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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Vitamins
VITAMIN A

With Beta Carontene & Carotenoids Complex


"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Vitamin A Description & Overview
  • Vitamin A Health Benefits
  • Vitamin A Uses & Scientific Evidence
  • Vitamin A Dietary Sources
  • Vitamin A Dosage Information
  • Vitamin A Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Vitamin A Supplement Products




  • vitamin A foods


    VITAMIN A & BETA CAROTENE ANTIOXIDANT DESCRIPTIONS

    Vitamin A and its precursor, beta-carotene, are powerful free radical scavengers. Vitamin A also is necessary for healthy skin and mucous membranes, the body's first line of defense against invading microorganisms and toxins, and promotes the immune response. Beta-carotene and vitamin A destroy carcinogens (cancer-causing substances), guard against heart disease and stroke, and lower cholesterol levels.

    THE CAROTENE & VITAMIN A CONNECTION

    A class of phytochemicals, carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments found in yellow, red, green and orange vegetables and fruits. They are a potent family of antioxidants that include Alpha-Carotene, Beta-Carotene, Lycopene, Lutein, and Zeaxanthin. Of the more than 500 carotenoids found in nature, about 50 can be converted into vitamin A in the body.

    Carotenoids quench singlet oxygen, which is not, chemically speaking, a free radical, but is nevertheless highly reactive and can damage body molecules. Carotenoids also act as anticancer agents, decrease the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration, and inhibit heart disease.

    Studies have shown that carotenoids found in tomato juice (lycopene), carrots (alpha- & beta-carotene), and spinach (lutein) may help to protect against cancer by reducing oxidative and other damage to DNA. Together, the antioxidants Alpha-Lipoic Acid, Coenzyme Q-10, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E help conserve carotenoids in tissues.

    The body converts beta-carotene into vitamin A as needed. Any left-over beta-carotene than acts as an antioxidant, breaking free radical chain reactions and preventing the oxidation of cholesterol. It reduces the oxidation of DNA and disables reactive oxygen species molecules generated by exposure to sunlight and air pollution, preventing damage to eyes, lungs, and skin.

    Natural sources of vitamin A include liver, whole milk, whole eggs, cheddar cheese, and beta-carotene foods. Natural sources of the carotenoids in general include sweet potatoes, carrots, spinach, corn, sweet peppers, spirulina, and kale.

    A recent laboratory study found that taking very high doses of supplemental beta-carotene alone (50,000 IU or more daily) may interfere with the normal control of cell division. It is best to take a carotenoid complex containing a variety of carotenoids.

    THE VITAMIN A FAMILY

    Vitamin A is a family of fat-soluble vitamins. Retinol is one of the most active, or usable, forms of vitamin A, and is found in animal foods such as liver and eggs. Retinol is often called preformed vitamin A. It can be converted to retinal and retinoic acid, other active forms of the vitamin A family. Some plant foods contain darkly colored pigments called provitamin A carotenoids that your body can convert to vitamin A. Approximately 26% and 34% of vitamin A consumed by men and women is provided by these provitamin A carotenoids. Beta-carotene is a provitamin A carotenoid that is more efficiently converted to retinol than other carotenoids. For example, alpha-carotene is also converted to vitamin A, but only half as efficiently as beta-carotene. Lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin are other carotenoids commonly found in food. Your body cannot convert them to vitamin A, but they help maintain good health in other ways.

    vitamin A structure


    Vitamin A plays an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division and cell differentiation, which is the process by which a cell decides what it is going to become. It also maintains the surface linings of your eyes and your respiratory, urinary, and intestinal tracts. When those linings break down, bacteria can enter your body and cause infection. Vitamin A also helps your body regulate its immune system. The immune system helps prevent or fight off infections by making white blood cells that destroy harmful bacteria and viruses. Vitamin A may help lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that fights infections, function more effectively. Vitamin A also may help prevent bacteria and viruses from entering your body by maintaining the integrity of skin and mucous membranes.

    Some carotenoids, in addition to serving as a source of vitamin A, have been shown to function as antioxidants in laboratory tests. However, this role has not been consistently demonstrated in humans. Antioxidants protect cells from free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of your body's metabolism that may contribute to the development of some chronic diseases.

    VITAMIN A DESCRIPTION

    This famed vision-enhancing nutrient was isolated in 1930, the first fat-soluble vitamin to be discovered. The body acquires some of its vitamin A through animal fats. The rest it synthesizes in the intestines from the beta-carotene and other carotenoids abundant in many fruits and vegetables.

    Vitamin A is stored in the liver. Small amounts are also found in most human tissues in chemical forms called retinoids, a name related to the vitamin's critical effect on vision (and particularly on the retina of the eye).

    Although vitamin A is probably best known for promoting and maintaining healthy eyesight, it has other important functions as well. Vitamin A prevents night blindness and other eye problems, as well as some skin disorders, such as acne. One of its major contributions is to improve the body's resistance to infection. It enhances immunity, may heal gastrointestinal ulcers, protects against pollution and cancer formation, and is needed for the maintenance and repair of epithelial tissue, of which the skin and mucous membranes are composed. Other surface linings that are improved and maintained include the intestinal tract, urinary tract, and respiratory tract, protecting them from harmful bacteria and viruses so that they cannot get into your body. Vitamin A boosts immunity by enhancing the infection-fighting actions of the white blood cells called lymphocytes, thus protecting the body against colds, influenza, and infections of the kidneys, bladder, lungs, and mucous membranes. Vitamin A acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect the cells against cancer and other diseases. It is important in the formation and growth of bones and teeth, the division of cells in your body, aids in fat storage, and is vital to human reproduction. This important vitamin also slows the aging process. Protein cannot be utilized by the body without vitamin A. See Antioxidants for more information.

    A deficiency of vitamin A may be apparent if dry hair or skin, dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea, poor growth, and/or night blindness is present. Other possible results of vitamin A deficiency include abscesses in the ears; insomnia; fatigue; reproductive difficulties; sinusitis, pneumonia, and frequent colds and other respiratory infections; skin disorders, including acne; and weight loss.

