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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Vitamins
CHOLINE


"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Choline Description & Overview
  • Choline Uses, Health Benefits, & Scientific Evidence
  • Choline Dosage Information
  • Choline Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Choline Supplement Products




  • CHOLINE DESCRIPTION

    A WATER-SOLUBLE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT

    Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient. It is usually grouped withinh the B-Complex Vitamins. Cholihe generally refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation.The cation appears in the head groups of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, two classes of phospholipids that are abundant in cell membranes. Choline is the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in many functions including memory and muscle control.

    Choline must be consumed through the diet for the body to remain healthy. It is used in the synthesis of the constructional components in the body's cell membranes. The 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey stated that only 2-percent of postmenopausal women consume the recommended intake for choline

    HISTORY

    Choline was discovered by Andreas Strecker in 1862 and chemically synthesized in 1866. It was first isolated from pig and ox bile in 1862) When it was first chemically synthesized by Oscar Liebreich in 1865, it was known as neurine until 1898 when it was shown to be chemically identical to choline. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (U.S.A.) classified Choline as an essential nutrient in 1998 and Adequate Intakes (AI) have been established. Choline is something the body can make naturally. It is found in many foods such as cabbage, egg yolk, liver, caviar, cauliflower, lentils, and nuts, which makes it difficult to become Choline deficient.

    Choline's importance as a nutrient was first appreciated in the early research on insulin functions when choline was found to be the necessary nutrient in preventing fatty liver. In 1975, scientists discovered that the administration of choline increased the synthesis and release of acetylcholine by neurons. These discoveries led to the increased interest in dietary choline and brain function.

    A 2010 study tested postmenopausal women with low estrogen levels to see if they were more susceptible to the risk of organ dysfunction if not given a choline-sufficient diet. When deprived of choline in their diets, 73-percent of postmenopausal women given a placebo developed liver or muscle damage, but this was reduced to 17-percent if estrogen supplements were given. The study also noted young women should be supplied with more choline because pregnancy is a time when the body's demand for choline is highest. Choline is particularly used to support the fetus's developing nervous system.

    Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO).





    CHOLINE USES, HEALTH BENEFITS, & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    PHYSIOLOGY

    Choline and its metabolites are needed for three main physiological purposes: structural integrity and signaling roles for cell membranes, cholinergic neurotransmission (acetylcholine synthesis), and a major source for methyl groups via its metabolite, trimethylglycine (betaine), which participates in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis pathways.

    BENEFITS

    Choline is needed for the proper transmission of nerve impulses from the brain through the central nervous system, as well as for gallbladder regulation, liver function, and lecithin formation. It aids in hormone production and minimizes excess fat in the liver because it aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism. Without choline, brain function and memory are impaired. Choline is beneficial for disorders of the nervous system such as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. A deficiency may result in fatty buildup in the liver, as well as in cardiac symptoms, gastric ulcers, high blood pressure, the inability to digest fats, kidney and liver impairment, and stunted growth.

    WEIGHT LOSS & CELLULAR FUNCTION

    It is believed Choline can increase the mobilization of fatty acids, thereby helping people loose body fat. Choline is widely used as part of a weight control program, but more importantly it has been used to control fat and cholesterol buildup in the body, prevent fat from accumulating in the liver, and facilitate the movement of fats in the cells. Choline has also been used to help regulate the kidneys, liver, and gallbladder. It is an important factor in nerve transmission and can help improve memory. Some studies have shown evidence that Choline supplements, if taken at the right time and in the right dosage, may help the nervous system continue to stimulate muscle cells, which would be helpful to distance runners in maintaining their pace to the finish line.

    Choline is an essential nutrient involved in many body functions that is easily included in the diet. Choline is important to the structure and function of cells. Choline is also the base for many metabolic functions of the body, it also helps synthesis other items: phosphatidylcholine, Choline bitartrate, Choline sphingomyelin, acetylcholine and Betaine. These nutrients are crucial to the body for they support the neurotransmitters, the cell membranes and maintain homocysteine levels and more research is being done.

    Increased Choline intake has recently been recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences for pregnant and nursing women to help ensure normal fetal brain development. Also phosphatidylcholine may be helpful in some liver diseases, manic conditions, cognitive disorders, tardive dyskinesia and possibly some cancers.

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF DIETARY CHOLINE

    Choline deficiency may play a role in liver disease, atherosclerosis, and possibly neurological disorders. One sign of choline deficiency is an elevated level of the liver enzyme ALT.

    It is particularly important for pregnant women to get enough choline, since low choline intake may raise the rate of neural tube defects in infants, and may affect their children's memory. One study found that higher dietary intake of choline shortly before and after conception was associated with a lower risk of neural tube defects. If low choline intake causes an elevated homocysteine level, it raises the risk for preeclampsia, premature birth, and very low birth weight.

    Women with diets richer in choline may have a lower risk for breast cancer, but other studies found no association.

    Some evidence suggests choline is anti-inflammatory. In the ATTICA study, higher dietary intake of choline was associated with lower levels of inflammatory markers. A small study found that choline supplements reduced symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

    Despite its importance in the central nervous system as a precursor for acetylcholine and membrane phosphatidylcholine, the role of choline in mental illness has been little studied. In a large population-based study, blood levels of choline were inversely correlated with anxiety symptoms in subjects aged 46 to 49 and 70 to 74 years. However, there was no correlation between depression and choline level in this study.

    The adequate intake is intended to be high enough to be adequate for almost all healthy people. Many people do not develop deficiency symptoms when consuming less than the adequate intake of choline. The human body synthesizes some of the choline it needs, and people vary in their need for dietary choline. In one study, premenopausal women were less sensitive to a low-choline diet than men or postmenopausal women.

    However, the adequate intake may not be enough for some people. In the same study, six of 26 men developed choline deficiency symptoms while consuming the adequate intake (and no more) of choline. The adequate intake was less than the optimal intake for the male subjects in another study.

