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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics



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  • Vitamin B-12 Description & Overview
  • Vitamin B-12 Health Benefits
  • Vitamin B-12 Uses & Scientific Evidence
  • Vitamin B-12 Dietary Sources
  • Vitamin B-12 Dosage Information
  • Vitamin B-12 Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Vitamin B-12 Supplement Products

  • vitamin B-12


    Vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, is important to good health and is needed to prevent anemia, maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells, and is also needed to make DNA, the genetic material in all cells.

    Vitamin B-12 aids folic acid in regulating the formation of red blood cells, and helps in the utilization of iron. This vitamin is also required for proper digestion, absorption of foods, the synthesis of protein, and the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It aids in cell formation and cellular longevity. In addition, vitamin B-12 prevents nerve damage, maintains fertility, and promotes normal growth and development by maintaining the fatty sheaths that cover and protect nerve endings. Vitamin B-12 is linked to the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that assists memory and learning.

    A Vitamin B-12 deficiency can be caused by malabsorption, which is most common in elderly people and in those with digestive disorders. Deficiency can cause abnormal gait, chronic fatigue, constipation, depression, digestive disorders, dizziness, drowsiness, enlargement of the liver, eye disorders, hallucinations, headaches, inflammation of the tongue, irritability, labored breathing, memory loss, moodiness, nervousness, neurological damage, palpitations, pernicious anemia, ringing in the ears, and spinal cord degeneration. Strict vegetarians (vegans) must remember that they require Vitamin B-12 supplementation, as this vitamin is found almost exclusively in animal tissues. Although people adopting a strictly vegetarian diet may not see signs of deficiency for some time - the body can store up to 5 years' worth of Vitamin B-12 - signs will eventually develop.


    Vitamin B-12 has health benefits for young and older people alike as well as everyone in between. Fortunately, most people get more than enough vitamin B-12 in their daily diets. In some cases vitamin B-12 supplementation may need to be considered.

    MENTAL FUNCTION: Older adults who notice a decline in mental function, even the emergence of Alzheimer's disease, need to consider vitamin B-12 supplementation in their diets. Experts have foound that when mental symptoms are treated with vitamin B-12 within six months of onset, many of the symptoms disappear or mental clarity improves.

    DEPRESSION: Vitamin B-12 may also help alleviate depression in the elderly by working with a compound that helps to make serotonin, the neurotransmitter responsible for a calm feeling of well-being.

    SLEEP: Vitamin B-12 also plays a role in melatonin production. Melatonin is the hormone responsible for letting you get a good night's sleep. As we age, the body is less efficient at making this hormone. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has helped some older adults sleep better.

    ASTHMA: Children who have asthma may benefit from vitamin B-12 supplementation. Weekly injections of 1000 mcg or daily oral supplements of 1 to 3 mcg improved their condition and resulted in less shortness of breath.

    AIDS: Patients with AIDS typically have low levels of vitamin B-12. This can be used as an indicator that overall nutritional status is low and that attention needs to be given to intake of all nutrients. In the laboratory, vitamin B-12, in any form, reduces replication of HIV. This is a hopeful treatment yet to be tested in humans.

    MALE FERTILITY: Several studies show that vitamin B-12 dramatically increases sperm counts in men whose counts are low. This vitamin also jump starts sperm's action increasing motility rates.

    TINNITUS: People with tinnitus, that constant ringing in the ears, are often deficient in vitamin B-12. Supplementation dimishes the irritating ringing for some people.

    vitamin B-12 structure



    Diets of most adult Americans provide recommended intakes of Vitamin B-12, but deficiency may still occur as a result of an inability to absorb B-12 from food. It can also occur in individuals with dietary patterns that exclude animal or fortified foods. As a general rule, most individuals who develop a vitamin B-12 deficiency have an underlying stomach or intestinal disorder that limits the absorption of vitamin B-12. Sometimes the only symptom of these intestinal disorders is anemia resulting from B-12 deficiency. The recommended daily allowance for vitamin B-12 is 2.4 micrograms (mcg) daily for adults, 2.6 mcg daily for pregnant women, and 2.8 mcg for women who are breastfeeding. The average American diet provides 7 to 30 mcg of the vitamin. Unlike other vitamins, vitamin B-12 is stored in the liver, so these suggested amounts refer to an average daily intake over a span of days.

