animated goddess mdbs banner animated goddess


MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Supplements
FLAVONOIDS

Bioflavonoids, Vitamin P


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Flavonoid Description
  • Flavonoid Uses & Scientific Evidence
  • Flavonoid Dosage Information
  • Flavonoid Safety & Cautions
  • Flavonoid Supplement Products




  • FLAVONOID DESCRIPTION

    ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) are a class of plant secondary metabolite compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical and antioxidant effects. Flavonoids were referred to as Vitamin P (possibly because of the effect they had on the permeability of vascular capillaries) from the mid 1930s to early 50s, but the term has since fallen out of use. Their dietary intake is quite high compared to other dietary antioxidants like vitamins C and E. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids depends on their molecular structure, and structural characteristics of certain flavonoids found in hops and beer confer surprisingly potent antioxidant activity exceeding that of red wine, tea, or soy.

    Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that protect and repair cells from damage caused by free radicals. Many experts believe this damage plays a part in a number of chronic diseases, including hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), cancer, and arthritis. Free radicals can also interfere with your immune system. So, fighting off damage with antioxidants helps keep your immune system strong, making you better able to ward off colds, flu, and other infections.

    Antioxidants are compounds that neutralize the cellular-damaging effects of free radicals. Free radicals are produced naturally in your body, but when you exercise hard, your body pumps out more free radicals. Environmental factors such as pollution, the sun, cigarette smoke, and herbicides can also spawn free radicals. The danger is that free-radical damage may lead to cancer. Antioxidants interact with and stabilize free radicals and may prevent some of the damage that free radicals otherwise might cause. As an active person, more antioxidants may help you slow the aging process, ward off cancer and stress, and promote good health.


    Flavonoids is the universal term given to some 4,000 compounds that make up the colorful pigment in fruits, vegetables and herbs. Flavonoids can also be found in legumes, grains and nuts, and they can act as effective antivirals, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and antioxidants. Flavonoids are useful for reducing cancer risk and serve to prevent or treat a wide variety of conditions.


    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and are categorized, according to chemical structure, into flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins and chalcones. Over 4,000 flavonoids have been identified, many of which occur in fruits, vegetables and beverages (tea, coffee, beer, wine and fruit drinks). The flavonoids have aroused considerable interest recently because of their potential beneficial effects on human health-they have been reported to have antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-diarrheal and antioxidant activities.

    Flavonoids are widely distributed in plants fulfilling many functions. Flavonoids are the most important plant pigments for flower coloration producing yellow or red/blue pigmentation in petals designed to attract pollinator animals in higher plants. Flavonoids are involved in UV filtration, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and floral pigmentation. They may act as a chemical messenger or physiolgical regulator, they can also act as cell cycle inhibitors. Flavonoids secreted by the root of their host plant help Rhizobia in the infection stage of their symbiotic relationship with legumes like peas, beans, clover, and soy. Rhizobia living in soil are able to sense the flavonoids and this triggers the secretion of Nod factors, which in turn are recognized by the host plant and can lead to root hair deformation and several cellular responses such as ion fluxes and the formation of a root nodule. In addition, some flavonoids have inhibitory activity against organisms that cause plant disease e.g. Fusarium oxysporum.

    According to the IUPAC nomenclature, they can be classified into flavones, isoflavonoids and neoflavonoids. These three classes are all ketone-containing compounds, and as such are flavonoids and flavonols. This class was the first to be termed bioflavonoids. The terms flavonoids and bioflavonoids have also been more loosely used to describe non-ketone polyhydroxy poolyphenol compounds which are more specifically termed flavanoids, flavan-2-ols (or catechins). The three cycle or heterocycles in the flavonoid backbone are generally called ring A, B and C. Ring A usually shows a phloroglucinol substitution pattern.

    Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. An imbalance between antioxidants and reactive oxygen species results in oxidative stress, leading to cellular damage. Oxidative stress has been linked to cancer, aging, atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's). Flavonoids may help provide protection against these diseases by contributing, along with antioxidant vitamins and enzymes, to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body. Epidemiological studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely related to mortality from coronary heart disease and to the incidence of heart attacks.

    The recognized dietary antioxidants are vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. However, recent studies have demonstrated that flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables may also act as antioxidants. Like alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), flavonoids contain chemical structural elements that may be responsible for their antioxidant activities. A recent study by Dr. van Acker and his colleagues in the Netherlands suggests that flavonoids can replace vitamin E as chain-breaking antioxidants in liver microsomal membranes. The contribution of flavonoids to the antioxidant defense system may be substantial considering that the total daily intake of flavonoids can range from 50 to 800 mg. This intake is high compared to the average daily intake of other dietary antioxidants like vitamin C (70 mg), vitamin E (7 to 10 mg) or carotenoids (2 to 3 mg). Flavonoid intake depends upon the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages, such as red wine, tea, and beer. The high consumption of tea and wine may be most influential on total flavonoid intake in certain groups of people.