    High dietary intake of choline was associated with an increased risk of colon adenomas (polyps), for women in the Nurses' Health Study. However, this could represent effects of other components in the foods from which choline was obtained. Dietary choline intake was not associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer, for men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    Similar to the effect on memory of choline consumption in utero or as a neonate discussed below, adult rodent dietary choline deficiency has been demonstrated to exacerbate memory loss, and diets high in choline appear to diminish memory loss. Further, choline-supplemented older mice performed as well as young three-month-old mice, and supplemented mice were noted to have more dendritic spines per neuron within the hippocampus. However, no similar work has been done in humans.

    PHARMACEUTICAL USES OF CHOLINE

    Choline supplementation can be used in the treatment of liver disorders, hepatitis, glaucoma, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, bipolar disorder, and possibly other neurological disorders. Choline has also been shown to have a positive effect on those suffering from alcoholism.

    The National Institute of Health funded research study Citicoline Brain Injury Treatment Trial (COBRIT) gathered data regarding the potential benefits of the long-term supplementation of the choline phospholipid (Phosphatidylcholine) intermediate citicoline for recover after traumatic brain injury, but the study was terminated early by futility due to a lack of effectiveness.

    MEDICAL IMAGING USES

    Choline can be labelled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 which are radioactive positron emitters, enabling medical imaging on a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. This type of scan is usually performed by a health practitioner specializing in nuclear medicine. Uses include imaging prostate and breast cancer. In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved choline C-11 as an imaging agent to be used during a PET scan to detect prostate cancer.

    PREGNANCY, FETAL DEVELOPMENT & LACTATION

    PREGNANCY & BRAIN DEVELOPMENT

    The human body can produce choline by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine by N-methyltranferase (PEMT) to form phosphatidylcholine in the liver, or it may be consumed from the diet. It has been demonstrated that both de novo production and dietary consumption are necessary, as humans eating diets lacking choline develop fatty liver, liver damage, and muscle damage. However, because of the close interplay between choline, folate, methionine, and vitamin B-12, (whose pathways overlap), the function of choline can be complex.

    To begin with, methionine can be formed two ways, either from methyl groups derived from folate, or from methyl groups derived from betaine (which gets its methyl groups from choline). Changes in one of these pathways is compensated for by the other, and if these pathways do not adequately supply methyl groups to produce methionine, the precursor to methionine, homocysteine, rises.

    Choline in food exists in either a free or esterified form (choline bound within another compound, such as phosphatidylcholine, through an ester linkage). Although all forms are most likely usable, some evidence indicates they are unequally bioavailable (able to be used by the body). Lipid-soluble forms (such as phosphytidylcholine) bypass the liver once absorbed, while water-soluble forms (such as free choline) enter the liver portal circulation and are generally absorbed by the liver. Both pregnancy and lactation increase demand for choline dramatically. This demand may be met by upregulation of PEMT via increasing estrogen levels to produce more choline de novo, but even with increased PEMT activity, the demand for choline is still so high that bodily stores are generally depleted. This is exemplified by the observation that Pemt -/- mice (mice lacking functional PEMT) will abort at 9 to 10 days unless fed supplemental choline.

    While maternal stores of choline are depleted during pregnancy and lactation, the placenta accumulates choline by pumping choline against the concentration gradient into the tissue, where it is then stored in various forms, most interestingly as acetylcholine, (an uncommon occurrence outside of neural tissue). The fetus itself is exposed to a very high choline environment as a result, and choline concentrations in amniotic fluid can be ten times higher than in maternal blood. This high concentration is assumed to allow choline to be abundantly available to tissues and cross the blood-brain barrier effectively.

    FUNCTIONS IN THE FETUS

    Choline is in high demand during pregnancy as a substrate for building cellular membranes, (rapid fetal and mother tissue expansion), increased need for one-carbon moieties (a substrate for addition of methylation to DNA and other functions), raising choline stores in fetal and placental tissues, and for increased production of lipoproteins (proteins containing "fat" portions). In particular, there is interest in the impact of choline consumption on the brain. This stems from choline's use as a material for making cellular membranes, (particularly in making phosphatidylcholine). Human brain growth is most rapid during the third trimester of pregnancy and continues to be rapid to approximately five years of age. During this time, the demand is high for sphingomyelin, which is made from phosphytidyl choline (and thus from choline), because this material is used to myelinate (insulate) nerve fibers. Choline is also in demand for the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which can influence the structure and organization of brain regions, neurogenesis, myelination, and synapse formation. Acetylcholine is even present in the placenta and may help control cell proliferation/differentiation (increases in cell number and changes of multiuse cells into dedicated cellular functions) and parturition. Choline may also impact methylation of CpG dinucleotides in DNA in the brain. This methylation can change genome expression (which genes are turned on and which are turned off) and thus fetal programming (the act of arranging so that certain genes are by default turned off or turned on in the absence of external forces).

    What choline does within the fetus is determined by its concentration. At low choline concentrations, it is preferentially shunted towards making phospholids. As concentrations rise, free choline is converted in liver mitochondria to betaine, which is used as a source of methyl groups for DNA methylation, etc. However, should concentrations of choline decrease enough, the PEMT pathway is up regulated, (activated). The PEMT pathway allows for creation of new choline without consuming choline from the diet. This pathway has been shown to produce up to 30-percent of needed phosphotidylcholine. Interestingly, PEMT-produced phosphytidyl choline tends to have longer, less saturated fatty acids than that produced directly from choline via the CDP-choline pathway.

    Concentration is also important in getting choline into the brain for use to prevent neural nonclosure and poor brain development. Choline uptake into the brain is controlled by a low-affinity (not particularly efficient) transporter located at the blood-brain barrier. Transport occurs when arterial plasma choline concentrations increase above 14 µmol/l, which can occur during a spike in choline concentration after consuming choline-rich foods. Neurons, conversely, acquire choline by both high- and low-affinity transporters. Choline is stored as membrane-bound phosphytidylcholine, which can then be used for acetylcholine neurotransmitter synthesis later. Acetylcholine is formed as needed, travels across the synapse, and transmits the signal to the following neuron. Afterwards, acetylcholinesterase degrades it, and the free choline is taken up by a high-affinity transporter into the neuron again.