    BETA CAROTENE & THE CAROTENOIDS

    The carotenoids are a class of compounds related to vitamin A. In some cases, they can act as precursors of vitamin A; some act as antioxidants or have other important functions. The best known of the carotenoids is beta-carotene, but there are others, including alpha- and gamma-carotene, lutein, and lycopene. When food or supplements containing beta-carotene are consumed, the beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A in the liver. According to recent reports, beta-carotene appears to aid in cancer prevention by scavenging, or neutralizing, free radicals.

    Taking large amounts of vitamin A over long periods can be toxic to the body, mainly the liver. Toxic levels of vitamin A are associated with abdominal pain, amenorrhea, enlargement of the liver and/or spleen, gastrointestinal disturbances, hair loss, itching, joint pain, nausea and vomiting, water on the brain, and small cracks and scales on the lips and at the corners of the mouth. No overdose can occur with beta-carotene, although if you take too much, your skin may turn slightly yellow-orange in color. Beta-carotene does not have the same effect as vitamin A in the body and is not harmful in larger amounts unless you cannot convert beta-carotene into vitamin A. People with hypothyroidism often have this problem. It is important to take only natural beta-carotene or a natural carotenoid complex. Betatene is the trade name for a type of carotenoid complex extracted from sea algae. It is used as an ingredient in various products by different manufacturers.

    Beta Carotene is derived from the Latin name for carrot and belongs to a family of natural chemicals known as carotenes or carotenoids. Carotenes give yellow and orange fruits and vegetables their rich colors. Beta Carotene is also used as a coloring agent for foods such as margarine. The bright colors found in nature and the molecules that cause them have always fascinated organic chemists. The earliest studies on carotenoids date back to the beginning of the 19th century. Wackenroder first isolated beta-carotene in 1831, and many other carotenoids were discovered and named during the 1800s, although their structures were still unknown. The human body converts Beta-carotene into vitamin A (retinol). It is an antioxidant. Eating foods rich in Beta carotene protects the body from damaging molecules called free radicals (in the body free radicals are high-energy particles that ricochet wildly and damage cells).

    carrots


    Beta carotene is a carotenoid substance naturally found in plants that serves as an accessory to photosynthesis. It is primarily responsible for the pigment in orange colored fruits and vegetables, but also contributes to the pigment in red, yellow, and green colored fruits and vegetables. Though some food sources are rich in beta carotene, including cantaloupe, broccoli, spinach, and palm oil, carrots are the major supplier of this substance in most people’s diets.

    CAROTENE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

    Chemically, carotenes are polyunsaturated hydrocarbons containing 40 carbon atoms per molecule, variable numbers of hydrogen atoms, and no other elements. Some carotenes are teminated by hydrogen rings, on one or both ends of the molecule. All are colored to the human eye, due to extensive systems of conjugated double bonds. Structurally carotenes are tetraterpenes, meaning that they are synthesized biochemically from four 10-carbon terpene units, which in turn are formed fron eight 5-carbon isoprene units.

    Carotenes are found in plants in two primary forms designated by characters from the Greek alphabet: alpha-carotene and beta carotene. Gamma-, delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-carotene also exist. Since they are hydrocarbons, and therefore contain no oxygen, carotenes are fat-soluble and insoluble in water (in contrast with other carotenoids, the xanthophylls, which contain oxygen and thus are less chemically hydrophobic).

    The two primary isomers of carotene, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, differs in the position of a double bond (and thus a hydrogen) in the cyclic group at one end. Beta-Carotene is the more common form and can be found in yellow, orange and green leafy fruits and vegetables. as a rule of thumb, the greater intensit of the orange color of the fruit or vegetable, the more Beta-Carotene it contains. Carotene protects plant cells against destructive effects of ultraviolet light. Beta-Carotene is an antioxidant.


    QUICK NOTE ABOUT PROVITAMINS

    Beta carotene is accepted as an essential human nutrient, especially when there is a deficiency of vitamin A. In fact, when a vitamin A deficiency is suspected, blood tests measuring the levels of this substance are often performed as a result. Beta carotene is believed to have antioxidant properties in addition to its provitamin A function.

    Provitamins are the precursors to vitamins. Theay are dietary substances that can be converted via normal metabolic processes into active vitamins. Depending on the provitamin and the vitamin involved, the conversion process takes place in various parts of the body with differing levels of efficiency. Vitamins themselves are organic nutrients essential to human life in small amounts. Eleven of the thirteen vitamins are supplied by food, and two require additional conditions. Vitamin D for example, forms within the body upon the skin's exposure to ultraviolet light. Many vitamins also have provitamins, which help provide humans with necessary vitamins through additional channels.

    Vitamin A can be directly obtained through ingesting foods that contain retinol, the preformed vitamin. These foods include animal and fish products, especially livers, and several dairy products, including whole milk, butter and cheese. Many people receive their daily vitamin A from an important additional source: provitamin A, also known as carotenoids. Carotenoids can be found in many fruits and vegetables, especially those that are red, orange, yellow or green. Not all fruits and vegetables that contain these cartenoid pigments also contain provitamin A, but many of them do, including carrots, spinach, turnip greens and palm oil. Beta-carotene, the provitamin A most important in the diets of most humans, can be found in these vegetables as well as dark yellow squashes, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, broccoli and beet greens. Additional, lesser sources of beta-carotene include most fruits, summer squash, zucchini squash, beans, cabbage, corn, peas and many kinds of nuts.

    Beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A in the human body with a yield of about 40 percent to 50 percent and provides as much as half of most people’s necessary vitamin A. A small amount of fat is needed to stimulate the secretion of digestive juices that induce the absorption of beta-carotene — and dietary vitamin A — into the body. Individuals with intestinal disorders that change or lessen their absorption of dietary fat are less able to absorb vitamin A and beta-carotene.

    Another important provitamin is 7-dehydrocholesterol, also known as provitamin D. As stated above, the formation of vitamin D requires ultraviolet light, which acts on provitamin D to create vitamin D. Individuals who live above latitude 45 degrees north or below latitude 45 degrees south also must ingest dietary vitamin D, which can be found in egg yolk, butter, oily fish and enriched margarine, in order to meet their health needs.

