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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

LINOLEIC ACID
Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) Supplements


"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Linoleic Acid Description
  • Linoleic Acid Uses, Health Benefits, & Scientific Evidence
  • Linoleic Acid Dosage Recommendations
  • Linoleic Acid Safety Information
  • Linoleic Acid Supplements Products




  • LINOLEIC ACID DESCRIPTION

    AN ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID

    Linoleic Acid is a type of fat, or fatty acid, found in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and animal products. An essential omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid is required by the human body in small amounts. Too much, however, can be detrimental to your health. Consumers of a standard American diet are much more likely to get too much linoleic acid than too little.

    TYPES OF OMEGA FATTY ACIDS

    Fatty acids are the basic building blocks of which fats and oils are composed. Contrary to popular myth, the body does need fat. It must be the right kind, however. The fatty acids are necessary for health and that cannot be made by the body are called essential fatty acids (EFAs). They are occasionally also referred to as vitamin F or polyunsaturates. EFAs must be supplied through the diet.

    Essential fatty acids have desirable effects on many disorders. They improve the skin and hair, reduce blood pressure, aid in the prevention of arthritis, lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and reduce the risk of blood clot formation. They are beneficial for candidiasis, cardiovascular disease, eczema, and psoriasis. Found in high concentrations in the brain, EFAs aid in the transmission of nerve impulses and are needed for the normal development and functioning of the brain. A deficiency of essential fatty acids can lead to an impaired ability to learn and recall information. Every living cell in the body needs essential fatty acids. They are essential for rebuilding and producing new cells. Essential fatty acids are also used in the body for the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that act as chemical messengers and regulators of various body processes.

    There are two basic categories of essential fatty acids, designated omega-3 and omega-6. Omega-6 EFAs, which include linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids are found primarily in raw nuts, seeds, and legumes, and in unsaturated vegetable oils, such as borage oil, grape seed oil, primrose oil, sesame oil, and soybean oil. Omega-3 EFAs, including alpha-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are found in fresh deepwater fish, fish oil, and ceratin vegetable oils, among them canola oil, flaxseed oil, and walnut oil. In order to supply essential fatty acids, these oils must be consumed in pure liquid or supplemental form and must not be subjected to heat, either in processing or cooking. Heat destroys essential fatty acids. Worse, it results in the creation of dangerous free radicals (see Antioxidants for more information. If oils are hydrogenated (processed to make the oil more solid, as is commonly done in the production of margarine), the linoleic acid is converted to trans-fatty acids, which are not beneficial to the body. Other fatty acids include omega-7 (palmitoleic acid) and omega-9 fatty acids. A number of sources of essential fatty acids products are recommended below, among them Salmon Fish Oil, Flaxseeds and Flaxseed Oil, Grape Seed Oil, and Evening Primrose Oil.

    OMEGA-3 ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID (EFA)

    Omega-3 fatty acid is considered to be an essential fatty acid, which means it is essential to human health but cannot be manufactured by the body. It must be obtained from food or supplements. Omega-3 is found in Fish Oil and certain plant oils such as Soybean Oil, Olive Oil, Garlic Oil, and Flaxseed Oil. It is also found in whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, and fish, as well as moderate wine consumption. It is important to have an appropriate balance of Omega-3 in your body to promote health.

    Omega-3 fatty acids help reduce inflammation. Studies suggest that Omega 3 fatty acids may be helpful in treating a variety of conditions; however, the evidence is strongest for heart disease and problems that contribute to heart disease such as strokes. A diet with the right balance of Omega-3 can have higher HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It can reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol levels and blood pressure. Omega-3 fatty acids help control blood sugar levels which can aid in weight loss when used in conjunction with a weight loss program. People with diabetes may benefit from Omega-3 supplementation due to its ability to lower triglycerides and raise HDL. Some studies have shown that taking Omega-3 supplements reduce the pain and swelling associated with arthritis, and reduce the effects of osteoarthritis. This supplement also helps increase levels of calcium in the body and improve bone strength and bone density. People who experience bi-polar depression or schizophrenia have had noticeable improvement when using this supplement over a period of time.

    A healthy diet should consist of roughly one to four times more Omega-6 fatty acids than Omega-3 fatty acids. There are many forms of supplementation such as Salmon Fish Oil, Flaxseed Oil, Olive Oil, to name a few. It is important to read product label directions before use. It is important to buy Omega-3 fatty acid supplements that are free of heavy metals such as mercury.

    People who do not get enough Omega-3 fatty acids or do not maintain a healthy balance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids in their diet may be at an increased risk for depression. For those who bruise easily, have a bleeding disorder, or take blood-thinning medications, Omega-3 should be taken only under the guidance of your healthcare provider. Omega-3 in the form of a Fish Oil supplement can cause flatulence and diarrhea; however, time-released preparations may reduce these side effects.

    OMEGA-6 ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS (EFA)

    Omega-6 belongs to a group of "good" fats called polyunsaturated fatty acids and is one of two essential fatty acids that people need to remain healthy. Omega-3 is the other. The body cannot produce either essential fatty acid. The best Omega-6's are those that contain linoleic acid. Linoleic acid is converted in the body to gamma linoleic acid (GLA) and ultimately to prostaglandins, which help regulate inflammation and blood pressure as well as heart, gastrointestinal, and kidney functions. A recent finding by nutritionists is that Omega-6's and Omega-3's are "good" fats when they are in balanced amounts relative to the body's needs. Today, most American diets are heavy on Omega-6's, tipping the balance of Omega- 6 and Omega-3's needed for optimum health. This essential fatty acid is found in cereals, eggs, poultry, most vegetable oils, whole-grain breads, baked goods, and margarine. Therapeutic oils such as Evening Primrose Oil, Borage Oil, Black Currant Seed Oil, and Flaxseed Oil are also rich in Omega-6.

    Omega-6 supplementation is used to reduce the aches, pains, and inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis. (When treating rheumatoid arthritis, using a conventional prostaglandin-inhibiting anti-inflammatory such as ibuprofen in conjunction with Omega-6 will increase its effectiveness.) Omega-6 is also used to relieve the symptoms of PMS, endometriosis, and fibrocystic breasts, eczema, psoriasis, acne, rosacea and improve diabetic neuropathy.

    Except as an adjunct to certain health conditions, Omega-6 supplements are probably not necessary; however, in the event it is needed, the recommended dose is 1,000 to 1,300 mg of Borage Oil daily, which provides 240 to 300 mg of GLA, the main healing ingredient. In Evening Primrose Oil, the dose would be 3,000 mg, and 1,500 of Black Currant Seed Oil. Omega-6 supplements should be taken with food so that absorption is boosted and side effects are minimized. The health benefits of Omega-6 is usually apparent only after several months of use.