    NEURAL TUBE CLOSURE

    While folate is most well known for preventing neural tube nonclosure (the basis for its addition to prenatal vitamins), folate and choline metabolism are interrelated. Both choline and folate (with the help of vitamin B-12) can act as methyl donors to homocysteine to form methionine, which can then go on to form SAM (S-Adenosyl methionine) and act as a methyl donor for methylation of DNA. Dietary choline deficiency alone without concurrent folate deficiency can decrease SAM concentration, suggesting that both folate and choline are important sources of methyl groups for SAM production. Inhibition of choline absorption and use is associated with neural-tube defects in mice, and this may also occur in humans. A retrospective case control study (a study that collects data after the fact, from cases occurring without the investigator causing them to occur) of 400 cases and 400 controls indicated that women with the lowest daily choline intake had a four-fold greater risk of having a child with a neural-tube defect than women in the highest quartile of intake.

    CHOLINE IN UTERO & LONG-TERM MEMORY

    Maternal dietary consumption or lack of consumption of choline during late pregnancy in rodents was related to irreversible changes in hippocampal function in adult rodents, including changes in long-term memory capacity. Increased consumption of choline in rodent dams by about four times dietary recommendations during days 11 to 17 of pregnancy increased hippocampal cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis (programmed cell death) of these cells in their fetuses. This may occur because, in choline-deficient cells in culture, and in fetal rodent brains from choline deficient dams, the promoter of CDKN3, a gene which inhibits cell proliferation in the brain, is not properly methylated. This leaves CDKN3 active, decreasing cell proliferation in the brain. Increased choline consumption by rodent dams has shown improved auditory and visuaspatial memory in offspring, as well as preventing age-related memory decline as their offspring grew old. The capacity of choline consumption by dams to improve the memory of their offspring has been shown in a variety of memory tests, including the radial-arm maze, Morris water maze, passive avoidance paradigms, and measures of attention. It has also been demonstrated in a variety of rat strains - including Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans, and in mice. This suggests the effect of choline consumption on the fetus in utero is universal among rodents. However, the mechanism behind this response is not fully understood. The effect of neonatal choline on memory has been suggested to come from increasing the amount of choline in the brain, and subsequently, the amount of acetylcholine that can be produced and released. However, the amount of choline that accumulates in the brain after consumption of choline by pregnant dams does not seem to be sufficient to change the acetylcholine release. Instead, choline consumption by dams was noted to increase phosphocholine and betaine in the fetal brain.

    These findings are in rodents, a species with faster brain maturation and a more mature brain at birth than is typical for humans. In humans, the brain continues to develop after birth, and does not become similar to its adult structure until around four years of age. By feeding infants formula instead of milk, and presumably through differences in choline amount in the breast milk of mothers consuming different choline levels, the still-developing brain of an infant may be impacted, which may, in part, contribute to the differences seen between individual adult humans in memory and recall.

    IMPACT OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS (GENETIC VARIATION)

    Some men and women develop organ dysfunction when fed low-choline diets, while others do not, and the range in choline requirements for optimal health is large, from 850 mg/70 kg/day to 550 mg/kg/day. This difference has been attributed to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in choline metabolic pathways, (SNPs change the RNA code, and can subsequently change the arrangement of the protein made from that RNA, leading to differences in protein function between the normal version and the SNP version). For example, folate-pathway polymorphisms may limit the usability of folate for SAM production - thereby making a person more dependent on choline for SAM production. PEMT polymorphisms change the amount of choline that can be synthesized de novo, (increasing the amount of choline that must be supplied by the diet).

    In one study, a common genetic polymorphism, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase1958A (MTHFDI), in folate metabolism made premenopausal women 15 times more likely to develop signs of choline deficiency on a low-choline diet as non-carriers of the SNP (p < 0.0001). The impact of this SNP is quite large. 63-percent of the study population had at least one allele with the SNP. The MTHFD1 allele is believed to change the flux between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, which influences the availability of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate for homocysteine methylation (and subsequent methionine and then SAM production). This would mean more choline would be shunted towards methylation to make up for the lack of folate participation in the pathway. A real-world application of this is the risk of having a child with a neural-tube defect is increased in mothers with the G1958A SNP in MTHFD1. Additionally, mice that are Mthfr -/- (lacking MTHFR) become choline deficient, suggesting that humans with genetic polymorphisms that alter the functionality of the enzyme may also have choline deficiency problems.

    SNPs have also been found in PEMT (responsible for de novo choline production). Ziesel, et al., located an SNP in the promoter region of the PEMT gene that was related to increased susceptibility to choline deficiency in women. Since sexual differences in the impact of this SNP were found, Ziesel suggested this SNP alters the estrogen responsiveness of the promoter region of the PEMT gene. The group also located another SNP in exon 8 (the coding portion of a gene) of PEMT with 30-percent loss of function of PEMT and increased risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as an end result.

    Not all SNPs in choline/folate-related genes have been shown to impact choline needs, though. C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in MTHFR and A80C polymorphism in the reduced folate carrier gene have not been found to be significant.

    CHOLINE & LACTATION

    The human mammary gland is composed of several cell types, including adipose (fat cells), muscle, ductal epithelium, and mammary epithelium (referred to sometimes as lactocytes). The mammary epithelium is the site for excretion of raw materials into the milk supply, including choline. This occurs, for the fat portion of the milk, by apocrine secretion, where vacuoles containing materials bud off the cell into the lumen (storage) of the alveolus (milk secretion gland). From here the milk will be released upon stimulation with oxytocin via suckling. The mammary gland may have evolved from the innate immune system, and lactation may be connected to inflammation - based on the observation that inflammation signaling pathways, NF-KB and Jak/Stat are found both in inflammatory responses and lactation. If this is true, it highlights the role of the mammary gland not only as a source of energy, but also as a major contributor to preparing offspring for survival in the outside world.