    Provitamin B-5, or panthenol, is the alcohol form of vitamin B-5. When absorbed by the skin, panthenol turns into vitamin B-5. It then can hydrate and heal the skin.


    CAROTENOID COMPLEX OVERVIEW

    A carotenoid complex is a dietary supplement that contains several forms of carotene. Numerous scientific studies have found that carotenoids are beneficial for both health and immune function protection. By combining several of these in one carotenoid complex antioxidant supplement, it is believed that numerous health benefits can be recognized.

    The main carotenoids are:
    A carotenoid complex supplement will typically contain at least alpha carotene, beta carotene, lutein and lycopene. Several also contain the other advanced carotenoid complexes. Carotenoids are responsible for healthy immune function. They also supply vibrant color to the foods in which they naturally occur. For example, beta carotene and alpha carotene are present in high quantities in carrots, yams and pumpkins. They also are responsible for the bright orange color of these popular foods. Lutein and lycopene are present in high amounts in tomatoes and help impart the vibrant red color in this fruit.

    carrot juice


    There are many sources of carotenoids in nature. The above mentioned foods have been found to be beneficial in helping maintain eyesight and strengthen the eye. Egg yolks also contain high levels of lutein and beta carotene and supply the same benefits. Typically, the best way for consumers to easily tell at a glance whether a food contains these carotenoid complexes is to look for any food that has a vibrant color.

    Those who want the benefits of carotenoids but have a hard time eating these foods can get carotenoid complex supplements. These are manufactured to contain more carotenoids and are useful for larger doses. For example, to get the same amount of beta carotene in carotenoid complex caps, a person would have to eat several carrots or servings of pumpkin.

    The scientific studies on carotenoids have been numerous. The findings have convinced the scientific community that there is a definite human benefit to these compounds. In a study published by the International Journal of Cancer in 2009, Dr. Laura I. Migone found that eating two servings of carotenoid-containing vegetables daily reduced the risk of breast cancer by 17 percent. Another study published in the Archives of Ophthalmology in 2006 found that eating foods rich in lutein helped reduce the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The participants in the study were all under the age of 75. No data was available on whether the carotenoids helped reduce macular degeneration that was already present.





    vitamin A foods


    SOURCES OF VITAMIN A

    VITAMIN A HERBAL SOURCES

    Vitamin A is also present in the following herbs:

    HERBS RICH IN VITAMIN A

  • Alfalfa
  • Borage Leaves
  • Burdock Root
  • Cayenne (Capsicum)
  • Chickweed
  • Eyebright
  • Fennel Seed
  • Hops
  • Horsetail
  • Kelp
  • Lemongrass
  • Mullein
  • Nettle

  • Oat Straw
  • Paprika
  • Parsley
  • Peppermint
  • Plantain
  • Raspberry Leaf
  • Red Clover
  • Rose Hips
  • Sage
  • Uva Ursi
  • Violet Leaves
  • Watercress
  • Yellow Dock


  • VITAMIN A FOOD SOURCES

    Vitamin A can be found in animal livers, fish liver oils, and green and yellow fruits and vegetables. Foods that contain significant amounts include Apricots, Asparagus, Beet Greens, Dulse, Fish Liver & Fish Liver Oil, Garlic, Kale, Mustard Greens, Papayas, Peaches, Pumpkin, Red Peppers & Chilies, Spirulina, Spinach, Sweet Potatoes & Yams, Swiss Chard, Turnip Greens, Watercress, and Yellow Squash.

    Whole eggs, whole milk, and liver are among the few foods that naturally contain vitamin A. Most fat free milk and dried nonfat milk solids sold in the US are fortified with vitamin A to replace the vitamin A lost when the fat is removed. Fortified foods such as fortified breakfast cereals also provide vitamin A. The tables of selected food sources of vitamin A list a variety of animal sources of vitamin A and plant sources of provitamin A carotenoids.

    It is important for you to regularly eat foods that provide vitamin A or beta-carotene even though your body can store vitamin A in the liver. Stored vitamin A will help meet your needs when intake of provitamin A carotenoids or preformed vitamin A is low. Animal sources of vitamin A are well absorbed and used efficiently by the body.

    TABLE OF SELECTED ANIMAL SOURCES OF VITAMIN A


    As the 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state, "Different foods contain different nutrients. No single food can supply all the nutrients in the amounts you need". The following tables list a variety of dietary sources of vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids. As the tables indicate, liver, eggs and whole milk are good animal sources of vitamin A. Many orange fruits and green vegetables are good sources of provitamin A carotenoids. Including these foods in your daily diet will help you meet your daily need for vitamin A. In addition, food manufacturers fortify a wide range of products with vitamin A. Breakfast cereals, pastries, breads, crackers, cereal grain bars and other foods may be fortified with 10 to 15 percent of the DV for vitamin A. If you want more information about building a healthful diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid.

    If you want more information about building a healthful diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid.

    FOOD
    IU / International Units
    %DV*
        Liver, Beef, Cooked, 3 oz.
    30,325
    610
        Liver, Chicken, Cooked, 3 oz.
    13,920
    280
        Egg Substitute, Fortified, 1/4 cup
    1355
    25
        Fat Free Milk, Fortified w/Vitamin A, 1 cup
    500
    10
        Cheese Pizza, 1/8 of a 12-inch diameter
    380
    8
        Milk, Whole, 3.25% Fat, 1 cup
    305
    6
        Cheddar Cheese, 1 oz.
    300
    6
        Whole Egg, 1 medium
    280
    6
        Swiss Cheese, 1 oz.
    240
    4
        Yogurt, Fruit Flavored, Low Fat, 1 cup
    120
    2

    % DV = Daily Value. DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains a lot or a little of a specific nutrient. The DV for vitamin A is 5,000 IU (1,500 micrograms retinol). The percent DV (%DV) listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels tells adults what percentage of the DV is provided in one serving. Percent DVs are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. Foods that provide lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet.


    TABLE OF SELECTED PLANT SOURCES OF VITAMIN A (FROM BETA CAROTENE)


    Plant sources such as beta carotene are not as well absorbed as animal sources of vitamin A.