    Characteristic signs of Vitamin B-12 deficiency include fatigue, weakness, nausea, constipation, flatulence (gas), loss of appetite, and weight loss. Deficiency also can lead to neurological changes such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet. Additional symptoms of B-12 deficiency are difficulty in maintaining balance, depression, confusion, poor memory, and soreness of the mouth or tongue. Some of these symptoms can also result from a variety of medical conditions other than vitamin B-12 deficiency. It is important to have a healthcare provider evaluate these symptoms so that appropriate medical care can be given.

    When the supply of vitamin B-12 in the body is low, it slows down the production of red blood cells causing anemia and the cells that line the intestine. This is similar to what happens as a result of inssuficient folate. But unlike folate deficiency, a lack of vitamin B-12 can also cause serious damage to the nervous system. If the condition persists for a long time, the damage is irreversible.

    A deficiency of vitamin B-12 caused by insufficient intake is not common. The average well-fed person as a supply of the vitamin stored in the liver that can last fiver years or longer. Dietary deficiency of vitamin B-12 is seen only in strict vegetarians (vegans) who do not eat foods of animal origin, not even milk or eggs. Such a restricted diet is a particular problem for pregnant or breastfeeding women since the baby can develop vitamin B-12 deficiency even if the mother remains healthy. For this reason, vegan mothers should eat foods fortified with vitamin B-12. Vegetarians who regularly eat eggs or drink milk usually get all the vitamin B-12 they need.


    Vegetarians who do not eat meats, fish, eggs, milk or milk products, or B-12 fortified foods consume no vitamin B-12 and are at high risk of developing a deficiency of vitamin B-12. When adults adopt a vegetarian diet, deficiency symptoms can be slow to appear because it usually takes years to deplete normal body stores of B-12. However, severe symptoms of B-12 deficiency, most often featuring poor neurological development, can show up quickly in children and breast-fed infants of women who follow a strict vegetarian diet.

    Fortified cereals are one of the few plant food sources of Vitamin B-12, and are an important dietary source of B-12 for vegetarians who consume no eggs, milk or milk products. Vegetarian adults who do not consume plant foods fortified with Vitamin B-12 need to consider taking a B-12-containing supplement. Vegetarian mothers should consult with a pediatrician regarding appropriate Vitamin B-12 supplementation for their infants and children.

    Pernicious anemia is usually an inherited disease in which a deficiency of vitamin B-12 occurs depite adequate amounts in the diet. People with this disease cannot produce intrinsic factor, the substance needed to absorb vitamin B-12. They need to receive injections of vitamin B-12 so the vitamin can by pass the stomach and intrinnsic factor and enter the bloodstream directly.


    Pernicious anemia is a form of anemia that occurs when there is an absence of intrinsic factor, a substance normally present in the stomach. Vitamin B-12 binds with intrinsic factor before it is absorbed and used by your body. An absence of intrinsic factor prevents normal absorption of Vitamin B-12 and results in pernicious anemia.

    Anyone with pernicious anemia usually needs intramuscular (IM) injections (shots) of Vitamin B-12. It is very important to remember that pernicious anemia is a chronic condition that should be monitored by a health care provider. Anyone with pernicious anemia has to take lifelong supplemental vitamin B-12.

    MoonDragon's Anemia Information Index

    Because the intrinsic factor originates in the stomach, partial or total removal of the stomach reduces absorption of vitamin B-12. Moreover, removal of the end of the small intesine (ileum) als creates a deficiency, because that is where absorption of the vitamin takes place. In these cases, pernicious anemia results from the surgery, not dietary deficiency.