    There are no known interactions associated with Omega-6 fatty acids; however, when taking borage oil over several months, it is possible this essential fatty acid (EFA) may interfere with liver function. EFA deficiency and Omega 6/3 imbalance is linked with serious health conditions, such as heart attacks, cancer, insulin resistance, asthma, lupus, schizophrenia, depression, postpartum depression, accelerated aging, stroke, obesity, diabetes, arthritis, ADHD, and Alzheimer's disease, among others.

    OMEGA-7 FATTY ACID (PALMITOLEIC ACID)

    Palmitoleic Acid is a monounsaturated omega-7 oil and is a highly effective antioxidant. It is found in the sebum particularly in youth, but diminishes with the aging process. The fatty acid is also a component of skin fat. It has highly emollient qualities and slight sunscreen properties. Palmitoleic Acid is found in tropical oils such as Macadamia Nut Oil, Sesame Seed Oil, and Sea Buckthorn Oil.

    Palmitoleic Acid is particularly effective in replenishing and rejuvenating dry and/or mature skin. It also offers some protection from the harmful effects of the sun. This fatty acid supports cell regeneration and can help heal burns and wounds, and reduce dermatitis and eczema. Preliminary research suggests that this fatty acid is helpful in preventing strokes; however, more research needs to be done as to its effectiveness.

    Palmitoleic Acid comes in various forms and is an ingredient in many products. For best results, read and follow product label directions for dosage recommendations. There are no known safety issues or interactions associated with Palmitoleic Acid.

    OMEGA 9 FATTY ACID (OLEIC ACID)

    Omega-9 is a monounsaturated fatty acid present in all animal and vegetable fats. Oleic acid is the most common Omega-9 fatty acid. This fatty acid is essential, but it is not considered an EFA (essential fatty acid) because the human body can manufacture a limited amount of it if other EFA's are present. Omega-9 is found in Olive Oil, Canola Oil, and Grapeseed Oil, Peanut Oil, Safflower Oil and Sunflower Oil; however, other sources are http://www.moondragon.org/health/nutritionbasics/herbs/avocado.html">Avocados, http://www.moondragon.org/health/nutritionbasics/herbs/peanut.html">Peanuts & Peanut Butter, nuts and seeds.

    Monosaturated Oleic Acid lowers heart attack risk, arteriosclerosis, and can aid in cancer prevention. Omega-9 also naturally lowers cholesterol.

    One to two tablespoons of Extra Virgin or Virgin Olive Oil per day should provide a sufficient amount of Oleic Acid for adults; however, it is thought that obtaining these nutrients from nuts and other whole goods is more beneficial than consuming the daily amount in a single dose. Omega-9 also comes in other forms and is an ingredient in many products. When buying Omega-9 supplements, it is important to buy those that are free of heavy metals such as mercury. Omega-9 is generally regarded as safe and as long as other fatty acids are present in your body, you will not likely experience a deficiency.

    COMBINATION FATTY ACID SUPPLEMENTS

    A product called Ultimate Oil, from Nature's Secret, contains a blend of cold-pressed organic oils that offers a good balance of both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. A purely vegetable-based product, Ultimate Oil contains extra-virgin Flaxseed Oil, Black Currant Seed Oil, Pumpkin Seed Oil, Lecithin, and Safflower Oil. Kyolic-EPA is also recommended. It is a blend of aged garlic extract and fish oil derived from northern Pacific sardines. Cardiovascular Research's Essential Fatty Acid Complex is another combination-complex fatty acid supplement.

    Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid. It is one of two fatty acids that humans cannot produce themselves and must obtain from food sources. As the "parent" of the omega-6 fatty acid family, linoleic acid is used by the body to make other types of omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-6s are essential in some amount; but most Americans consume too much of them, which can trigger chronic inflammation and other health issues.

    COMMON DIETARY SOURCES OF LINOLEIC ACID

    The biggest sources of linoleic acid in the American diet tend to be processed foods. The top sources of dietary linoleic acid in America include chicken and chicken dishes, grain-based desserts, salad dressing, potato and corn chips, pizza, bread, french fries and pasta dishes, according to the National Cancer Institute. Mayonnaise, eggs, popcorn and processed meats are also significant sources.

    The reason many of the above foods contain linoleic acid is because they are made with vegetable oil. In America, the term "vegetable oil" tends to refer to Soybean Oil, Corn Oil and Safflower Oil, all of which contain a high percentage of linoleic acid. About 75-percent of the fatty acid content in safflower oil comes from linoleic acid; for corn and soybean oil, it is between 55 and 60-percent. One tablespoon of safflower oil contains about 10 grams linoleic acid. Sunflower oil contains about 9 grams linoleic acid per tablespoon; corn and soybean oil 7 grams; and Sesame Seed Oil 5.6 grams.

    There are other sources of Linoleic Acid. Nuts and seeds with high linoleic acid content include Sunflower Seeds at 9.7 grams per 1-ounce serving; Pine Nuts, 9.4 grams; Pecans, 6.4 grams; and Brazil Nuts, 5.8 grams.

    The linoleic acid content of dairy and meat products varies based on the diets and lifestyles of the animals they come from. A study published in the "Journal of Dairy Science" found that, on average, the linoleic acid content of cheeses ranges from 3.5 to 8 grams per serving. Blue, brie and Swiss cheeses had higher linoleic acid content than other types. The linoleic acid content in milk ranged from 3.4 to 6.4 grams per serving.





    LINOLEIC ACID USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Fatty acids represent a substantial part of lipids in human body and are important sources of energy. They are either saturated or unsaturated carbosylic acids containing carbon chains between 2 and 36 carbon atoms in length. Although more than 60 fatty acids have been found in blood plasma and tissues, only a fraction of them is relevant from the biological perspective. The large body of epidemiological evidence about total fat content, fatty acids and human health show that major groups of fatty acids are associated with diverse health effects. When the diet lacks adequate amounts of specific fatty acids, deficiency symptoms will arise as specific clinical entities. Conversely, increased content of saturated fatty acids may result in dyslipidemia.

    Linoleic Acid, or omega-6 fatty acid, and Linolenic Acid, or omega-3 fatty acid, are the two essential fatty acids. They are termed as essential because the body cannot synthesize them and needs to obtain them from the diet. A lack of either of the two leads to ill health and causes deficiency symptoms to develop.

    The two main fatty acids essential in the diet, linoleic (or omega-6) fatty acid and alpha-linolenic (or omega-3) acid, are polyunsaturated fatty acid, which means that they possess two or more double bonds and lack several hydrogen atoms that are found in saturated fatty acids.