    FOOD
    IU/International Units
    %DV*
        Carrot, 1 raw (7.5 inches)
    20,250
    410
        Carrots, boiled, 1/2 cup slices
    19,150
    380
        Carrot Juice, Canned, 1/2 cup
    12,915
    260
        Mango, Raw, 1 fruit
    8,050
    160
        Sweet Potatoes, 1/2 cup mashed
    7,430
    150
       Spinach, Boiled, 1/2 cup
    7,370
    150
        Cantaloupe, Raw, 1 cup cubes
    5,160
    100
        Kale, Boiled, 1/2 cup
    4,810
    100
       Vegetable Soup, With Equal Volume Water, 1 cup
    3,005
    60
       Pepper, Sweet, Red, Raw, 1/2 cup sliced
    2,620
    50
        Apricots, Without Skin, Canned in Water, 1/2 cup halves
    2,055
    40
       Spinach, Raw, 1 cup
    2,015
    40
        Broccoli, Frozen, Chopped, Boiled, 1/2 cup
    1,740
    35
        Apricot Nectar, Canned, 1/2 cup
    1,650
    30
        Oatmeal, Instant, Fortified, Low Sodium, Dry, 1 packet
    1,050
    20
        Tomato Juice, Canned, 6 oz.
    1,010
    20
        Ready-To-Eat Cereal, Fortified, 1 oz. (15% fortification)
    750
    15
        Peaches, Canned, Water Pack, 1/2 cup halves or slices
    550
    15
        Peach, Raw, 1 medium
    525
    10
        Papaya, Raw, 1 small
    430
    10
        Orange, Raw, 1 large
    375
    8
       Asparagus, Boiled, 4 spears
    325
    6
        Tomato, Red, Ripe, Raw, 1/2 inch thick slice
    170
    2

    *DV = Daily Value. DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains a lot or a little of a specific nutrient. The DV for vitamin A is 5,000 IU (1,000 RE). The percent DV (%DV) listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels tells adults what percentage of the DV is provided by one serving. Percent DVs are based on a 2,000-calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. Foods that provide lower percentages of the DV will contribute to a healthful diet.


    BETA CAROTENE DIETARY SOURCES

    Like most other nutritional substances, beta carotene can be obtained in adequate amounts by eating a well-balanced, healthy diet including fruits and vegetables. However, a health care provider may recommend supplements for certain patients. Indicators of a vitamin A deficiency include vision problems, dry or inflamed eyes, unexplained hair loss or skin rash, and recurring infections. Before considering any nutritional supplements, you should consult your health care provider.

    The following foods are particularly rich in carotenes:


    FOODS RICH IN CAROTENES

  • Apricots
  • Beet Greens
  • Broccoli
  • Cantaloupe Melon
  • Carrots
  • Cassava
  • Chard
  • Cilantro (Coriander)
  • Collard Greens

  • Dandelion Greens
  • Ivy Gourd
  • Kale
  • Mangos
  • Mustard Greens
  • Parsley
  • Persimmon
  • Pumpkin
  • Romaine Lettuce

  • Rose Hips
  • Spinach
  • Sweet Potatoes
  • Thyme (Fresh)
  • Turnip Greens
  • Watercress
  • Winter Squash
  • Wolfberries (Goji)


  • Absorption from these foods is enhanced if eaten with fats, as carotenes are fat soluble, and if the food is cooked for a few minutes until the plant cell wall splits and the color is released into any liquid. Six micrograms (µg) of dietary beta-carotene supplies the equivalent of 1 microgram of retinol, or 1 RE (Retinol Equivalent). This is equivalent to 3.33 IU of vitamin A.





    VITAMIN A & BETA CAROTENE DOSAGE INFORMATION

    SPECIAL TIPS

    Make sure to take vitamin A supplements with food; some fat in the diet will enhance absorption.

    Both Vitamin E and Zinc aid the body in using vitamin A. In turn, vitamin A facilitates the absorption of Iron from foods. A good daily Multiple-Vitamin & Mulitple-Mineral supplement will provide the necessary amounts. Some sources measure Vitamin A in retinol equivalents (RE) rather than international units (IU); one RE is equivalent to 3.3 IU.

    Most Multiple-Vitamins offer Vitamin A as Beta-Carotene, an antioxidant that the body can convert to vitamin A. However, the amount of vitamin A produced during this conversion is small and inadequate for those conditions in which vitamin A itself was shown to be therapeutic.

    For improved resistance to colds, flu, and other viral infections: Take 50,000 IU twice a day for five days; then reduce to 25,000 IU a day, if necessary, for no more than 10 days.

    Be sure to check out the Dosage Recommendations Chart for Vitamin A, which lists therapeutic dosages for specific ailments at a glance.

    VITAMIN A RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES

    The RDA for Vitamin A is 5,000 IU daily for men, and 4,000 IU daily for women.

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are reference values used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), one of the DRIs, recommends the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in each age and gender group. RDAs for vitamin A are listed as Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE) to account for the different activities of retinol and provitamin A carotenoids. RDAs are also listed in International Units (IU) because food and some supplement labels list vitamin A content in International Units (1 RAE in micrograms = 3.3 IU). The 2001 RDAs for adults and children (21) in mcg RAE and IUs are:

    RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES FOR VITAMIN A
    FOR CHILDREN & ADULTS IN MICROGRAMS (mcg)
    RETINOL ACTIVITY EQUIVALENTS (RAE) & INTERNATIONAL UNITS (IUs)
    AGE
    CHILDREN
    MEN
    WOMEN
    PREGNANCY
    LACTATION
    Ages 1 to 3
    300 mcg
    or
    1000 IU*
           
    Ages 4 to 8
    400 mcg
    or
    1333 IU
           
    Ages 9 to 13
    600 mcg
    or
    2000 IU
           
    Ages 14 to 18
     
    900 mcg
    or
    3000 IU
    700 mcg
    or
    2333 IU
    750 mcg
    or
    2500 IU
    1200 mcg
    or
    4000 IU
    Ages 19 Plus
     
    900 mcg
    or
    3000 IU
    700 mcg
    or
    2333 IU
    770 mcg
    or
    2565 IU
    1300 mcg
    or
    4335 IU
    *Food labels list vitamin A in International Units (IU).