    CHOLINE IN MILK

    Choline can be found in milk as free choline, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylcholine, and choline levels within breast milk are correlated with choline levels in maternal blood. Choline consumed via breast milk has been shown to impact blood levels of choline in breast-fed infants - indicating that choline consumed in breast milk is entering the neonatal system. Choline may enter the milk supply either directly from the maternal blood supply, or choline-containing nutrients may be produced within the mammary epithelium. Choline reaches the milk through a transporter specific for choline from the maternal blood supply (against a concentration gradient) into the mammary epithelial cells. At high concentrations (greater than that typically seen in humans), choline can diffuse across the cell membrane into the mammary epithelium cell. At more normal concentrations, it passes via what is believed to be a calcium/sodium-dependent, phosphorylation-related, active transporter into the cell. It may also be produced within the mammary epithelium de novo via the PEMT pathway. Once choline-containing milk has been consumed by the neonate, it is used for formation of acetylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and choline plasmalogens for cell membrane production in mice, and the majority of the choline in human milk is supplied as phosphocholine. Research also demonstrated the hormone insulin may stimulate choline uptake into mouse mammary cells, and prolactin encouraged choline incorporation into lipids when cells were concurrently treated with insulin and cortisol.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FULL-TERM & PREMATURE MOTHERS & INFANTS

    Research reported the choline content in mature breast milk from mothers delivering preterm was significantly lower than the choline content from mothers delivering at term. However, choline esters (choline-containing compounds) did not differ in concentration between preterm and full-term mothers. Mothers delivering before full term may not have adequate mammary development, and may not reach full mammary development by the time they begin producing mature milk. Choline content may be lower in preterm mothers possibly because of this effect. However, it was found that significant improvement at 18 months and at 7.5 to 8 years of age in IQ score among preterm infants who were fed breast milk via tube in comparison to those who were not fed breast milk, suggesting that even if the mammary gland may be "immature", breast milk produced by it still has benefit. Additionally, preterm infants fed formula prepared for term infants had lower mental performance than those fed formula prepared specifically for preterm infants, but this effect was diminished between preterm infants fed donated breast milk and those fed preterm formula. Further supporting this, research also found, of the factors examined, consumption of mothers' milk was the most significantly related to later IQ performance.

    Additionally, a meta-analysis found the low-birth-weigh infants derived more benefit from breast feeding, (in terms of IQ score later in life) than did normal-weight infants also being breast-fed. Summarization of the meta-analysis of 24 studies stated "an advantage in IQ to breast-fed infants of the order of five points for term infants and eight points for low birth weight infants [was observed]. Arguably, increases in IQ of these magnitudes would have relatively subtle impact at an individual level. However, the potential impact at a population level must also be considered."

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BREASTMILK AND FORMULA

    Human milk is very rich in choline, but formulas derived from other sources, particularly soy, have lower total choline concentrations than human milk (and also lack other important nutrients, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, sialylated oligosaccharides, thyroid-stimulating hormone, neurotensin, nerve growth factor, and the enzymes lysozyme and peroxidase). Bovine milk and bovine-derived formulas had similar or higher glycerophosphocholine compared to human milk, and soy-derived formulas had lower glycerophosphocholine content. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin concentrations were similar between bovine formulas and human milk, but soy-derived infant formulas had more phosphatidylcholine than human or bovine sources. Soy-derived formulas had less sphingomyelin than human milk, which is a concern, since sphingomyelin is used for producing myelin, which insulates neurons. Free choline concentrations in mature human milk were 30 to 80-percent lower than those found in bovine milk or formulas. Mature human milk also has lower free choline than colostrum-transitional human milk. Phosphocholine is particularly abundant in human milk. Overall, formulas, milks, and breast milk appear to provide different amounts and forms of choline, and research suggests, "This may have consequences for the relative balance between use of choline as a methyl donor (via betaine), acetylcholine precursor (via choline), or phospholipid precursor (via phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine)". This is supported by Ilcol et al.'s observations that serum free choline concentrations were lower in formula-fed infants than in breast-fed infants.
    br> The magnitude of the effect of breastfeeding on IQ is somewhat lower than that of anemia and lead burden. Yet feeding mode is an intervention that affects the whole population, thus, the net effect of improving IQ by 3 points may be similar if not larger than that of gaining 6 points in 5 to 10-percent of the children. Additionally, the burden of proof should be placed on those who propose that feeding formula from a bottle can equal feeding milk from the breast. Some science supports this proposal. After adjusting for social and educational factors on development, still found that preterm children consuming breast milk via tube performed over half a standard deviation higher on IQ tests at 7.5 to 8 years of age than their cohorts who did not receive breast milk. Previously, they had also found an improvement in cognitive development as early as 18 months in preterm infants consuming breast milk versus those not consuming breast milk.

    The argument has been made that the increased IQ and developmental performance exhibited by breastfed infants stems from interaction between the mother and child as well as, or without any additional input from, the actual milk. Research suggests that lactation increases oxytocin and prolactin production, generating feelings of well-being in the mother and encouraging nurturing behavior. This may lead to better mother-child relationships and that may in turn generate improved neural performance. Additionally, social class and maternal education are highly correlated with type of infant feeding, (formula vs. breastfeeding), while also being correlated to observed cognitive performance. However, some refutes the assumption that fluid breast milk itself has no or minimal beneficial function on cognitive performance later in life. They report an increase in IQ between preterm infants, (and later 7.5 to 8 year old children), provided with breast milk and those not provided with breast milk via nasogastric tube, without any interaction between mother and offspring and with controlling for social and educational factors.

    CURRENT CONSUMPTION LEVELS BY LACTATING & PREGNANT WOMEN

    Research found that 25-percent of pregnant women studied in California had observed intakes of less than half the estimated daily choline intake for women.

    COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE & CHOLINE IN BREASTMILK

    As previously stated, choline is necessary for neural development and is higher in breast milk than in formula, so choline may be playing a role in the higher performance of breastfed infants. However, in the meta-analysis under discussion, the author attributed increased cognitive performance to presence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, which are lipid components within the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid is enriched in phospholipids produced through the PEMT pathway, (previously mentioned as the pathway responsible for de novo choline production). This means choline production contributes to the body's docosahexaenoic acid pool, and may have implications for docosahexaenoic acid/choline cotransfer into breastmilk. In this meta-analysis they state that the difference between formula and breastfed infants is derived from a lack of these LCPUFAs in infant formulas available in the United States, and no data connecting choline content of the diet and de novo choline production to docosahexaenoic acid has come to light, (data was not provided for formula sources from other countries). Since choline also plays a role in brain development, and differences in choline are present between breast milk and formula, it seems possible that choline could also be playing a role in observed IQ score improvement in breast-fed offspring.


  • Information obtained from Wikipedia.org: Choline





  • CHOLINE DIETARY SOURCES

    SUPPLEMENTS FORMS

    The most often available choline supplement is lecithin, derived from soy or egg yolks, often used as a food additive. Phosphatidylcholine is also available as a supplement, in pill or powder form. Supplementary choline is also available as choline chloride, which comes as a liquid due to its hydrophilic properties.

    An adequate intake of Choline is recommended to be 550 mg per day for men and 425 mg a day for women. Choline is safe to take as a regular supplement. Always read product label directions before use.

    The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences is impressed enough with the research to date that it has recently recommended that 425 milligrams of Choline daily for adult women who are not pregnant, 450 milligrams daily for pregnant women and 550 milligrams daily for nursing women.

    DIETARY SOURCES

    The following foods contain significant amounts of choline: egg yolks, lecithin, legumes, meat, milk, soybeans, and whole-grain cereals.

    FOOD
    AMOUNT (Imperial)
    AMOUNT (Metric)
    CHOLINE (mg)
    CALORIES
    Soy Lecithin Granules
     
    15 g
    450
    120
    Raw Beef Liver
    5 ounces
    142 g
    473
    192
    Sunflower Lecithin Syrup
     
    32 g
    544
    250
    Cauliflower
    1 pound
    454 g
    177
    104
    Large Hardboiled Egg
    1
    50 g
    147
    78
    Broccoli
    1 pound
    454 g
    182
    158
    Brewer's Yeast
    2 tablespoons
    30 g
    120
    116
    Cod Fish
    0.5 pound
    227 g
    190
    238
    Spinach
    1 pound
    454 g
    113
    154
    Wheat Germ
    1 cup
    240 mL
    202
    432
    Soybeans, Dry
     
    100 g
    116
    268
    Milk, 1% Fat
    1 quart
    946 mL
    173
    410
    Firm Tofu
    2 cups
    470 mL
    142
    353
    Chicken
    0.5 pound
    227 g
    150
    543
    Cooked Kidney Beans
    2 cups
    2 cups
    108
    450
    Uncooked Quinoa
    1 cup
    1 cup
    119
    626
    Uncooked Amaranth
    1 cup
    1 cup
    135
    716
    Grapefruit
    1
    1
    19
    103
    Peanuts
    1 cup
    146 g
    77
    828
    Almonds
    1 cup
    143 g
    74
    822
    Cooked Brown Rice
    3 cups
    710 mL
    54
    649

    Besides cauliflower, other cruciferous vegetables may also be good sources of choline.
    Sinapine is a quaternary ammonium alkaloid found in black mustard seeds. It is a choline ester of sinapic acid.


    The USDA Nutrients Database has choline content for many foods. If the USDA Nutrients Database does not list choline content for a food, try looking for a similar food in the database Choline Content of Common Foods. Then, look up that food in the USDA Nutrients Database.


    NECESSARY CHOLINE FOR HUMANS

    The following table lists the necessary choline for humans. This is the daily adequate intake (AI) levels and upper limits (UL) for choline in milligrams, taken from a report published in 2000 by the American Institute of Medicine.

    >
    LIFE STAGE GROUP
    AI
    UL
    Infants
    (mg/day)
    (mg/day)
    0 to 6 Months
    7 to 12 Months
    125
    150
    ND
    ND
    Children
     
    1 to 3 Years
    4 to 8 Years
    200
    250
    1000
    1000
    Males
     :
    9 to 13 Years
    14 to 18 Years
    19 to 30 Years
    31 to 50 Years
    50 to 70 Years
    Over 70 Years
    375
    550
    550
    550
    550
    550
    2000
    3000
    3500
    3500
    3500
    3500
    Females
     :
    9 to 13 Years
    14 to 18 Years
    19 to 30 Years
    31 to 50 Years
    50 to 70 Years
    Over 70 Years
    375
    400
    425
    425
    425
    425
    2000
    3000
    3500
    3500
    3500
    3500
    Pregnancy
     
    </= 18 Years
    19 to 30 Years
    31 to 50 Years
    450
    450
    450
    3000
    3500
    3500
    Lactation
     
    </= 18 Years
    19 to 30 Years
    31 to 50 Years
    550
    550
    550
    3000
    3500
    3500

    AI: Adequate Intake
    UL: Tolerable Upper Limit Intake Levels


    CHOLINE AS A DIETARY SUPPLEMENT

    Choline or betaine supplements may reduce homocysteine.

    Choline supplements are often taken as a form of 'smart drug' or nootropic, due to the role the neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays in various cognition systems within the brain. Choline is a chemical precursor or "building block" needed to produce acetylcholine, and research suggests that memory, intelligence, and mood are mediated at least in part by acetylcholine metabolism in the brain. In a study on rats, a correlation was shown between choline intake during pregnancy and mental task performance of the offspring; but the same correlation has not been shown in humans. However, this human study admits that women in the current study consumed their usual diets. They were not eating choline-enriched diets and were not receiving choline supplementation. Therefore, the results indicate that choline concentrations in a physiologic range observed among women consuming a regular diet during pregnancy are not related to IQ in their offspring. It cannot be ruled out the possibility that choline supplementation could have an IQ effect.

    Initial studies on Rhesus macaques found that choline supplementation had adverse effects on the fetuses of smoking or nicotine-consuming mothers. When consumed with nicotine, choline protected some regions of the fetal brain from damage, but worsened nicotine's effects in other regions. This indicates that choline, ordinarily thought to be neuroprotectant, may worsen some of the adverse effects of nicotine.