    Individuals with stomach and small intestinal disorders may not absorb enough Vitamin B-12 from food to maintain healthy body stores. Sprue and celiac disease are intestinal disorders by intolerance to protein in wheat and wheat products. Regional enteritis, localized inflammation of the stomach or small intestine, also results in generalized malabsorption of vitamin B-12. Excess bacteria in the stomach and small intestine also can decrease vitamin B-12 absorption.

    Surgical procedures of the gastrointestinal tract such as surgery to remove all or part of the stomach often result in a loss of cells that secrete stomach acid and intrinsic factor. Surgical removal of the distal ileum, a section of the intestines, also can result in the inability to absorb B-12. Anyone who has had either of these surgeries usually requires lifelong supplemental B-12 to prevent a deficiency.

    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness - Disorders Index

    Stomach acid frees vitamin B-12 from the proteins it is bound to in foods, but for the one-third of adults who experience a decline in stomach acid as they age, this can be a problem. They risk a vitamin B-12 deficiency later in life. If undetected, the problem can cause nerve damage. An unexplained unsteady gait and loss of coordination often signal this type of vitamin B-12 deficiency.


    Vitamin B-12 must be separated from protein in food before it can bind with intrinsic factor and be absorbed by your body. Bacterial overgrowth in the stomach and/or atrophic gastritis, an inflammation of the stomach, contribute to vitamin B-12 deficiency in adults by limiting secretions of stomach acid needed to separate vitamin B-12 from protein in food. Adults 50 years of age and older with these conditions are able to absorb the B-12 in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Health care professionals may advise adults over the age of 50 to get their vitamin B-12 from a dietary supplement or from foods fortified with vitamin B-12 because 10 to 30 percent of older people may be unable to absorb vitamin B-12 in food.

    Research around the world concludes that 10 to 12 percent of older adults are deficient in vitaminn B-12 to some degree. All agree that assessment of this nutrient is difficult because typical tests may not be sensitive enough and other nutrients and medications can interfere with results. For those who do not have enough B-12, huge amounts of supplements may be necessary.


    A deficiency of Vitamin B-12, folate, or vitamin B-6 may increase your blood level of homocysteine, an amino acid normally found in your blood. There is evidence that an elevated blood level of homocysteine is an independent risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The evidence suggests that high levels of homocysteine may damage coronary arteries or make it easier for blood clotting cells called platelets to clump together and form a clot. However, there is currently no evidence available to suggest that lowering homocysteine level with vitamins will actually reduce your risk of heart disease. Clinical intervention trials are needed to determine whether supplementation with vitamin B-12, folic acid, or vitamin B-6 can help protect you against developing coronary heart disease.

    Health care providers usually treate pernicious anemia with an vitamin B-12 injection from 50 to 100 mcg three times a week. These injections may need to continue throughout life. However, medical studies show that large amounts of active vitamin B-12 can be absorbed, even without intrinsic factor. The form of vitamin B-12 called methylcobalamin is the only active form sold in the United States. Cyanocobalamin, a more commoly available form, requires modification in the body, and even then, when used in studies, it is not always effective. Methylcobalamin, when given in very large doses, can be absorbed.

    There are supplements that are meant to be taken under the tongue. Sublingual administration is thought to bypass the absorption problems related to the intrinsic factor by allowing the vitamin to be absorbed directly into the venous plexus - the complex of blood vessels located in the floor of the mouth. Huge amounts of the vitamin ensure that at least some of it gets absorbed, even without intrinsic factor. 1000 mcg per day is a common recommendation, sometimes starting with 2000 mcg daily for the first month. There are no reports of vitamin B-12 causing toxicity or adverse effects even in these large amounts. In fact, it is often used as a placebo because of its assured non-toxicity.

    vitamin B-12 foods


    Vitamin B-12 is bound to the protein in food. Hydrochloric acid in the stomach releases B-12 from protein during digestion. Once released, B-12 combines with a substance called intrinsic factor (IF) before it is absorbed into the bloodstream.

    vitamin B-12 animal proteins

    Vitamin B-12 is naturally found in animal foods including fish, milk and milk products, eggs, meat and poultry. Fortified breakfast cereals are an excellent source of vitamin B-12 and a particularly valuable source for vegetarians.