    There is insufficient information to establish a RDA for vitamin A for infants. An adequate intake (AI) has been established that is based on the amount of vitamin A consumed by healthy infants who are fed breast milk. The AI for vitamin A for infants ages 0 to 6 months is 400 micrograms per day (1,330 IU). The AI for vitamin A for infants ages 7 to 12 months is 500 micrograms per day (1,665 IU).

    Results of two national surveys, the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988-91) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994) suggested that the dietary intake of some Americans does not meet recommended levels for vitamin A. These surveys highlight the importance of encouraging all Americans to include dietary sources of vitamin A in their daily diets.

    There is no separate RDA for beta-carotene or other provitamin A carotenoids. The Institute of Medicine report suggests that consuming 3 to 6 mg of beta-carotene daily will maintain plasma beta-carotene blood levels in the range associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases. A diet that provides five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day and includes some dark green and leafy vegetables and deep yellow or orange fruits will provide recommended amounts of beta-carotene.

    EQUIVALENCIES OF RETINOIDS & CAROTENOIDS (IU)

    The best sources of Beta-Carotene are yellow, orange, and green leafy fruits and vegetables (such as carrots, spinach, lettuce, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, broccoli, cantaloupe, and winter squash). Generally, the greater the intensity of the color of the fruit or vegetable, the more Beta-Carotene it contains. In taking supplements, it is important to follow the guidance of an appropriate health care professional to ensure the proper dosages can be taken for your symptoms. Beta Carotene supplements come in capsule and gel forms and should be taken with meals containing at least 3 grams of fat to ensure absorption.

    As some carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A, attempts have been made to determine how much of them in the diet is equivalent to a particular amount of retinol, so that comparisons can be made of the benefit of different foods. The situation can be confusing because the accepted equivalences have changed. For many years, a system of equivalencies in which an international unit (IU) was equal to 0.3 µ of retinol, 0.6 µ of beta-carotene, or 1.2 µ of other provitamin-A carotenoids was used. Later, a unit called retinol equivalent (RE) was introduced. Prior to 2001, one RE corresponded to 1 µ retinol, 2 µ beta-carotene dissolved in oil (it is only partly dissolved in most supplement pills, due to very poor solubility in any medium), 6 µ beta-carotene in normal food (because it is not absorbed as well as when in oils), and 12 µ of either alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene, or beta-cryptoxanthin in food.

    Newer research has shown that the absorption of provitamin-A carotenoids is only half as much as previously thought. As a result, in 2001 the US Institute of Medicine recommended a new unit, the retinol activity equivalent (RAE). Each µ RAE corresponds to 1 µ retinol, 2 µ of beta-carotene in oil, 12 µ of "dietary" beta-carotene, or 24 µ of the three other dietary provitamin-A carotenoids.

    SUBSTANCE & ITS CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT
    MICROGRAMS OF RETINAL EQUIVALENT
    Per Microgram of the Substance
  • Retinol
  • 1
  • Beta-Carotene, Dissolved In Oil
  • 1/2
  • Beta-Carotene, Common Dietary
  • 1/12
  • Alpha-Carotene, Common Dietary
  • 1/24
  • Gamma-Carotene, Common Dietary
  • 1/24
  • Beta-Cryptoxanthin, Common Dietary
  • 1/24


    Because the conversion of retinol from provitamin carotenoids by the human body is actively regulated by the amount of retinol available to the body, the conversions apply strictly only for vitamin A-deficient humans. The absorption of provitamins depends greatly on the amount of lipids ingested with the provitamin; lipids increase the uptake of the provitamin.[

    The conclusion that can be drawn from the newer research is that fruits and vegetables are not as useful for obtaining vitamin A as was thought; in other words, the IUs that these foods were reported to contain were worth much less than the same number of IUs of fat-dissolved oils and (to some extent) supplements. This is important for vegetarians, as night blindness is prevalent in countries where little meat or vitamin A-fortified foods are available.

    A sample vegan diet for one day that provides sufficient vitamin A has been published by the Food and Nutrition Board (page 120). On the other hand, reference values for retinol or its equivalents, provided by the National Academy of Sciences, have decreased. The RDA (for men) of 1968 was 5000 IU (1500 µ retinol). In 1974, the RDA was set to 1000 RE (1000 µ retinol), whereas now the Dietary Reference Intake is 900 RAE (900 µ or 3000 IU retinol). This is equivalent to 1800 µ of beta-carotene supplement (3000 IU) or 10800 µ of beta-carotene in food (18000 IU).

    VITAMIN A - DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE

    LIFE STAGE GROUP
    RDA
    Adequate intakes (AI*)
    µ / Day
    UPPER LIMIT
    µ / Day

    INFANTS

    0 to 6 months
    7 to 12 months


    400*
    500*


    600
    600

    CHILDREN

    1 to 3 years
    4 to 8 years


    300
    400


    600
    900

    MALES

    9 to 13 years
    14 to 18 years
    19 to >70 years


    600
    900
    900


    1700
    2800
    3000

    FEMALES

    9 to 13 years
    14 to 18 years
    19 to >70 years


    600
    700
    700


    1700
    2800
    3000

    PREGNANCY

    <19 years
    19 to >50 years


    750
    770


    2800
    3000

    LACTATION

    <19 years
    19 to >50 years


    1200
    1300


    2800
    3000

    (The limit is for synthetic and natural retinol ester forms of vitamin A. Carotene forms from dietary sources are not toxic.

    According to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, "RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data prevents being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake."


    DOSAGE CAUTIONS

    Do not exceed recommended doses of vitamin A. Large doses of preformed vitamin A can build up to toxic levels.

    If you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant, do not take more than 5,000 to 10,000 IU of vitamin A daily. Higher amounts may result in birth defects. Practice birth control if consuming doses greater than 5,000 to 10,000 IU, and for a month after stopping.

    AILMENTS
    DOSAGE
    Acne
    50,000 IU a day; reduce dose to 25,000 IU a day when healing is noticed or after 1 month. Take no more than 5,000-10,000 IU per day if you are pregnant.
    Bronchitis
    Acute: 50,000 IU a day for 5 days, then reduce to 5,000 IU a day until recovered.

