0 to 6 Months

    7 to 12 Months
    1.7 mg

    1.8 mg

  • Children
  • 1 to 3 Years

    4 to 8 Years
    2 mg

    3 mg

  • Males
  • 9 to 13 Years

    14 to 18 Years

    19 to 70 Years
    4 mg

    5 mg

    5 mg

  • Females
  • 9 to 13 Years

    14 to 18 Years

    19 to 70 Years
    4 mg

    5 mg

    5 mg

  • Pregnant Females
  • Less Than 19 Years

    19 to 50 Years
    6 mg

    6 mg

  • Breast Feeding Females
  • Less Than 19 Years

    19 to 50 Years
    7 mg

    7 mg

    If You Get Too Little: A deficiency of Pantothenic Acid in adults is virtually nonexistent, largely because it is present in so many foods. A Pantothenic Acid deficiency can cause fatigue, headache, nausea, and tingling in the hands.

    If You Get Too Much: Doses of 10 grams (10,000 mg) or more a day can result in diarrhea. No other adverse reactions to high doses have been reported.


    Special Tip: Many Multivitamin and Vitamin B-Complex vitamin products contain Pantothenic Acid; check the label for the dosage in milligrams (mg).

  • For Psychological or Physical Stress: Take a daily Vitamin B-Complex supplement that includes 100 mg of Pantothenic Acid. Many so-called adrenal support combinations designed to help the body cope with stress contain approximately this amount of Pantothenic Acid.

  • For Chronic Heartburn: Take 1,000 mg of Pantothenic Acid twice a day along with 500 mg Thiamine (Vitamin B-1) once a day and 500 mg Choline three times a day. If this regimen fails to improve your heartburn after a month, discontinue it and consult with your health care practitioner about other options that may be available for your particular health situation.

  • For Allergies: Take 500 mg of Pantothenic Acid three times a day.

  • For High Cholesterol: Take 300 mg of Pantethine three times a day.

  • For Adrenal Gland Support: Vitamin B-5 used for adrenal gland support would be effective at approximately 250 mg twice a day.

  • For Arthritis: Taking 2,000 mg (2 grams) per day may be helpful for pain relief.

  • Note: Be sure to check out the Dosage Recommendations Chart for Pantothenic Acid, which lists therapeutic dosages for specific ailments at a glance.



    500 mg 3 times a day

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    500 mg twice a day


    1,000 mg twice a day

    High Cholesterol

    300 mg 3 times a day


    100 mg a day.


  • Take Pantothenic Acid with water, preferabley after eating meals. There are no known toxicity problems with high doses of Pantothenic Acid or Pantethine. Massive doses (10 to 20 grams per day) may cause diarrhea in some people and may increase the risk of bleeding. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not exceed the daily adequate intake unless their health care provider or midwife recommends a higher dosage.

  • General Interaction: There are no known drug or nutrient interactions associated with Pantothenic Acid.

  • Possible Interactions: If you are being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use vitamin B-5 supplements without first talking to your health care provider.
    • Antibiotics, Tetracycline: Vitamin B-5 interferes with the absorption and effectiveness of the antibiotic tetracycline. You should take B vitamins at different times from tetracycline. All vitamin B complex supplements act in this way and should be taken at different times from tetracycline.

    • Drugs Used To Treat Alzheimer's Disease: Vitamin B-5 may increase the effects of a group of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors, which are used to treat Alzheimer's. That might lead to severe side effects. These drugs should not be taken with B-5 unless under a health care provider's supervision. Cholinesterase inhibitors include:
      • Donepezil (Aricept)
      • Memantine hydrochloride (Ebixa)
      • Galantamine (Reminyl)
      • Rivastigime (Exelon)

  • B-Vitamin Imbalance: Taking any one of the B-vitamins for a long period of time can result in an imbalance of other important B vitamins. For this reason, you may want to take a B-complex vitamin, which includes all the B vitamins.

  • Cautions: Read supplement labels carefully to avoid mistakenly purchasing a Pantethine product, which is almost solely used for treating high cholesterol. It is not interchangeable with Pantothenic Acid products.


  • Brewers Yeast Products
  • Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid) Products

  • Vitamin B Complex Products


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    Vitamin B-5 (Panothenic Acid): Enhances stamina, prevents anemia, helps wounds heal, fights infection, strengthens immune system. Pantothenic Acid is a factor in the B Complex vitamin group. Pantothenic Acid functions as a part of a key coenzyme that is necessary for the release of energy in cells and helps support a healthy nervous system.