    FUNCTIONS OF LINOLENIC ACID

    Linolenic acid is essential for normal growth and development. In the body, linolenic acid is used to make substances called eicosanoids, which regulate inflammation. Linolenic acid is also a component of cell membranes and is converted to the longer chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA. The omega-3 fatty acids deliver numerous health benefits, according to the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.

    EPA and DHA, the long chain derivatives of linolenic acid, have been associated with a number of health benefits. For example, in regard to cardiac health, these omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to protect against coronary heart disease, sudden cardiac death and heart failure, possibly through anti-arrhythmic, anti-thrombotic, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Other benefits attributed to these omega-3 fatty acids include control of inflammation in arthritic conditions and protection against neurodegenerative diseases.

    FUNCTIONS OF LINOLEIC ACID

    Linoleic acid is part of cell components, and is used to manufacture signaling molecules in the body. However, it now appears Western diets contain too much linoleic acid relative to linolenic acid. It has been reported that current diets have an omega-6:omega-3 ratio of about 20:1, while optimal ratios should probably be closer to 1.5:1. It is recommended that you focus more on increasing your omega-3 fat intake than your omega-6 intake.

    Omega-6 fatty acids are found in many plant oils, including palm oil, sunflower oil, flaxseed oil, corn oil and evening primrose oil. Other good sources include nuts, avocados and pumpkin seeds. On the other hand, the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids are oily fish and seaweed, because these contain omega-3 in the form of EPA and DHA. Sources of the parent linolenic acid include flax, purslane, hemp, nuts and organic eggs. Supplements of both linoleic and linolenic acids are readily available. Check with your health care provider, however, before adding supplements to your diet, especially if you have health problems or take other medicines.

    Linoleic acid keeps the skin impermeable to water, but to exert other effects the compound must undergo specific metabolism. First step is conversion to gama-linolenic acid by delta-6-desaturation. Gama-linolenic acid is subsequently converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, which is in turn converted to arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid can form prostaglandins and thromboxanes, hormone-like lipids that promote blood clotting, induce inflammation and cause smooth muscle contraction. In alternative pathway it can also form leukotrienes, which are one of the most potent inflammatory agents in the human organism.

    The necessity of metabolism is reflected by the increasing potency of each substance in the form of an essential fatty acid, as it moves down the chain from linoleic to arachidonic acid; hence to achieve full range of activities, linoleic acid must be metabolized to other substances. Therefore it can be considered as analogous to provitamines.

    In infants, delta-6-desaturase is too immature to provide the desired metabolism of linoleic acid, which is a reason why human milk contains gamma-linoleic acid, dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. In contrast, conventional infant formula milks have only linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, which can lead to a deficiency state in formula-fed infants.

    HEALTH BENEFITS OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) refers to a heterogeneous group of constitutional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, which are predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. The effect of CLA on human health became the subject of interest after one study demonstrated inhibitory effects on mouse epidermal neoplasia. CLA can provoke a wide spectrum of beneficial effects in various cell culture and animal models of disease. However, some studies have reported ambiguous or harmful effects of CLA supplementation and there is less evidence from direct studies on humans, thus careful consideration and further investigation is warranted. Research has shown that CLA has a significant inhibitory effect on the establishment and progression of atherosclerosis in animal models. Both LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratios are reduced when CLA is fed to the test animals. There is also proof of CLA blocking the growth and spread of malignant tumors, primarily by influencing cell replication and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The increase in mineralized bone formation was demonstrated in several experiments as well. On the other hand, it has been shown that CLA can induce insulin resistance and fatty liver. Also, a deeper and more detailed investigation into the complex network of anti-obesity regulatory pathways is necessary to improve our understanding how exactly this compound can affect body weight control. Recommended CLA daily intake is currently between 0.35 and 1 gram per day. More controlled studies of CLA usage in defined populations are needed, as possible health consequences of prolonged treatment periods are unknown at the moment. Mutual comparisons of different and well-defined mixtures of isomers are also essential to secure long-term effects and safety.

    CORONARY HEART DISEASE

    Linoleic Acid is the main polyunsaturated fat found in vegetable oil, nuts, and seeds. Swapping saturated fat and carbohydrates for linoleic acid lowers risk of coronary heart disease, according to a new study by Harvard School of Public Health researchers.

    Research has shown that by reducing the amount of saturated fat and carbohydrates we eat, and replacing those calories with foods rich in linoleic acid, such as vegetable oil, nuts, and seeds, we can reduce the risk of developing coronary heart disease. Replacing either saturated fat or carbohydrate with vegetable oils and seeing significant benefits indicates that reduction in saturated fat or carbohydrate is not the only reason for the beneficial effects of linoleic acid. Instead, linoleic acid itself plays a special role in support of heart health. Randomized clinical trials have shown that replacing saturated fat with linoleic acid reduces total and LDL cholesterol. There is also some evidence that linoleic acid improves insulin sensitivity and blood pressure.

    Data provides strong support that substituting vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat is beneficial for the prevention of coronary heart disease. If saturated fat is replaced by carbohydrates (typically refined carbohydrates), there will be no benefit on heart disease. This is why many epidemiologic studies have failed to observe a significant association between saturated fat and risk of CHD as carbohydrates were typically used as a comparator. However, if saturated fat is replaced by polyunsaturated fat, then there is a clear benefit for heart disease prevention.

    Consistent with the American Heart Association guidelines, research data continues to support consumption of 5 to 10-percent energy intake from linoleic acid to decrease CHD risk. Linoleic acid is the predominant n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the Western diet and we can obtain it from vegetable oils such as sunflower, safflower, soybean, corn, and canola oils as well as nuts and seeds. A tablespoon of soybean or corn oil contains about 7 to 8 grams of linoleic acid, and 7 shelled walnuts provide about 11 grams of linoleic acid. It should be noted that important sources of linoleic acid such as soybean and canola oils and walnuts also contain substantial amounts of alpha-linolenic acid, a plant-based omega-3 fatty acid. A 2,000 calorie diet that would equal 100 to 200 calories from linoleic acid.

    Concerns have been raised about higher linoleic acid consumption being harmful for heart health because of potential pro-inflammatory and thrombogenic properties. Linoleic acid can be elongated to arachidonic acid and subsequently synthesized to a variety of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, which may increase CHD risk. But this speculation is not supported by randomized controlled feeding studies, in which dietary intake of linoleic acid was not found to increase plasma levels of arachidonic acid or inflammatory markers. On the contrary, some studies have found anti-inflammatory effects of diets higher in linoleic acid compared to those higher in saturated fat.