    The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been recognized to play an important role in atherosclerosis. Immune system cells called macrophages recognize and engulf oxidized LDL, a process that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial wall. LDL oxidation can be induced by macrophages and can also be catalyzed by metal ions like copper. Several studies have shown that certain flavonoids can protect LDL from being oxidized by these two mechanisms.


    ANTIOXIDANT FLAVONOIDS
    (Listed in order of decreasing potency.)


  • Quercetin (a flavonol in vegetables, fruit skins, onions)
  • Xanthohumol (a prenylated chalcone in hops and beer)
  • Isoxanthohumol (a prenylated flavanone in hops and beer)
  • Genistein (an isoflavone in soy)


  • PRO-OXIDANT FLAVONOIDS


  • Chalconaringenin (a non-prenylated chalcone in citrus fruits)
  • Naringenin (a non-prenylated flavanone in citrus fruits)


  • The capacity of flavonoids to act as antioxidants depends upon their molecular structure. The position of hydroxyl groups and other features in the chemical structure of flavonoids are important for their antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, is a potent antioxidant because it has all the right structural features for free radical scavenging activity.

    Recently, chalcone and flavanone flavonoids with prenyl or geranyl side chains have been identified in hops and beer by Dr. Fred Stevens and Dr. Max Deinzer at Oregon State University. Hops are used in beer for flavor. Xanthohumol (a chalcone) and isoxanthohumol and 6-prenylnaringenin (flavanones) are the major prenyl-flavonoids found in beer. Although the antioxidant activities of these compounds have not been studied, these flavonoids may be responsible for the antioxidant activity of lager beer, which is higher than that of green tea, red wine, or grape juice as reported earlier by Dr. Joe A. Vinson from the University of Scranton in Pennsylvania. Xanthohumol is found only in beer but in small concentrations.

    To assess the antioxidant activity of the prenylated flavonoids, we-in collaboration with LPI researchers-evaluated the capacity of these flavonoids to inhibit the oxidation of LDL by copper. The antioxidant properties of the prenylflavonoids were compared to those of quercetin (a flavonol), genistein (the major isoflavone in soy), chalconaringenin (a non-prenylated chalcone), naringenin (a non-prenylated flavanone), and vitamin E. The possible interaction of xanthohumol, the major prenylchalcone in beer, with vitamin E to inhibit LDL oxidation induced by copper was also examined.

    Research results showed that the prenylchalcones and prenylflavones are effective in preventing LDL oxidation initiated by copper and that the prenylchalcones generally have greater antioxidant activity than the prenylflavanones. Xanthohumol, the major prenylchalcone in hops and beer, is a more powerful antioxidant than vitamin E or genistein. However, xanthohumol was less potent than quercetin. The potency of xanthohumol as an antioxidant is markedly increased when combined with an equivalent amount of vitamin E.

    As reported in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, it was found that the prenyl group plays an important role in the antioxidant activity of certain flavonoids. A flavonoid chalcone (chalconaringenin) and a flavanone (naringenin) with no prenyl groups act as pro-oxidants, i.e. they promote rather than limit the oxidation of LDL by copper. However, adding a prenyl group to these flavonoid molecules counteracted their pro-oxidant activities.

    Research reveals that there are unique flavonoids in hops and beer that may be potentially useful in the preventionof human disease attributed to free radical damage. The observation that prenyl groups are important in conferring antioxidant activity to certain flavonoids may lead to the discovery or synthesis of novel prenylated flavonoids as preventive or therapeutic agents against human diseases associated with free radicals. The encouraging results with xanthohumol suggest that this prenylchalcone should be further studied for its antioxidant action and protective effects against free radical damage in animals and humans. Preliminary studies have shown that xanthohumol is absorbed from the digestive tract in rats, and more studies are needed to evaluate the bioavailability of these interesting flavonoids in people.

    Further studies are also needed to establish the safety of xanthohumol or other flavonoids for use as dietary supplements since high doses of these compounds may produce adverse effects in humans, according to recent findings by Dr. Martyn Smith, professor of toxicology, University of California at Berkeley.