    Chronic: 10,000 IU a day. Take no more than 5,000-10,000 IU per day if you are pregnant.
    Burns
    50,000 IU daily for no more than 10 days; pregnant women should take no more than 5,000-10,000 IU a day.
    Cold Sores
    25,000 IU twice a day for 5 days. Liquid vitamin A can also be applied directly to cold sores 3 times a day.
    Common Cold
    50,000 IU twice a day for 5 days; then reduce to 25,000 IU a day, if necessary, for no more than 10 days.
    Crohn's Disease
    At least 5,000 IU a day; should be partially covered by your daily multi-vitamin and antioxidant. Pregnant women should take no more than 5,000 to 10,000 IU daily.
    Cuts, Scrapes, & Wounds
    50,000 IU twice a day for 5 days or until wound appears to be healing nicely; pregnant women should not exceed 5,000 to 10,000 IU daily.
    Ear Aches
    50,000 IU twice a day until symptoms improve; if needed after 7 days, reduce to 25,000 IU a day for one week or until symptoms are gone. Women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy should not exceed 5,000 to 10,000 IU a day.
    Eczema
    Acute: 50,000 IU a day for 10 days, then reduce dose to 25,000 IU a day.

    Chronic: 5,000 to 10,000 IU day; may be partially covered by your daily multi-vitamin and antioxidant complex.
    Flu
    50,000 IU twice a day for 5 days; then reduce to 25,000 a day, if necessary, for no more than 10 days.
    Hair Problems
    10,000 IU a day; may be covered by daily multivitamin and antioxidant complex.
    Kidney Stones
    Acute: 50,000 IU a day for 1 week following passage of a stone.

    Maintenance: 10,000 IU a day; may be partially covered by your daily multivitamin and antioxidant complex.
    Psoriasis
    50,000 IU a day for one month; then reduce to 25,000 IU a day. Women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy should not exceed 5,000 to 10,000 IU a day.
    Rosacea
    25,000 IU a day for 2 months; then 10,000 IU a day. Pregnant women should take no more than 5,000 to 10,000 IU daily.
    Shingles
    25,000 IU twice a day for acute attacks (up to 10 days); should be partially covered by your daily multivitamin and antioxidant. Pregnant women should take no more than 5,000 to 10,000 IU daily.
    Sore Throat
    50,000 IU twice a day until symptoms improve; if needed after 7 days, reduce dose to 25,000 IU a day. Do not use longer than 10 days at this dose.
    Strains & Sprains
    25,000 IU twice day for 5 days; pregnant women should not exceed 5,000 to 10,000 IU a day.
    Hyperthyroid Disease
    For Hyperthyroidism: 10,000 IU a day; may be partially covered by a daily multi-vitamin and/or antioxidant complex.
    Ulcers
    100,000 IU daily for 7 days, then 10,000 IU a day for one month.
    Warts
    25,000 IU twice a day for 10 days.

    REFERENCES

  • National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, in conjunction with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in the Office of the Director of NIH.


  • VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY

  • If You Get Too Little: Vitamin A deficiency rarely occurs in the United States, but it is still a major public health problem in the developing world. Although few people in the United States suffer from a deficiency of vitamin A, those with vitamin-poor diets are at risk (indeed, some elderly individuals fall into this category). From 3 to 10 million children develop xeropthalmia, damage to the cornea of the eye, and 250,000 to 500,000 go blind each year from a deficiency of vitamin A. Most of these children live in developing countries.

  • Signs of Vitamin A Deficiency: Low levels can significantly reduce resistance to infection, cause a flaky scalp, and contribute to heavy or prolonged menstrual periods. And very low levels of this nutrient can cause night blindness or even complete blindness.

  • Night blindness is one of the first signs of vitamin A deficiency. In ancient Egypt it was known that night blindness could be cured by eating liver, which was later found to be a rich source of vitamin A.

    Vitamin A deficiency contributes to:
    • Blindness by making the eye very dry and promoting damage to the retina of the eye.
    • Dry skin, dry hair, broken fingernails.
    • Decreased resistance to infections.

    In countries where immunization programs are not widespread and vitamin A deficiency is common, millions of children die each year from complications of infectious diseases such as measles. When there is not enough vitamin A, cells lining the lung lose their ability to remove disease-causing microorganisms. This may contribute to the pneumonia associated with vitamin A deficiency.

    There is increased interest in subclinical forms of vitamin A deficiency, described as low storage levels of vitamin A that do not cause overt deficiency symptoms. This mild degree of vitamin A deficiency may increase children's risk of developing respiratory and diarrheal infections, decrease growth rate, slow bone development, and decrease likelihood of survival from serious illness. Children living in the United States who are considered to be at increased risk for subclinical vitamin A deficiency include:
    • Toddlers and preschool age children.
    • Children living at or below the poverty level.
    • Children with inadequate health care or immunizations.
    • Children living in areas with known nutritional deficiencies.
    • Recent immigrants or refugees from developing countries with high incidence of vitamin A deficiency or measles.
    • Children with diseases of the pancreas, liver, intestines, or with inadequate fat digestion/absorption.

    Vitamin A deficiency can also occur when vitamin A is lost through diarrhea, depletion of liver stores of vitamin A, and through an overall inadequate intake, as is often seen with protein-calorie malnutrition.

    Low plasma retinol concentration, which is considered a good indicator of inadequate vitamin A nutritional status, can also result from an inadequate intake of protein, calories, and zinc. These nutrients are needed to make Retinol Binding Protein (RBP), which is essential for mobilizing vitamin A from your liver and transporting vitamin A to your general circulation.

    Iron deficiency can also limit the metabolism of vitamin A, and iron supplements provided to iron deficient individuals may improve vitamin A nutriture as much as iron status.

    Excess alcohol intake depletes vitamin A from your body and is associated with reduced vitamin A intake. It is very important for anyone who consumes excessive amounts of alcohol to include good sources of vitamin A in his or her diet. Vitamin A supplementation may not be recommended for individuals who abuse alcohol because alcohol may increase liver toxicity associated with excess intakes of vitamin A. A medical practitioner would need to evaluate this situation and determine the need for vitamin A supplementation.

    VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY PREVENTION

    As a result of the adverse health effects of vitamin A deficiency in children, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) issued joint statements about vitamin A and children's health. Both agencies recommend vitamin A administration for all children diagnosed with measles in communities where vitamin A deficiency is a serious problem and where death from measles is greater than 1 percent. In 1994, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended vitamin A supplementation for two subgroups of children likely to be at high risk for subclinical vitamin A deficiency. These subgroups were children 6 to 24 months of age who had been hospitalized with measles and hospitalized children older than 6 months.

    Fat malabsorption can promote diarrhea and prevent normal absorption of vitamin A. This is most often seen with cystic fibrosis, sprue, pancreatic disorders, and after stomach surgery. Healthy adults usually have a one-year reserve of vitamin A stored in their livers and should not be at risk of deficiency during periods of temporary or short term fat malabsorption. Long-term problems absorbing fat, however, can result in deficiency, and in these instances physicians may advise vitamin A supplementation. Children may only have enough stores of vitamin A to last several weeks. Physicians treating children with fat malabsorption may recommend vitamin A supplementation.

    Vegetarians who do not consume eggs and dairy foods need greater amounts of provitamin A carotenoids to meet their need for vitamin A. It is important for vegetarians to include a minimum of five servings of fruits and vegetables daily and to regularly choose dark green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits to consume recommended amounts of vitamin A.





    VITAMIN A & BETA CAROTENE SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    VITAMIN A - SAFETY CONCERNS

    Antibiotics, laxatives, and some cholesterol-lowering drugs interfere with vitamin A absorption.

    If you have liver disease, do not take a daily dose of over 10,000 IU of vitamin A in pill form, or any amount of cod liver oil. If you are pregnant, do not take more than 10,000 IU of vitamin A daily. Children should not take more than 18,000 IU of vitamin A on a daily basis for over one month.

    If you hypothyroidism, avoid beta-carotene, because your body probably cannot convert beta-carotene into vitamin A.

    VITAMIN A - SPECIFIC DRUG INTERACTIONS

  • Isotretinoin: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
  • Resorcinol: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
  • Sulfur Topical: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
  • Tazarotene: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.


  • EXCESSIVE VITAMIN A & VITAMIN A TOXICITY

  • If You Get Too Much: Excessive vitamin A can cause serious health problems. It is virtually impossible to get too much of this nutrient from foods; the body makes only what it needs from carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables. But care is needed when taking supplements containing "preformed" vitamin A, meaning it has been synthesized for you already during the manufacturing process.

  • Symptoms of Vitamin A Toxicity: Symptoms include dry and cracking skin, brittle nails, excessive hair loss, bleeding gums, weight loss, irritability, nausea, and fatigue. An extremely high single dose - 500,000 IU, for example - can cause vomiting and weakness.

  • Hypervitaminosis A refers to high storage levels of vitamin A in the body that can lead to toxic symptoms. There are three major adverse effects of hypervitaminosis A:
    • Birth defects.
    • Liver abnormalities.
    • Reduced bone mineral density that may result in osteoporosis.
    When toxic symptoms arise suddenly, which can happen after consuming very large amounts of preformed vitamin A over a short period of time, signs of toxicity include nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, and muscular uncoordination.

    Although hypervitaminosis A can occur when very large amounts of liver are regularly consumed, most cases of vitamin A toxicity result from an excess intake of vitamin A in supplements. The Institute of Medicine has established tolerable upper levels (UL) of intake for vitamin A from supplements to help prevent the risk of toxicity. The risk of adverse health effects increases at intakes greater than the UL.

    TABLE OF UPPER LIMITS (UL) IN MICROGRAMS (mcg) & INTERNATIONAL UNITS (IU)
    FOR RETINAL ACTIVITY EQUIVALENTS

    AGE
    CHILDREN
    MEN
    WOMEN
    PREGNANCY
    LACTATION
    Ages 0 to 12
    Months
    600 mcg
    or
    2000 IU*
           
    Ages 1 to 3
    600 mcg
    or
    2000 IU
           
    Ages 4 to 8
    900 mcg
    or
    3000 IU
           
    Ages 9 to 13
    1700 mcg
    or
    5665 IU
           
    Ages 14 to 18
     
    2800 mcg
    or
    9335 IU
    2800 mcg
    or
    9335 IU
    2800 mcg
    or
    9335 IU
    2800 mcg
    or
    9335 IU
    Ages 19 Plus
     
    3000 mcg
    or
    10,000 IU
    3000 mcg
    or
    10,000 IU
    3000 mcg
    or
    10,000 IU
    3000 mcg
    or
    10,000 IU


    Retinoids are compounds that are chemically similar to vitamin A. Over the past 15 years, synthetic retinoids have been prescribed for acne, psoriasis, and other skin disorders. Isotretinoin (Roaccutane® or Accutane®) is considered an effective anti-acne therapy. At very high doses, however, it can be toxic, which is why this medication is usually saved for the most severe forms of acne. The most serious consequence of this medication is birth defects. It is extremely important for sexually active females who may become pregnant and who take these medications to use an effective method of birth control. Women of childbearing age who take these medications are advised to undergo monthly pregnancy tests to make sure they are not pregnant.

    BETA CAROTENE SAFETY CONCERNS

    For those who smoke or drink heavily, this supplement should be used with caution due to the possibility of an increase in the risk of heart disease and cancer. Even though Beta Carotene offers protection from sunlight for people with certain skin sensitivities, it does not protect you from sunburn. Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known.

    Carotenemia or hypercarotenemia is excess carotene, but unlike excess vitamin A, carotene is non-toxic. Although hypercarotenemia is not particularly dangerous, it can lead to an oranging of the skin (carotenodermia), but not the conjunctiva of eyes (thus easily distinguishing it visually from jaundice). It is most commonly associated with consumption of an abundance of carrots, but it also can be a medical sign of more dangerous conditions.