    Instead of using butter, cream, lard, and other animal fat as the primary source of culinary fat, one should use liquid vegetable oils like soybean, corn, olive, and canola oils for cooking, on salad and at the table. Although olive oil contains little linoleic acid, many studies have shown health benefits of Mediterranean diets rich in olive oil. Nuts and seeds are also excellent sources of healthy fats.

    Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid that must be consumed for proper health. A diet only deficient in linoleate (the salt form of the acid) causes mild skin scaling, hair loss, and poor wound healing in rats.

    OTHER USES OF LINOLEIC ACID

  • Along with oleic acid, linoleic acid is released by cockroaches upon death which has the effect of preventing other roaches from entering the area. This is similar to the mechanism found in ants and bees, which also release oleic acid upon death.

  • In industry, Linoleic acid is used in making quick-drying oils, which are useful in oil paints and varnishes. These applications exploit the easy reaction of the linoleic acid with oxygen in air, which leads to crosslinking and formation of a stable film called linoxyn. Reduction of linoleic acid yields linoleyl alcohol. Linoleic acid is a surfactant with a critical micelle concentration of 1.5 x 10-4 M @ pH 7.5. Linoleic acid has become increasingly popular in the beauty products industry because of its beneficial properties on the skin. Research points to linoleic acid's anti-inflammatory, acne reductive, and moisture retentive properties when applied topically on the skin.

  • In research, Linoleic acid lipid radicals can be used to show the antioxidant effect of natural phenols. Experiments on linoleic acid subjected to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride induced oxidation of linoleic acid; hence producing lipid radicals and then the use of different combinations of phenolics show that binary mixtures can lead to either a synergetic antioxidant effect or to an antagonistic effect towards the lipid radicals. Research like this is useful in discovering which phenols prevent the autoxidation of lipids in vegetable oils.

    USES OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID

  • High Blood Pressure: Taking conjugated linoleic acid along with ramipril seems to reduce blood pressure more than ramipril alone in people with uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  • Obesity: Taking conjugated linoleic acid by mouth daily might help decrease body fat in adults, but it does not seem to decrease body weight or body mass index (BMI) in most people. Conjugated linoleic acid might reduce feelings of hunger, but it is not clear if this leads to reduced caloric intake. Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to prevent weight gain in previously obese people who lost some weight. Adding conjugated linoleic acid to fatty foods does not seem to promote weight loss. However, adding conjugated linoleic acid to milk might help decrease body fat in obese adults. In children, taking 3 grams of conjugated linoleic acid daily seems to help reduce body fat. While conjugated linoleic acid might help reduce body weight, some research shows that taking a particular form of conjugated linoleic acid (the trans-10,cis-12 isomer) might increase risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. It is not clear whether supplements containing different forms of conjugated linoleic acid have this same risk.

  • Allergies (Hay Fever): Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve well-being in people with birch allergies. However, it does not seem to improve overall allergy symptoms.

  • Asthma: Taking conjugated linoleic acid for 12 weeks seems to improve airway sensitivity and ability to exercise in people with asthma. However, it does not seem to reduce the need to use inhalers or improve lung capacity.

  • Breast Cancer: Research on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid for preventing breast cancer is conflicting. Some early research suggests that higher intake of conjugated linoleic acid from foods, particularly cheese, seems to be linked with a lower risk of developing breast cancer. However, other research suggests that increased dietary intake of conjugated linoleic acid is not linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Furthermore, some research suggests that increased intake of conjugated linoleic acid might be linked with an increased risk of breast cancer.

  • Colon & Rectal Cancer: Some research suggests that a diet high in conjugated linoleic acid might be linked with a lower risk of cancer of the colon and rectum in women. It is not known whether taking conjugated linoleic acid supplements provides the same benefit.

  • Strength: Research on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid for improving strength is conflicting. Some research shows that taking conjugated linoleic acid, alone or along with creatine and whey protein, helps increase strength and improve lean tissue mass in people who are strength training. However, other research shows that conjugated linoleic acid does not improve strength or body composition when used along with strength training.

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: Early research suggest that taking conjugated linoleic acid, alone or along with vitamin E, reduces pain and morning stiffness, as well as lab markers of swelling, compared to pretreatment in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

  • Common Cold: Research suggests that taking conjugated linoleic acid does not prevent or reduce symptoms of the common cold.

  • Diabetes: Taking conjugated linoleic acid does not improve pre-meal or post-meal blood sugar or insulin levels in people with type 2 diabetes.

  • High Cholesterol: Drinking milk containing conjugated linoleic acid does not seem to improve levels of cholesterol or blood fats called triglycerides in people with mildly high cholesterol levels.





  • LINOLEIC ACID DOSAGE RECOMMENDATIONS

    DIETARY SOURCES

    Except as an adjunct to certain health conditions, Omega-6 supplements are probably not necessary; however, in the event it is needed, the recommended dose is 1,000 to 1,300 mg of Borage Oil daily, which provides 240 to 300 mg of GLA, the main healing ingredient. In Evening Primrose Oil, the dose would be 3,000 mg, and 1,500 of Black Currant Seed Oil. Omega-6 supplements should be taken with food so that absorption is boosted and side effects are minimized. The health benefits of Omega-6 is usually apparent only after several months of use.

    Linoleic acid is obtained primarily through dietary sources.

    FOOD SOURCE
    % LA
    FOOD SOURCE
    % LA

  • Salicornia Oil
  • Safflower Oil
  • Evening Primrose Oil
  • Poppyseed Oil
  • Grape Seed Oil
  • Sunflower Oil
  • Barbary Fig Seed Oil
  • Hemp Oil
  • Corn Oil
  • Wheat Germ Oil
  • Cottonseed Oil
  • Soybean Oil
  • Walnut Oil
  • Sesame Oil
  • Rice Bran Oil
  • Argan Oil

  • 75%
    74.62%
    73%
    70%
    69.6%
    65.7%
    65%
    60%
    59%
    55%
    54%
    51%
    51%
    45%
    39%
    37%

  • Peanut Oil
  • Peach Oil
  • Almonds
  • Canola Oil
  • Chicken Fat
  • Egg Yolk
  • Flaxseed (Linseed) Oil
  • Lard
  • Olive Oil
  • Palm Oil
  • Cocoa Butter
  • Pistachio Oil
  • Macadamia Oil
  • Butter
  • Coconut Oil

  • 32%
    29%
    24%
    21%
    18 to 23%
    16%
    15%
    10%
    10% (3.5 to 21%)
    10%
    3%
    2.7%
    2%
    2%
    2%


    CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID

    Conjugated linoleic acid refers to a group of chemicals found in the fatty acid linoleic acid. Dairy products and beef are the major dietary sources. Conjugated linoleic acid is used for cancer, "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis), obesity, weight loss caused by chronic disease, bodybuilding, and limiting food allergy reactions. An average diet supplies 15 to 174 mg of conjugated linoleic acid daily. Conjugated linoleic acid might help reduce body fat deposits and improve immune function. The dose of 1.8 to 7 grams per day is recommended by research is taken by mouth and used for reducing body fat in obese patients However, doses greater than 3.4 grams per day do not seem to offer any additional benefit.