    The largest amounts of Vitamin B-12 are found in Brewer's Yeast, clams, eggs, herring, kidney, liver, mackerel, milk and dairy products, and seafood. Vitamin B-12 is not found in many vegetables; it is available only from sea vegetables, such as Dulse, Kelp, kombu, and nori, and soybeans and soy products. It is also present in the herbs Alfalfa, Bladderwrack, and Hops.

    The table of selected food sources of Vitamin B-12 suggests dietary sources of vitamin B-12.

    As the 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state, "Different foods contain different nutrients and other healthful substances. No single food can supply all the nutrients in the amounts you need". As the following table indicates, vitamin B-12 is found naturally in animal foods. It is also found in fortified foods such as fortified breakfast cereals. If you want more information about building a healthful diet, refer to Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid.


    MICROGRAMS (mcg)
       Beef liver, cooked, 3 oz
       Fortified breakfast cereals, (100% fortified), 3/4 cup
       Trout, rainbow, cooked, 3 oz
       Salmon, sockeye, cooked, 3 oz
       Beef, cooked, 3 oz
       Fortified breakfast cereals (25% fortified), 3/4 cup
       Haddock, cooked, 3 oz
       Clams, breaded and fried, 3/4 cup
       Oysters, breaded and fried, 6 pieces
       Tuna, white, canned in water, 3 oz
       Milk, 1 cup
       Yogurt, 8 oz
       Pork, cooked, 3 oz
       Egg, 1 large
       American Cheese, 1 oz
       Chicken, cooked, 3 oz
       Cheddar cheese, 1 oz
       Mozzarella cheese, 1 oz

    * DV = Daily Value. DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains a lot or a little of a specific nutrient. The DV for vitamin B-12 is 6.0 micrograms (mcg). The percent DV (%DV) listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels tells adults what percentage of the DV is provided by one serving. Percent DVs are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. Foods that provide lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet.


  • National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, in conjunction with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in the Office of the Director of NIH.



    Vitamin B-12 is especially important for normal brain function, maintaining healthy nerve cells and aids in the production of DNA and RNA. Injections may be indicated (under health care providers supervision) for a serious deficiency (often seen in the elderly, vegetarians and vegans). Take 100 to 300 mcg or more as recommended by your health care provider.

    The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. The 1998 RDAs for vitamin B-12 (in micrograms) for adults are:

    Ages 19 Plus
    2.4 mcg
    2.4 mcg
    All Ages
    2.6 mcg
    2.8 mcg

    Results of two national surveys, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III-1988-91) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-96) found that most adult men and women consume recommended amounts of vitamin B-12.



    Anti-gout medications, anticoagulant drugs, and potassium supplements may block the absorption of Vitamin B-12 from the digestive tract. Vegetarians need supplements of vitamin B-12 because it is found mostly in animal sources.

    Caution: Folic acid may mask signs of vitamin B-12 deficiency.

    Folic acid can correct the anemia that is caused by vitamin B-12 deficiency. Unfortunately, folic acid will not correct the underlying B-12 deficiency. Permanent nerve damage can occur if vitamin B-12 deficiency is not treated. Folic acid intake from food and supplements should not exceed 1,000 micrograms (mcg) daily because large amounts of folic acid can hide the damaging effects of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Adults older than 50 years are advised to consult with their healthcare provider about the advisability of taking folic acid without also taking a vitamin B-12 supplement.