    The compound's polar groups, the quaternary amine and hydroxyl, render it lipid-insoluble, which might suggest it would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, a choline transporter that allows transport of choline across the blood-brain barrier exists. The efficacy of these supplements in enhancing cognitive abilities is a topic of continuing debate.

    The US Food and Drug Administration requires that infant formula not made from cow's milk be supplemented with choline.

    Due to its role in lipid metabolism, choline has also found its way into nutritional supplements that claim to reduce body fat, but little or no evidence proves it has any effect on reducing excess body fat, or that taking high amounts of choline will increase the rate at which fat is metabolized.





    CHOLINE SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    SAFETY CONCERNS

    Taking excessive amounts of Choline could cause the user to have a fishy odor, nausea, depression, and could trigger existing epilepsy. It is important to follow label instructions. Other known side effects are hypotension, sweating, salivation, flatulence, and diarrhea.

    DEFICIENCY

    Most common signs of choline deficiencies are fatty liver and hemorrhage kidney necrosis. Consuming a choline-rich diet will relieve the deficiency symptoms, A study of this on animals has created some controversy due to the inconsistency in dietary modifying factors.

    FISH ODOR SYNDROME

    Trimethylaminuria or fish odor syndrome is a genetic concern. Trimethylamine, which is produced from Choline (Choline is a precursor), is excreted from the body via the urine, sweat, breath and other bodily secretions suffering a strong fisy or otherwise unpleasant body odor. Those with the primary genetic Trimethyluria (the inherited enzyme deficiency) should restrict the intake of Choline. Some people are not able to break down choline due to this genetic disorder. Choline should not be taken in such cases. Persons with trimethylaminuria are advised to restrict the intake of foods high in choline to help reduce the unpleasant body odor.

    Also, those with certain types of liver disease caused by any of the hepatitis viruses or from other etiologies may develop fishy body odor when taking supplemental Choline. Endurance athletes, and people who drink a lot of alcohol may be at risk for choline deficiency and may benefit from choline supplements. Studies on a number of different populations have found that the average intake of choline was below the adequate intake. According to recent analysis data from NHANES in 2003-2004, approximately 90 percent of older American children, men, women and pregnant women have mean choline intakes far below the adequate intake. Ten percent of fewer had usual choline intakes at or above the adequate intake levels.





    CHOLINE SUPPLEMENTS & RELATED PRODUCTS

  • Choline Supplement Products
  • Choline Cocktail & Super Choline Products
  • Inositol & Choline Products

  • Cytidine Diphosphocholine (CDP) Products
  • Inositol (IP-6) Supplement Products
  • Phosphatidyl Choline Products


  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


    FTC Advertising & Affilate Disclosure: This website has an affiliate relationship with certain merchants selling products and we recieve commissions from those sales to help support this website. Any products listed here are not listed by any rating system. We do not rate any product or post any feedback about products listed here. We leave this to the individual merchants to provide. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit. All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual.


    CHOLINE SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Choline is a common source of lecithin that is helpful for Parkinsons disease, high cholesterol, arteriosclerosis, baldness, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, eczema, alcoholism, muscular dystrophy, hypertension and disease of the nervous system.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Choline, TwinLab, 350 mg, 100 Caps (19501)
    HerbsPro: Choline, Solgar, 350 mg, 100 VCaps (36313)
    HerbsPro: Choline, Natures Way, 500 mg, 100 Tabs (17796)
    HerbsPro: Choline, Country Life, 650 mg, 100 Tabs (37082)
    HerbsPro: Choline Cocktail, Twinlab, 13.33 oz. (19502)
    HerbsPro: Choline Cocktail II With Caffeine, Twinlab, 14.85 oz. (19713)
    HerbsPro: Citicoline CDP Choline, Jarrow Formulas, 250 mg, 60 Caps (1244)
    CDP-choline stands for cytidine-5-diphosphocholine. This unique form of choline readily passes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) directly into the brain tissue.103,104 Once past the BBB, CDP-choline activates the synthesis of critical components in cell membranes, enhances cerebral energy metabolism, and increases levels of various neuro transmitters.
    HerbsPro: Citicoline CDP Choline, Jarrow Formulas, 250 mg, 120 Caps (92565)
    CDP-choline stands for cytidine-5-diphosphocholine. This unique form of choline readily passes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) directly into the brain tissue.103,104 Once past the BBB, CDP-choline activates the synthesis of critical components in cell membranes, enhances cerebral energy metabolism, and increases levels of various neuro transmitters.
    HerbsPro: Choline Inositol Complex With Pantothenic Acid, Country Life, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (37083)
    HerbsPro: Choline Inositol, Natures Way, 250/250 mg, 100 Caps (17796)
    HerbsPro: Choline & Inositol, Now Foods, 500 mg, 100 Caps (67947)
    HerbsPro: Choline & Inositol, Twinlab, 500 mg, 100 Caps (19500)
    HerbsPro: Inositol & Choline, Source Naturals, 800 mg, 50 Tabs (6962)
    HerbsPro: Inositol & Choline, Source Naturals, 800 mg, 100 Tabs (6963)
    Both inositol and choline are important components of phospholipids, which make up cell and other biological membranes and play a role in healthy nerve function.
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Natural Factors, 90 Softgels (83912)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 100 Softgels (79137)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Source Naturals, 420 mg, 90 Softgels (7285)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 420 mg, 90 Softgels (100793)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Source Naturals, 420 mg, 180 Softgels (7286)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 420 mg, 180 Softgels (100795)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Country Life, 1200 mg, 50 Softgels (37394)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Natures Life, 1200 mg, 50 Softgels (90363)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Country Life, 1200 mg, 100 Softgels (37392)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Natures Life, 1200 mg, 100 Softgels (90366)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Country Life, 1200 mg, 200 Softgels (37393)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Choline, TwinLab, 300 mg, 100 Caps: HF


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Choline Supplement Products
    Amazon: Phosphatidyl Choline Supplement Products
    Amazon: Choline & Inositol Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Inositol Vitamin Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Inositol Antioxidant Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Choline Vitamin Information