    LINOLEIC ACID SAFETY, CAUTIONS, & INTERACTIONS

    There are no known interactions associated with Omega-6 fatty acids; however, when taking borage oil over several months, it is possible this essential fatty acid (EFA) may interfere with liver function. EFA deficiency and Omega 6/3 imbalance is linked with serious health conditions, such as heart attacks, cancer, insulin resistance, asthma, lupus, schizophrenia, depression, postpartum depression, accelerated aging, stroke, obesity, diabetes, arthritis, ADHD, and Alzheimer's disease, among others.

    CONJUGARED LINOLEIC ACID

    Conjugated linoleic acid is considered relatively safe when taken by mouth in amounts found in foods and when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts (larger amounts than those found in food). It might cause side effects such as stomach upset, diarrhea, nausea, and fatigue.

  • Children: Conjugated linoleic acid is considered relatively safe for children when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts for up to 7 months. There is not enough evidence to know if long-term use is safe.
  • Pregnancy & Breastfeeding: Conjugated linoleic acid is considered relatively safe when taken by mouth in food amounts. But there is not enough evidence to know if conjugated linoleic acid is safe to use in medicinal mounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use unless recommended by your midwife or health care provider.
  • Bleeding Disorders: Conjugated linoleic acid might slow blood clotting. In theory, conjugated linoleic acid might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
  • Diabetes: There are concerns that taking conjugated linoleic acid can worsen diabetes. Avoid use.
  • Metabolic Syndrome: There are concerns that taking conjugated linoleic acid might increase the risk of getting diabetes if you have metabolic syndrome. Avoid use.
  • Surgery: Conjugated linoleic acid might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using it at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.






  • LINOLEIC ACID & EFA SUPPLEMENTS & PRODUCTS

  • Almond Herbal Products
  • Alpha Linolenic Acid Products
  • Canola Herbal Oil Products
  • CLA - Conjugated Linoleic Acid Products
  • Corn Oil Herbal Products
  • EFA Supplement Products
  • Evening Primrose Supplement Products
  • Flaxseed Herbal Products
  • Flaxseed Herbal Oil Products

  • GLA - Gamma Linoleic Acid Products
  • Grapeseed Herbal Products
  • Hemp Herbal Products
  • Linoleic Acid Products
  • Olive Oil Herbal Products
  • Peanut Herbal Products
  • Poppy Seed Herbal Products
  • Sesame Seed Herbal Products
  • Safflower Oil Herbal Products
  • Soybean Oil Herbal Products
  • Walnut Herbal Products


  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


    FTC Advertising & Affilate Disclosure: This website has an affiliate relationship with certain merchants selling products and we recieve commissions from those sales to help support this website. Any products listed here are not listed by any rating system. We do not rate any product or post any feedback about products listed here. We leave this to the individual merchants to provide. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit. All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual.


    ALPHA LINOLENIC ACID (ALA) SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, High Lignans, Olympian Labs, 1 gram, 90 Softgels
    Olympian Labs Pure Lignan Flax Seed Oil is a high-quality extract from flax seed. Lignans are natural plant compounds that have been intensively studied for their phytoestrogenic effects. The high levels of phytoestrogens help naturally balance estrogen levels by binding to estrogen receptors. Contains Omega 3-6-9 Fatty Acids to support heart, brain, and joint health and hormonal balance.
    HerbsPro: Wheat Germ Oil #3, With Flaxseed Oil, Cold Pressed, Sonne Products, 120 Caps
    Wheat Germ Oil capsules consist of 73-percent wheat germ oil, an excellent source of the Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) complex and 27-percent flaxseed oil concentrate, a rich source of valuable, essential, unsaturated fatty acids: linoleic and linolenic (Omega-6 and Omega-3). The wheat germ oil is extracted by the "flash-heat, cold-pressed method" to first soften the germ so the cold roll can extract it. Light, oxygen and high temperatures destroy fatty acids very rapidly. Therefore, both the wheat germ oil and flaxseed oil are pressed at a low temperature in the absence of light and oxygen. Vitamin E functions as an antioxidant which helps stabilize cell membranes and protects cells and tissues important for muscles, eyes, liver, skin and nerves. It also helps protect red blood cells from cell damage.
    HerbsPro: Organic Flax, Health From The Sun, 1000 mg, 90 Caps
    Health From The Sun Organic Flax 1000 supplies the important omega-3 essential fatty acid, Alpha-Linolenic Acid {ALA}. Flax oil is nature's best source of omega-3 essential fatty acid. Also contains Linoleic acid (omega-6). Organic Flax 1000 is extracted from the highest quality certified organic.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplement Products


    Amazon: Flaxseed Oil #1, Organic Omega-3, Non-GMO, NatureWise, 1000 mg, 240 Softgels
    Flaxseed oil is a natural source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid that promotes heart health along with a healthy diet. Diets low in saturated fats may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Clinical research suggests that supplementation with flaxseed oil provides support for the immune system and promotes healthy skin, hair, and nails. Softgels are a convenient alternative to liquid flaxseed oil. NatureWise Organic Flaxseed Oil is easy to take and digest ALA is a precursor to other essential fatty acids commonly found in fish oils. This flaxseed oil is derived from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant and does not contain fish byproducts. Doctor formulated, third party tested. Each softgel contains 1000 mg of 100% pure, certified organic, non-GMO flaxseed oil. 240 softgels per bottle. 600 mg of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) per softgel.



    Amazon: Norwegian Cod Liver Oil, Lemon Flavor, Carlson, 500 ml
    From the deep unpolluted waters near Norway Carlson brings you the finest cod liver oil which is naturally rich in Vitamin A, Vitamin D-3, EPA, and DHA. Only cod fish caught during the winter and early spring are used as the liver oil content is highest at this time of year. The oil is separated from the liver tissues without the use of chemicals. To insure freshness of Carlson Norwegian Cod Liver Oil the air inside the glass bottle has been replaced with nitrogen. This product is regularly tested using AOAC international protocols for potency and purity by and independent FDA registered laboratory and found to be free of detectable levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, PCB's, and 28 other contaminants. Serving Size is 1 Teaspoon. One teaspoon contains Vitamin A (1250 IU), Vitamin D (500 IU0, Vitamin E as d-Alpha tocopherol (1 IU), ALA - Alpha-Linolenic Acid (50 mg), DHA (500 mg), EPA (400 mg).