    VITAMIN A, BETA CAROTENE & CANCER

    Surveys suggest an association between diets rich in beta-carotene and vitamin A and a lower risk of many types of cancer. There is evidence that a higher intake of green and yellow vegetables or food sources of beta-carotene and/or vitamin A may decrease the risk of lung cancer. However, a number of studies that tested the role of beta-carotene supplements in cancer prevention did not find it to be protective. In a study of 29,000 men, incidence of lung cancer was greater in the group of smokers who took a daily supplement of beta-carotene. The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, a lung cancer chemoprevention trial that provided randomized subjects with supplements of beta-carotene and vitamin A, was stopped after researchers discovered that subjects receiving beta-carotene had a 46 percent higher risk of dying from lung cancer. The IOM states that "beta-carotene supplements are not advisable for the general population," although they also state that this advice "does not pertain to the possible use of supplemental beta-carotene as a provitamin A source for the prevention of vitamin A deficiency in populations with inadequate vitamin A nutriture".

    EXCESSIVE CAROTENOIDS & HEALTH RISKS

    Nutrient toxicity traditionally refers to adverse health effects from a high intake of a particular vitamin or mineral. For example, large amounts of active, or preformed, vitamin A (naturally found in animal foods such as liver but also available in dietary supplements) can cause birth defects.

    Provitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene are generally considered safe because they are not traditionally associated with specific adverse health effects. The conversion of provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A decreases when body stores are full, which naturally limits further increases in storage levels. A high intake of provitamin A carotenoids can turn the skin yellow, but this is not considered dangerous to health.

    Recent clinical trials that associated beta-carotene supplements with a greater incidence of lung cancer and death in current smokers raised concern about the safety of beta-carotene supplements. However, conflicting studies make it difficult to interpret the health risk. For example, the Physicians' Health Study compared the effects of taking 50 mg beta-carotene every other day to a placebo (sugar pill) in over 22,000 male physicians and found no adverse health effects. Also, a trial that tested the ability of four different nutrient combinations to inhibit the development of esophageal and gastric cancers in 30,000 men and women in China suggested that after 5 years those participants who took a combination of beta-carotene, selenium and vitamin E had a 13 percent reduction in cancer deaths. One point to consider is that there may be a relationship between alcohol and beta-carotene because "only those men who consumed more than 11 grams per day of alcohol (approximately one drink per day) showed an adverse response to B-carotene supplementation" in the lung cancer trial.

    The Institute of Medicine did not set a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for carotene or carotenoids. Instead, they concluded that beta-carotene supplements are not advisable for the general population. As stated earlier, however, they may be appropriate as a provitamin A source or for the prevention of vitamin A deficiency in specific populations.





    VITAMIN A & RELATED SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

  • A-E Mulsion Forte Supplement Products
  • Alpha Carotene Supplement Products
  • Beta Carotene Supplement Products
  • Beta & Mixed Carotene Complex Products

  • Carotene Complex Supplement Products
  • Micellized Vitamin A Supplement Products
  • Vitamin A Supplement Products



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    Single nutrient Alpha Carotene supplements are not available from our merchants. See Carotene Complex Supplements or obtain your dietary Alpha Carotene requirements from your foods.

    alpha-carotene foods


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    Nutrients that nourish the thymus gland and increases antibody production. All organs with duct systems require these nutrients.

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    Important antioxidants. Protects the lungs, needed for growth and repair of the body tissues and smooth skin. Powerful antioxidants promote healing. Take 25,000 IU daily.

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    HerbsPro: Vitamins A & D Fish Liver Oil, Thompson Nutritional Products, 10,000 IU, 30 Softgels (35722)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A Retinyl Palmitate, Thompson Nutritional Products, 10,000 IU, 30 Softgels (35724)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A, Now Foods, 10,000 IU, 100 Softgels (67657)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 10,000 IU, 100 Softgels (100504)
    HerbsPro: Natural Vitamin A, FoodScience of Vermont, 10,000 IU, 100 Caps (74939)
    HerbsPro: Dry Vitamin A, Country Life, 10,000 IU, 100 Tabs (37518)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A, Country Life, 10,000 IU, 100 Softgels (37517)
    HerbsPro: Natural Vitamin A, FoodScience of Vermont, 10,000 IU, 100 Caps (74939)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A & D-3, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 10,000 IU/400 IU, 100 Softgels (100505)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A & D, Source Naturals, 10,000 IU/400 IU, 100 Tabs (3786)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A & D-3, Solgar, 10,000 IU/400 IU, 100 Softgels (36806)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A & D-3, Country Life, 10,000 IU/400 IU, 100 Softgels (37516)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A & D, Now Foods, 10,000 IU/400 IU, 100 Softgels (67653)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A, Natural Factors, 10,000 IU, 180 Softgels (84223)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A Palmitate, Vision Support, Source Naturals, 10,000 IU, 250 Tabs (6743)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A & D, Source Naturals, 10,000 IU/400 IU, 250 Tabs (3787)
    HerbsPro: Natural Vitamin A, FoodScience of Vermont, 25,000 IU, 100 Caps (74940)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A, Now Foods, 25,000 IU, 100 Softgels (67658)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A, Natures Life, 25,000 IU, 100 Softgels (90387)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A, Natures Life, 25,000 IU, 250 Softgels (89725)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A & D-3, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 25,000 IU/1000 IU, 100 Softgels (100506)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A Wrinkle Skin Treatment Oil With Vitamin E, Derma-E, 2 oz. (49640)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A Pore Refining Skin Gel, Derma-E, 2 oz. (88033)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A Pore Refining Skin Mask, Derma-E, 4 oz. (88032)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A Glycolic Skin Facial Scrub, Derma-E, 4 oz. (86221)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A Glycolic Skin Cleanser, Derma-E, 6 oz. (86219)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A Glycolic Skin Toner, Derma-E, 6 oz. (86220)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A Wrinkle Skin Treatment Gel, 8 oz. Derma-E, 8 oz. (25130)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin A & E Skin Moisturizer, Kiss My Face, 16 oz. (65199)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Vitamin A & D Allergy D, TwinLab, 400 IU, 100 Caps: K

    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Vitamin A Supplement Products
    Amazon: Vitamin A Retinol
    Amazon: Vitamin A Oil Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Vitamin A Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Vitamin A Antioxidant Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |






    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




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