  • CHOLINE COCKTAIL & SUPER CHOLINE SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Twinlab Choline Cocktail Energy Supplement contains a state-of-the-art mixture of choline synergistically combined with DMAE, Ginkgo Biloba Extract, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and herbs. Also contains fructose (a natural sweetener). Also available in capsule form as Choline Super. MaxiLife Choline Cocktail II, Advanced Nutraceutical Drink. MaxiLife Choline Cocktail II is a scientifically advanced nutraceutical drink and brain boosting formula containing a concentrated with high potencies of Choline plus Citicoline, Phosphatidylserine, DMAE, Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Huperzine A, antioxidants and other nutritional co-factors.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Choline Cocktail Energy Drink With DMAE & Ginkgo Biloba, TwinLab, 13.33 oz. (19502)
    HerbsPro: Maxilife Choline Cocktail II With Caffeine, TwinLife 14.85 oz. (19713)
    MaxiLife Choline Cocktail II is a quick-acting and easy to digest and utilize. It also contains the most important nutrients and potencies for optimum brain function without the need to take handfuls of tablets or capsules daily. Nutritionally supports healthy brain function. Choline Cocktail is a synergistic combination of nutrients that is helpful for memory concentration, mental clarity and mental energy. Twinlab MaxiLife Choline Cocktail II, Advanced Nutraceutical Drink. MaxiLife Choline Cocktail II is a scientifically advanced nutraceutical drink and brain boosting formula containing a concentrated with high potencies of Choline plus Citicoline, Phosphatidylserine, DMAE, Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Huperzine A, antioxidants and other nutritional co-factors. MaxiLife Choline Cocktail II is a quick-acting and easy to digest and utilize. It also contains the most important nutrients and potencies for optimum brain function without the need to take handfuls of tablets/capsules daily. Nutritionally supports healthy brain function.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Choline Cocktail Supplement Products


    Amazon: Choline Cocktail, TwinLab, 13.33 oz. powder
    Dietary Supplement. Energy Drink with DMAE and Ginkgo Biloba. Twinlab Choline Cocktail Energy Drink contains a state of the art mixture of choline synergistically combined with DMAE, ginkgo biloba extract, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and herbs. Contains no crystalline nutrients. No preservatives, artificial colors or flavors. Packaged in a glass bottle for maximum stability, quality and freshness.



    Amazon: Maxilife Choline Cocktail II With Caffeine, TwinLab, 15.30 oz.
    MaxiLIFE Choline Cocktail II is a scientifically advanced nutraceutical and brain boosting formula containing a concentrated source of Ginkgo Biloba Extract. It is also synergistically combined with Choline, Phosphatidylserine, DMAE, Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Huperzine A, antioxidants and other nutritional co-factors. MaxiLIFE Choline Cocktail II is quick-acting and easy to digest and utilize. It also contains the most important nutrients and potencies for optimum brain function without the need to take handfuls of tablets or capsules daily.


  • Nutrition Basics: Choline Vitamin Information



  • INOSITOL & CHOLINE COMPLEX SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Choline & Inositol, Natures Way, 250 mg / 250 mg, 100 Caps (17797)
    HerbsPro: Choline Inositol Complex, Solgar, 500 mg/500 mg, 50 VCaps (36317)
    HerbsPro: Choline Inositol Complex With Pantothenic Acid, Country Life, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (37083)
    HerbsPro: Choline Inositol Complex With Pantothenic Acid, Country Life, 500 mg, 90 Tabs (37084)
    HerbsPro: Choline & Inositol, Solgar, 500 mg / 500 mg, 100 VCaps (36315)
    HerbsPro: Choline & Inositol, TwinLab, 500 mg, 100 Caps (19500)
    HerbsPro: Choline & Inositol, Now Foods, 500 mg, 100 Caps (67947)
    HerbsPro: Inositol & Choline, Source Naturals, 800 mg, 50 Tabs (6962)
    HerbsPro: Inositol & Choline, Source Naturals, 800 mg, 100 Tabs (6963)


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Choline Supplement Products
    Amazon: Phosphatidyl Choline Supplement Products
    Amazon: Choline & Inositol Supplement Products
    Amazon: Inositol Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Inositol Vitamin Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Inositol Antioxidant Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Choline Vitamin Information



  • CDP (CYTIDINE DIPHOSPHOCHOLINE SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Citicoline CDP Choline, Jarrow Formulas, Promotes Brain Metabolism, 250 mg, 60 Caps
    HerbsPro: CDP-Choline,Life Extension, 250 mg, 60 VCaps
    HerbsPro: Citicoline CDP Choline, Jarrow Formulas, 250 mg, 120 Caps
    HerbsPro: Neuro Optimizer, Jarrow Formulas, 120 CapsA neuro optimizing blend of Acetyl L-Carnitine, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Congizin (CDP-Choline), L-Glutamin, Phosphatidylserine (PS), Promotes breain health and function. Taurine.


    LIFE EXTENSION PRODUCTS

    LEF: Cognizin CDP-Choline, Life Extension, 250 mg, 60 VCaps
    Enhances cognition and memory function. Choline is a substance needed by the brain to produce acetylcholine, a major brain/motor neuron neurotransmitter that facilitates the transmission of impulses between neurons. The importance of choline for maintaining health in adults has been recognized for some time, but published studies point to its critical role in brain development. CDP-choline stands for cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline. This unique form of choline readily passes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) directly into the brain tissue. Once past the blood-brain barrier, CDP-choline activates the synthesis of critical components in cell membranes, enhances cerebral energy metabolism and increases levels of various neurotransmitters.