    Amazon: Orange Cream Total Omega Swirl, Barleans' Organic Oils, 16 fl. oz.
    Also available in Pomegranate Blueberry flavor. Omega Swirl is an Omega-3 Sensation with the taste and texture of a fruit smoothie! Now everyone can enjoy the benefits of Omega-3 without the oily taste and texture or swallowing large capsules. Rich in vital and essential Omega-3 fatty acids, Omega Swirl flax and fish oil supplements are the freshest, best tasting and most nutritious, naturally. Omega Swirl is the perfect solution for the whole family! An easy and delicious way for the whole family to enjoy the benefits of complete and balanced omega-3, -6, and -9 fatty acids, Barlean's Organic Oils Total Omega Swirl has the taste and texture of a fruit smoothie. Made with Barlean's ultra-purified fish, flaxseed, and borage oil, this supplement provides 300 milligrams of both EPA and DHA per serving to provide overall health, wellness, and support to the body's systems. Naturally sweetened with xylitol, the blend of purified oils provides 800 IU of Vitamin A, 4 IU of Vitamin E, and a range of omega-3, -6, and -9 fatty acids including 710 milligrams of alpha linolenic acid, 660 milligrams of linoleic acid, and 840 milligrams of oleic acid. It is also fresh and great tasting with a sugar-free, creamy orange flavor kids are sure to love. Total Omega Swirl can be taken straight from the bottle, or added to juice, yogurt, or blended beverages.



    Amazon: Flax Oil Super Lignan, Natures Way, 24 fl. oz.
    EFA Gold Flax Oil is the highest quality Flax seed oil. Guaranteed to contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and Flax Lignans from non-GMO seeds. ALA is an important Omega-3 essential fatty acid which must be obtained in your everyday diet. Flax Lignans are phytonutrients found in unrefined grains legumes certain vegetables and seeds. Flax is the richest source providing 70 to 800 times more lignans than most other plant sources. This rich tasting oil is organic cold pressed nitrogen flushed unrefined hexane-free and has zero trans fat. Quality control from the soil to the oil. Involvement begins in the fields with the growers and on-staff agronomist and continues through harvesting seed selection oil pressing and purity testing. Natures Way Flax Oils have fuller taste due to more naturally occurring nutrients than other brands.


  • Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplement Information



  • CANOLA OIL SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Canola Oil, Good Food, 1/2 Gallon (Case of 9): GR
    Canola is one of the newest varieties of cooking oil. This option is great for those who are concerned about healthy cooking options. This Golden Barrel Canola oil is refined from the rapeseed and is lower in cholesterol and saturated fat than other types of oil. Each case consists of nine, half gallon containers.
    Kalyx: Canola Oil, Good Food, 1 Gallon (Case of 6): GR
    Canola is one of the newest varieties of cooking oil. This option is great for those who are concerned about healthy cooking options. This Golden Barrrel Canola oil is refined from the rapeseed and is lower in cholesterol and saturated fat than other types of oil. Each case consists of six, one gallon containers.
    Kalyx: Canola Oil, Good Food, 35 lb. Canister: GRCanola is one of the newest varieties of cooking oil. This option is great for those who are concerned about healthy cooking options. This Golden Barrel Canola oil is refined from the rapeseed and is lower in cholesterol and saturated fat than other types of oil. Each case consists of thirty five pounds.
    Kalyx: Butter Flavored Canola Oil, Golden Barrel, 32 fl. oz. (Case of 12): GR


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Canola Oil Grocery & Gourmet Food Products


    Amazon: Canola Oil, Organic, La Tourangelle, 16.9 oz. Tin
    La Tourangelle Organic Canola Oil comes from expeller-pressed GMO-free organic canola seeds. Suitable for medium-high heat. Perfect for sautéing, baking, dipping, blending into a dressing/sauce, or drizzling on a finished dish. Smoke point 375° to 450°F.



    Amazon: Canola Oil, Organic, Spectrum Naturals, 16 fl. oz.
    This oil has a medium-high 'smoke point' making it ideal for sauting at medium-high heat or, because of its neutral flavor for baking. Medium High Heat Up to 425°F.



    Amazon: Organic Canola Oil, Whole Foods Market, 16 oz..
    365 Everyday Value Expeller Pressed Canola Oil.


  • Nutrition Basics: Canola Herbal Information



  • FLAXSEED HERBAL PRODUCTS

    MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS

    Mountain Rose Herbs: Flax Seed, Whole (Linum Usitatissimum), Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Flax Meal (Linum Usitatissimum), Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices


    STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS

    Starwest Botanicals: Brown Flax Seed, Whole, Organic, 1 lb.


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Meal, Organic, Now Foods, 12 oz. (86009)
    HerbsPro: Golden Flax Seed Meal, Organic, Now Foods, 12 oz. (86012)
    HerbsPro: Ground Flaxseed With Berries, Organic, Spectrum Essentials, 12 oz. (80473)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed, Organic Dry Roasted, Spectrum Essentials, 12 oz. (71933)
    HerbsPro: Premium Flaxseed, Whole, Organic, Spectrum Essentials, 15 oz. (67119)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Powder, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 16 oz. (79122)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed, Organic, Now Foods, 1 lb. (86008)
    HerbsPro: Golden Flax Seeds, Organic, Now Foods, 1 lb. (86011)
    HerbsPro: Cold Milled Flax Seeds, Omega Nutrition, 17.5 oz. (31594)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Meal, Organic, Now Foods, 22 oz. (86005)
    HerbsPro: Golden Flax Seed Meal, Organic, Now Foods, 22 oz. (86006)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed, Organic, Now Foods, 2 lb. (86007)


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Flaxseed Oil Supplement Products
    Amazon: Flaxseed Oil Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: Flaxseed Grocery & Gourmet Food Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Flaxseed Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: EFA (Essential Fatty Acids) Supplement Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Fiber Supplement Information
  • Aromatherapy: Flaxseed Oil Information



  • FLAXSEED OIL HERBAL PRODUCTS

    MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS

    Mountain Rose Herbs: Flax Seed, Whole (Linum Usitatissimum), Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Flax Meal (Linum Usitatissimum), Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices


    STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS

    Starwest Botanicals: Brown Flax Seed Whole, Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Flax Seed Powder, Organic, 1 lb.