    Vitamin B-12 has a very low potential for toxicity. The Institute of Medicine states that "no adverse effects have been associated with excess vitamin B-12 intake from food and supplements in healthy individuals." The Institute recommends that adults over 50 years of age get most of their vitamin B-12 from supplements or fortified food because of the high incidence of impaired absorption of B-12 from unfortified foods in this population.

    vitamin B-12 supplements


  • Brewers Yeast Products
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    Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) helps prevent anemia. Protects nervous system, improves concentration, aids digestion. Also known as Cobalamin, Cyanacobalamin, Hydroxycobalamin, Denosylcobalamin, Methylcobalamin. Herbal sources include alfalfa, bladder wrack, and hops. Vitamin B-12 is linked to the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Important in making myelin, the substance of which the sheaths covering the nerves are made. Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is stored in the liver. It is an especially important vitamin for maintaining healthy nerve cells and it aids in the production of DNA and RNA. Cell division and blood formation does not occur without Vitamin B-12. It is of special interest to vegetarians and vegans since it is not found in any significant amounts in plant foods. Deficiency of Vitamin B-12 is a serious health issue and should not be taken lightly. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a common cause of macrocytic anemia and has been implicated in a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. Excessive amounts of homocysteine may increase the risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, and Alzheimer's disease*.In combination with folic acid and vitamin B-6 vitamin B-12 serves to control homocysteine levels. Many people as they age will be unable to absorb the Vitamin B-12 benefits found in foods. This is because stomach's production of acid tends to decrease. It is this stomach acid that is necessary to break Vitamin B-12 away from the proteins in food. This process must happen first before Vitamin B-12 can bind with what is called intrinsic factor in our small intestines before then being absorbed. This is why it is advisable for people over 50 to get their vitamin B-12 benefits from either Vitamin B-12 fortified foods or from supplements.


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    LEF: Folate & Vitamin B-12, Life Extension, 200 VCaps
    LEF: Vitamin B=12, Life Extension, 500 mcg, 100 Lozenges
    LEF: Methylcobalamin, Life Extension, 1 mg, 60 Vegetarian Lozenges (to be dissolved in the mouth)
    Methylcobalamin is the form of vitamin B-12 active in the central nervous system. It is essential for cell growth and replication.8 In some people the liver may not convert cyanocobalamin, the common supplemental form of vitamin B12, into adequate amounts of methylcobalamin needed for proper neuronal functioning.9 Methylcobalamin may exert its neuroprotective effects through enhanced methylation, acceleration of nerve cell growth, or its ability to maintain already healthy homocysteine levels.
    LEF: Methylcobalamin, Life Extension, 5 mg, 60 Vegetarian-Lozenges
    Methylcobalamin is the form of vitamin B-12 active in the central nervous system. It is essential for cell growth and replication.8 In some people the liver may not convert cyanocobalamin, the common supplemental form of vitamin B12, into adequate amounts of methylcobalamin needed for proper neuronal functioning.9 Methylcobalamin may exert its neuroprotective effects through enhanced methylation, acceleration of nerve cell growth, or its ability to maintain already healthy homocysteine levels.
    LEF: B-12 Status Panel Blood Test


    Kalyx: Vitamin B-12 Dropper, Sttrawberry, Tropical Oasis, 4 fl oz: HF
    Kalyx: Vitamin B-12 Sublingual, Deva Vegan, 90 Sublingual Tabs: HF
    Kalyx: Sublingual Vitamin B-12, Deva Vegan, 2500 mcg, 90 Tab: HF
    Kalyx: Sublingual Vitamin B-12, Cherry Flavor, FoodScience Labs, 100 Tabs: K
    Kalyx: Sublingual Vitamin B-12-MC, FoodScience Labs, 100 Tablets: K
    Kalyx: Vitamin Coenzyme B-12 (Methylcobalamin), Kalyx, 100 grams: GF
    Kalyx: Vitamin B-12 European (Methylcobalamin), Kalyx, 100 gra,s: GF


    Amazon: Vitamin B-12 Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Vitamin B-12 Supplement Information

  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

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    Health & Wellness Index


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    Healing Baths For Colds
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    Almond, Sweet Oil
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index

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