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Cognizin Citicoline, Healthy Origins, 250 mg, 30 Caps: HF
    Supports Memory Function and Healthy Cognition Healthy Origins Cognizin is a trademark for Citicoline, (also known as CDP Choline and Cytidine-5 - diphosphate choline) a nutrient that supports memory function and healthy cognition. This water soluble nutrient is essential for the synthesis component of brain tissue. Citicoline provides antioxidant defense and stimulates enhanced communication between neurons in the brain. Some clinical evidence suggests that citicoline may improve mild memory problems associated with memory.
    Kalyx: Cognizin Citicoline, Healthy Origins, 250 mg, 60 Caps: HF
    Supports Memory Function and Healthy Cognition Healthy Origins Cognizin is a trademark for Citicoline, (also known as CDP Choline and Cytidine-5 - diphosphate choline) a nutrient that supports memory function and healthy cognition. This water soluble nutrient is essential for the synthesis component of brain tissue. Citicoline provides antioxidant defense and stimulates enhanced communication between neurons in the brain. Some clinical evidence suggests that citicoline may improve mild memory problems associated with memory.
    Kalyx: Brainwave Plus, Nutricology, 120 VCaps: N
    A balanced formula of "smart nutrients" designed to enhance mental function, based on current research of the underlying mechanisms of neuro-cognitive nutritional support. The nutrients in BrainWave Plus collectively support blood circulation, neurotransmitter activity and production, which in turn supports mental alertness, healthy moods, memory and learning.
    Kalyx: Cognizin Citicoline, Health Origins, 250 mg, 150 Caps: HF
    Supports Memory Function and Healthy Cognition Healthy Origins Cognizin is a trademark for Citicoline, (also known as CDP Choline and Cytidine-5 - diphosphate choline) a nutrient that supports memory function and healthy cognition. This water soluble nutrient is essential for the synthesis component of brain tissue. Citicoline provides antioxidant defense and stimulates enhanced communication between neurons in the brain. Some clinical evidence suggests that citicoline may improve mild memory problems associated with memory.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Cytidine Diphosphocholine
    Amazon: Cognizin CDP-Choline Supplement Products

  • Choline Supplement Information



  • INOSITOL / INOSITOL HEXOPHOSPHATE (IP-6) SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Inositol, Thompson Nutritional Products, 500 mg, 30 Caps (35621)
    HerbsPro: Inositol, Solgar, 500 mg, 50 VCaps (36509)
    HerbsPro: Inositol, Now Foods, 500 mg, 100 Caps (68345)
    HerbsPro: Inositol, Natures Way, 500 mg, 100 Caps (17947)
    HerbsPro: Inositol, TwinLab, 500 mg, 100 Caps (19649)
    HerbsPro: Inositol, Solgar, 500 mg, 100 VCaps (36507)
    HerbsPro: IP6 Inositol Hexophosphate, Natural Cell Defense, Jarrow Formula, 500 mg, 120 Caps (1217)
    HerbsPro: Inositol, Jarrow Formulas, 750 mg, 100 Caps (2917)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Hexaphosphate, Now Foods, 800 mg, 100 VCaps (68346)
    HerbsPro: Inositol, Life Extension, 1000 mg, 360 Caps (91800)
    HerbsPro: IP-6, Source Naturals, 45 Tabs (20951)
    HerbsPro: IP-6, Source Naturals, 180 Tabs (20953)
    HerbsPro: Inocell IP-6 Plus AHCC, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 60 VCaps (100864)
    HerbsPro: Cell Forte With IP-6, Enzymatic Therapy, 120 Tabs (12645)
    HerbsPro: Cell Forte With IP-6, Enzymatic Therapy, 240 Tabs (12644)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Country Life, 650 mg, 2 oz. (37226)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Vegetarian, Now Foods, 2 oz. (68347)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Thompson Nutritional Products, 2 oz. (35622)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Healthy Origins, 2 oz. (64560)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Source Naturals, 2 oz. (1884)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Pure Powder, Only Natural, 2 oz. (65141)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Crystals, Source Naturals, 2 oz. (1874)
    HerbsPro: IP-6 Power Powder, Source Naturals, 1 Gram, 3 oz. (Weight: 0.29 lb) (20954)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Country Life, 650 mg, 4 oz. (37227)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Pure Powder, Vegetarian, Now Foods, 4 oz. (68348)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Country Life, 4 oz. (37227)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Pure Powder, Only Natural, 4 oz. (65142)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Source Naturals, 4 oz. (3008)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Crystals, Source Naturals, 4 oz. (2509)
    HerbsPro: IP-6 Power Powder, Source Naturals, 1 Gram (Weight: 0.54 lb) (20955)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Crystalline Powder, Vita Plus, 6 oz. (73830)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Country Life, 650 mg, 8 oz. (37228)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Pure Powder, Now Foods, 8 oz. (68349)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Country Life, 8 oz. (37228)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Source Naturals, 8 oz. (3009)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Healthy Origins, 8 oz. (64562)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Crystals, Source Naturals, 8 oz. (2510)
    HerbsPro: IP-6 Power Powder, Source Naturals, 1 Gram, 14 oz. (Weight: 1.03 lb.) (20956)
    HerbsPro: Cell Forte Powder With IP-6 & Inositol, Enzymatic Therapy, 14.6 oz. (12661)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Source Naturals, 16 oz. (62830)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, 100% Pure, Now Foods, 1 lb. (95855)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, Life Extension, 100 Grams (91746)
    HerbsPro: Inositol Powder, For Fat Metabolism & Cell Detox, Jarrow Formulas, 227 Grams (3216)


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Inositol Supplement Products
    Amazon: IP-6
    Amazon: Inositol Hexaphosphate Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Inositol Vitamin Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Inositol Antioxidant Information



  • PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Natural Factors, 90 Softgels (83912)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 100 Softgels (79137)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Source Naturals, 420 mg, 90 Softgels (7285)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 420 mg, 90 Softgels (100793)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Source Naturals, 420 mg, 180 Softgels (7286)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 420 mg, 180 Softgels (100795)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Country Life, 1200 mg, 50 Softgels (37394)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Natures Life, 1200 mg, 50 Softgels (90363)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Country Life, 1200 mg, 100 Softgels (37392)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Natures Life, 1200 mg, 100 Softgels (90366)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Choline, Country Life, 1200 mg, 200 Softgels (37393)


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Phosphotidyl Choline Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Choline Supplement Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

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    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
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  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
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  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




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