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 8 fl. oz. (79138)
    HerbsPro: Flax Oil, Organic, Cinnamon, Spectrum Essentials, 8 fl. oz. (30093)
    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, Fresh Pressed, Jarrow Formulas, 12 fl. oz. (3144)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Organic, Now Foods, 12 fl. oz. (68550)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed FiProFlax Bio-EFA, Health From The Sun, 15 fl. oz. (15360)
    HerbsPro: Super Flax Seed FiProFlax Bio-EFA, Health From The Sun, 15 fl. oz. (15417)
    HerbsPro: Earth Source Flaxseed Oil, Organic, Solgar, 16 fl. oz. (100212)
    HerbsPro: Golden Flax Seed Oil Liquid, Unflavored, Natures Life, 16 fl. oz. (90025)
    HerbsPro: Hi Lignan Flax Oil, Omega Nutrition, 16 fl. oz. (31604)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Organic, Now Foods, 24 fl. oz. (68551)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Super Size Liquid, Jarrow Formulas, 32 fl. oz. (36919)
    HerbsPro: Golden Flax Seed Oil Liquid, Unflavored, Natures Life, 32 fl. oz. (90081)
    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, Deva Vegan Vitamins, Organic, 90 VCaps (73135)
    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, Vegetarian, Health From The Sun, 90 Softgels (79654)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Foodscience of Vermont, 90 Caps (50275)
    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, Jarrow Formulas, 100 Softgels (1313)
    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, Jarrow Formulas, 200 Softgels (1314)
    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, Natures Bounty, 1000 mg, 60 Caps (98049)
    HerbsPro: Golden Flax Seed Oil, Natures Life, 1000 mg, 90 Softgels (90018)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Natrol, 1000 mg, 90 Softgels (34407)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Natures Answer, 1000 mg, 90 Softgels (35252)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, High Lignans, Olympian Labs, 1 g (1000 mg), 90 Softgels (74331)
    HerbsPro: Flax Oil, Organic, Natural Factors, 1000 mg, 90 Softgels (84319)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Organic, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 1000 mg, 100 Caps (18275)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 1000 mg, 100 Softgels (100787)
    HerbsPro: Flax Oil, Sundown Naturals, 1000 mg, 100 Softgels (98689)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Natrol, 1000 mg, 120 Caps (82590)
    HerbsPro: Golden Flax Seed Oil, Natures Life, 1000 mg, 180 Softgels (90019)
    HerbsPro: Flax Oil, Organic, Natural Factors, 1000 mg, 180 Softgels (84320)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Natrol, 1000 mg, 200 Softgels (69723)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Vita Plus, 1000 mg, 240 Caps (73889)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed Oil, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 1000 mg, 250 Softgels (100788)
    HerbsPro: Flax Oil, Organic, Natural Factors, 1000 mg, 360 Softgels (84321)
    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, Natures Bounty, 1200 mg, 100 Caps (97154)
    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, Solgar, 1250 mg, 100 Softgels (36410)
    HerbsPro: Flaxseed Oil, Solgar, 1250 mg, 250 Softgels (36411)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed, Natures Way, 1300 mg, 100 Softgels (17880)
    HerbsPro: Flax Seed, Natures Way, 1300 mg, 200 Softgels (17881)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Flax Omega 3-6-9 Complex Lemon Oil, With Borage, 1000 mg, 60 Softgels: HF
    Kalyx: Flaxseed Oil, Natures Answer, 1,000 mg, 90 Softgels: K
    Kalyx: Flax Seed Oil, Natrol, 1,000 mg, 200 Softgels: K
    Kalyx: Flax Lignan Gold Oil, Organic, Health From The Sun, 16 fl oz: K


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Flaxseed Oil Supplement Products
    Amazon: Flaxseed Oil Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: Flaxseed Grocery & Gourmet Food Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Flaxseed Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: EFA (Essential Fatty Acids) Supplement Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Fiber Supplement Information
  • Aromatherapy: Flaxseed Oil Information



  • GLA (GAMMA LINOLEIC ACID) SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Nordic GLA, Nordic Naturlas, 4 fl. oz.
    New Zealand-grown Borage oil for healthy skin and joints, and optimal fat metabolism. Non-GMO verified. One-half teaspoon daily, with food, or as directed by your health care professional or pharmacist. Refrigerate after opening. Best if used within 3 months after opening. Consult with your physician before using this product if you are pregnant or lactating, use blood thinners, or anticipate surgery.
    HerbsPro: Mega-GLA 240, Source Naturals, 240 mg, 30 Softgel
    HerbsPro: Mega-GLA 240, Source Naturals, 240 mg, 60 Softgels
    HerbsPro: Mega-GLA 300, Source Naturals, 300 mg, 30 Softgels
    HerbsPro: Mega-GLA 300, Source Naturals, 300 mg, 60 Softgels
    HerbsPro: Super GLA, Solgar, 300 mg, 60 Softgels
    HerbsPro: Borage Oil GLA Bio-EFA GLA, Health From The Sun, 300 mg, 60 Caps
    Cold pressed from Borage Seeds, guaranteed pure GLA Omega-6.
    HerbsPro: Ultra GLA 300, TwinLab, 300 mg, 60 Softgels
    HerbsPro: Mega-GLA 300, Source Naturals, 300 mg, 120 Softgels
    Hexane free Borage Seed oil dietary supplement.


    LIFE EXTENSION PRODUCTS

    LEF: Mega GLA with Sesame Lignans, Life Extension, 60 Softgels
    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), found in evening primrose oil, borage oil, and black currant oil, is an important fatty acid that plays a beneficial role in healthy prostaglandin (PGE1) formation and pro-inflammatory mediator reduction. Health-conscious people have been swallowing a lot of borage oil supplements to obtain GLA (gamma linolenic acid), the parent of the biologically active DGLA (dihomogamma linolenic acid). Life Extension adds 10 mg of sesame lignans to each softgel of Mega GLA borage oil. Sesame lignans not only increase beneficial DGLA but they also impede the conversion of GLA into the proinflammatory mediator arachidonic acid. Blocking this pathway decreases the formation of proinflammatory agents prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4. Numerous studies document GLA’s multiple health effects. Enhancing this supplement with sesame lignans enables GLA to work much better in the body, allowing many more people to benefit from supplemental GLA.


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: GLA Borage Oil, Nutricology, 300 mg, 30 Softgels: N


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Borage Oil Supplement Products
    Amazon: Borage Oil Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: Borage Herbal Products


    Amazon: Mega GLA 300, Hexane Free, Source Naturals, 120 Softgels
    Dietary supplement containing Borage Seed Oil. GLA (gamma-linolenic acid) is an essential fatty acid and a precursor of key regulating hormones called PG1 prostaglandins. Many dietary and lifestyle factors can seriously reduce the body's GLA production. borage seed oil provides the highest yield of GLA in the botanical kingdom (more than twice the GLA yield of evening primrose oil). The borage seed oil is extracted by a special cold-press process, which leaves no harmful residues and is Hexane-Free.