    HerbsPro: Pantethine Co-B-5 Sublingual, Coenzyme B-5 Precursor, Source Naturals, 25 mg, 30 Tabs (7271)
    HerbsPro: Pantethine Co-B-5 Sublingual, Coenzyme B-5 Precursor, Source Naturals, 25 mg, 60 Tabs (7272)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Natures Life, 100 mg, 100 Tabs (89782)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 100 Tabs (7273)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 250 Tabs (7274)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Solgar, 200 mg, 100 Tabs (36686)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Natural Factors, 250 mg, 90 Caps (84243)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5), TwinLab, 250 mg, 100 Caps (19824)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Natures Way, 250 mg, 100 Caps (18034)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Natures Life, 250 mg, 100 Tabs (89784)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Source Naturals, 250 mg, 100 Tabs (7275)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Country Life, 250 mg, 100 Tabs (37386)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Source Naturals, 250 mg, 250 Tabs (7276)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Natures Life, 250 mg, 250 Tabs (89785)
    HerbsPro: Pantethine (Pantothenic Acid; Vitamin B-5), Source Naturals, 300 mg, 30 Tabs (69522)
    HerbsPro: Pantethine (Pantothenic Acid; Vitamin B-5), Source Naturals, 300 mg, 60 Tabs (69523)
    HerbsPro: Pantethine (Vitamin B-5), Now Foods, 300 mg, 60 Softgels (68580)
    HerbsPro: Pantethine (Pantothenic Acid; Vitamin B-5), Source Naturals, 300 mg, 90 Tabs (69524)
    HerbsPro: Pantethine (Pantesin), Nutricology, 330 mg (600 mg), 60 VCaps (38753)
    HerbsPro: Pantethine (Vitamin B-5), Jarrow Formulas, 450 mg, 60 Softgels (12929)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Natures Life, 500 mg, 50 Tabs (89786)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 500 mg, 60 VCaps (100574)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid RR, Country Life, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (37387)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 500 mg, 90 VCaps (100575)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Natures Life, 500 mg, 100 Tabs (89787)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5), TwinLab, 500 mg, 100 Caps (19825)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 100 Tabs (7277)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Now Foods, 500 mg, 100 Caps (68581)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid Vitamin B-5, Life Extension, 500 mg, 100 Caps (91743)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 500 mg, 180 VCaps (100576)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5), TwinLab, 500 mg, 200 Caps (19826)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 200 Tabs (7278)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid (Calcium Pantothenate), Now Foods, 500 mg, 250 Caps (68582)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Natures Life, 500 mg, 250 Tabs (89789)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Solgar, 550 mg, 50 VCaps (36690)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Solgar, 550 mg, 100 VCaps (36689)
    HerbsPro: Pantethine (Vitamin B-5), Now Foods, 600 mg, 60 Softgels (75314)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Time Release, Country Life, 1000 mg, 60 Tabs (37388)
    HerbsPro: Pantothenic Acid, Jarrow Formulas, 100 Caps (37617)
    HerbsPro: Choline Inositol Complex With Pantothenic Acid, Country Life, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (37083)
    HerbsPro: Choline Inositol Complex With Pantothenic Acid, Country Life, 500 mg, 90 Tabs (37084)


    LEF: Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5), Life Extension, 500 mg, 100 Caps
    Pantothenic acid plays a role in the synthesis of hemoglobin, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters, and lipids. It is the most important component of coenzyme-A, which assists in several metabolic pathways and is necessary for the transfer of fats to and from cells. Pantothenic acid is only mildly acidic, but is often available in combination with calcium to neutralize its acidity and increase its storage stability.


    Kalyx: Pantothenic Acid, Natures Way, 250 mg, 100 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Pantethine, Nutricology, 330 mg, 60 Caps: N
    Pantothenic Acid, Thompson Nutritional, 500 mg, 60 Tabs: K
    Kalyx: Pantothenic Acid, Nutricology, 500 mg, 90 VCaps: N
    Also known as vitamin B-5, the name pantothenic comes from the Greek word "panthos"' which means everywhere. Some refer to pantothenic acid as the "anti-stress" vitamin because the body uses it to produce cortisone and other adrenal hormones that are used up by the adrenal glands during periods of physical or emotional stress. Vitamin B-5 functions as a coenzyme to enhance the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, and is involved in the production of healthy skin, hair, nerves and red blood cells. Contains Pantothenic Acid (500 mg) and Calcium (42 mg) per capsule.
    Kalyx: Pantothenic Acid B-5, Twinlab, 500 mg, 100 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Pantothenic Acid (B-5), Twinlab, 500 mg, 200 Caps: K
    Kalyx: Pantothenic Acid B-5, Twinlab, 500 mg, 200 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Vitamin B-5 (D-Calcium Pantothenate) USP, Kalyx, 25 kg (55 lbs): GF


    Amazon: Vitamin B-5 Supplement Products
    Amazon: Pantothenic Acid Supplement Products
    Amazon: Pantethine Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid; Pantethine) Supplement Information

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  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index

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