  • Nutrition Basics: Borage Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Evening Primrose Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: EFA (Essential Fatty Acids) Supplement Information



  • LINOLEIC ACID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Linoleic Acid (LA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature. Linoleic acid belongs to one of the two families of essential fatty acids, which means that the human body cannot synthesize it from other food components. It must be consumed for proper health. It is found in the lipids of cell membranes. It is abundant in many nuts, fatty seeds (flaxseed, hemp seed, poppy seed, sesame seed, etc.) and their derived vegetable oils, comprising over half (by weight) of poppy seed, safflower, sunflower, corn, and soybean oils. A LA deficient diet causes mild skin scaling, hair loss, and poor wound healing. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) refers to a heterogeneous group of constitutional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, which are predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. The effect of CLA on human health became the subject of interest after one study demonstrated inhibitory effects on mouse epidermal neoplasia. Research has shown that CLA has a significant inhibitory effect on the establishment and progression of atherosclerosis in animal models. Both LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratios are reduced when CLA is fed to the test animals. There is also proof of CLA blocking the growth and spread of malignant tumors, primarily by influencing cell replication and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The increase in mineralized bone formation was demonstrated in several experiments as well. On the other hand, it has been shown that CLA can induce insulin resistance and fatty liver. Also, a deeper and more detailed investigation into the complex network of anti-obesity regulatory pathways is necessary to improve our understanding how exactly this compound can affect body weight control. Recommended CLA daily intake is currently between 0.35 to 1 gram per day. More controlled studies of CLA usage in defined populations are needed, as possible health consequences of prolonged treatment periods are unknown at the moment. Mutual comparisons of different and well-defined mixtures of isomers are also essential to secure long-term effects and safety.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: CLA, Conjugated Linoleic Acid For Weight Loss, 2nd Edition, 36 Page Booklet
    HerbsPro: Vegan CLA Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Deva Vegan Vitamins, 600 mg, 90 VCaps
    HerbsPro: Tonalin 1000 CLA, Source Naturals, 1000 mg, 30 Softgels
    HerbsPro: CLA Tonalin Linoleic Acid, Natural Factors, 1000 mg, 60 Softgels
    HerbsPro: Tonalin 1000 CLA, Source Naturals, 1000 mg, 60 Softgels
    HerbsPro: Tonalin CLA, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 1000 mg, 60 Softgels
    HerbsPro: CLA Tonalin Linoleic Acid, Natural Factors, 1000 mg, 60 Softgels
    HerbsPro: Tonalin CLA, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 1000 mg, 90 Softgels
    HerbsPro: CLA Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Olympian Labs, 1000 mg, 90 Softgels
    HerbsPro: CLA Tonalin Linoleic Acid, Natural Factors, 1000 mg, 90 Softgels
    HerbsPro: CLA, Vita Plus, 1000 mg, 90 Caps
    Research indicates that consumption of adequate amounts of CLA as a supplement to the regular diet has demonstrated an anti-Catabolic activity, increased lean muscle mass and enhances performance in athletes. Studies also have shown that CLA supplemented diets may have tendency to curb appetite resulting in low body fat. CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) naturally occurs in various milk products, natural oils and meats. The study found that approximately 3.4 grams of CLA per day is the level needed to obtain the beneficial effects of CLA on body fat. According to the research project manager, an average reduction of six pounds of body fat was found in the group that took CLA, compared to a placebo group.
    HerbsPro: Tonalin 1000 CLA, Source Naturals, 1000 mg, 120 Softgels
    HerbsPro: CLA Tonalin Linoleic Acid, Natural Factors, 1000 mg, 180 Softgels
    HerbsPro: Essential CLA, Iron-Tek, 1000 mg, 180 Softgels
    Supports Fat Loss Supports Dieting Goals. Human clinical studies have shown that Tonalin CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) plays a vital role in supporting the reduction of body fat and supporting lean body mass. As always, for best results include a healthy diet and exercise program.
    HerbsPro: CLA Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Olymptian Labs, 1000 mg, 210 Softgels
    HerbsPro: SuperTone CLA, NaturalMax, 1400 mg, 120 Softgels


    LIFE EXTENSION PRODUCTS

    LEF: Super CLA Blend with Sesame Lignans, Life Extension, 1000 mg, 120 softgels
    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, which are found primarily in meat and dairy products. CLA has been shown in a number of studies to have a wide variety of benefits with regards to the immune system, cardiovascular protection, blood sugar maintenance, lipid profiles and body composition. Sesame Lignans have been show to stimulate fatty acid oxidation in the liver, and help stimulate lipolysis (fat breakdown).
    LEF: Super CLA Blend with Guarana & Sesame Lignans, Life Extension, 1000 mg, 120 Softgels
    onjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, which are found primarily in meat and dairy products. CLA has been shown in a number of studies to have a wide variety of benefits with regards to the immune system, cardiovascular protection, blood sugar maintenance, lipid profiles and body composition. Sesame Lignans have been show to stimulate fatty acid oxidation in the liver, and help stimulate lipolysis (fat breakdown). This formula contains Guarana with caffeine. Those who are hypersensitive to caffeine should take CLA without Guarana.


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: CLA Fuel, Stimulant Free, TwinLab, 770 mg, 60 Softgels: HF
    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) reduces body fat, helps increase lean muscle mass.
    Kalyx: CLA Fuel, Stimulant Free, TwinLab, 770 mg, 120 Softgels: HF
    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) reduces body fat, helps increase lean muscle mass.
    Kalyx: Tonalin CLA, Natrol, 1200 mg, 60 Softgels: HF
    CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a recognized supplement derived from safflower oil. Years of research at the University of Wisconsin indicate that CLA may help "partition" the way energy is stored and utilized may result in a reduction of body fat and increased muscle retention. Tonalin CLA is the only patented form of conjugated linoleic acid.
    Kalyx: Tonalin CLA, Natrol, 1200 mg, 90 Softgels: HF
    CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a recognized supplement derived from safflower oil. Years of research at the University of Wisconsin indicate that CLA may help "partition" the way energy is stored and utilized may result in a reduction of body fat and increased muscle retention. Tonalin CLA is the only patented form of conjugated linoleic acid.
    Kalyx: CLA, Olympian Labs, 3000 mg, 210 Softgels: HF


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Linoleic Acid (CLA) Supplement Products


    Amazon: CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid), BulkSupplements, 1000 mg, 300 Softgels
    BulkSupplements conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) softgels. As a dietary supplement, take one or two softgels, two or three times daily with meals, or as directed by health care provider.


  • Nutrition Basics: EFA - Essential Fatty Acid Supplement Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |






    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




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