    FLAVONOID USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    BENEFITS IN HEALTH

    Research generally supports the healing potential of Flavonoids; however, few have been studied. The following Flavonoids have been researched and are listed as the most important to date. Genistein, found in soybeans and some other legumes, can lessen hot flashes and help prevent hormone-related cancers; quercetin, found in apples and onions, helps reduce the risk for cataracts and macular degeneration, fibromyalgia, gout and rheumatoid arthritis; PCO’s (procyanidolic oligomers), found in pine bark and grape seed extract and red wine, helps reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke; and rutin and hesperidin, found in citrus fruits, is effective in repairing hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Another valuable Flavonoid is EGCG (epigallocatechingallate), a polyphenol found in green tea, and thought to be the most effective cancer battling compound to date.

    flavonoid basic chemical structure


    Flavonoids are a large family of compounds synthesized by plants that have a common chemical structure. The basic structure of a flavonoid is shown above. Flavonoids may be further divided into subclasses. Over the past decade, scientists have become increasingly interested in the potential for various dietary flavonoids to explain some of the health benefits associated with fruit- and vegetable-rich diets.

    COMMON DIETARY FLAVONOIDS
    FLAVONOID SUBCLASS
    DIETARY FLAVONOIDS
    SOME COMMON FOOD SOURCES

    Anthocyanidins

  • Cyanidin
  • Delphinidin
  • Malvidin
  • Pelargonidin
  • Peonidin
  • Petunidin

  • Red, blue, and purple berries.
  • Red and purple grapes.
  • Red wine.
  • anthocyanidin chemical structure

    Flavonols

    Monomers (Catechins):
  • Catechin
  • Epicatechin
  • Epigallocatechin Epicatechin Gallate
  • Epigallocatechin Gallate


  • Dimers & Polymers:
  • Theaflavins
  • Thearubigins
  • Proanthocyanidins

  • Catechins: Teas (particularly green and white), chocolate, grapes, berries, apples.


  • Theaflavins, Thearubigins: Teas (particularly black and oolong).


  • Proanthocyanidins: Chocolate, apples, berries, red grapes, red wine.
  • flavonol catechin chemical structures

    Flavanones

  • Hesperetin
  • Naringenin
  • Eriodictyol

  • Citrus fruits and juices, e.g., oranges, grapefruits, lemons.
  • flavanone chemical structures

    Flavonols

  • Quercetin
  • Kaempferol
  • Myricetin
  • Isorhamnetin

  • Widely Distributed: Yellow onions, scallions, kale, broccoli, apples, berries, teas.
  • flavonol chemical structures

    Flavones

  • Apigenin
  • Luteolin

  • Parsley, thyme, celery, hot peppers.
  • flavone chemical structures

    Isoflavones

  • Daidzein
  • Genistein
  • Glycitein

  • Soybeans, soy foods, legumes.
  • isoflavone chemical structures


    METABOLISM & BIOAVAILABILITY

    Flavonoids connected to one or more sugar molecules are known as flavonoid glycosides, while those that are not connected to a sugar molecule are called aglycones. With the exception of flavanols (catechins and proanthocyanidins), flavonoids occur in plants and most foods as glycosides. Even after cooking, most flavonoid glycosides reach the small intestine intact. Only flavonoid aglycones and flavonoid glucosides (bound to glucose) are absorbed in the small intestine, where they are rapidly metabolized to form methylated, glucuronidated, or sulfated metabolites.

    Bacteria that normally colonize the colon also play an important role in flavonoid metabolism and absorption. Flavonoids or flavonoids metabolites that reach the colon may be further metabolized by bacterial enzymes, and then absorbed. A person's ability to produce specific flavonoid metabolites may vary and depends on the milieu of the colonic microflora. In general, the bioavailability of flavonoids is relatively low due to limited absorption and rapid elimination.

    Bioavailability differs for the various flavonoids: Isoflavones are the most bioavailable group of flavonoids, while flavanols (proanthocyanidins and tea catechins) and anthocyanins are very poorly absorbed. Since flavonoids are rapidly and extensively metabolized, the biological activities of flavonoid metabolites are not always the same as those of the parent compound. When evaluating the data from flavonoid research in cultured cells, it is important to consider whether the flavonoid concentrations and metabolites used are physiologically relevant. In humans, peak plasma concentrations of soy isoflavones and citrus flavanones have not been found to exceed 10 micromoles/liter after oral consumption. Peak plasma concentrations measured after the consumption of anthocyanins, flavanols and flavonols (including those from tea) are generally less than 1 micromole/liter.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

  • Direct Antioxidant Activity

  • Flavonoids are effective scavengers of free radicals in the test tube (in vitro). However, even with very high flavonoid intakes, plasma and intracellular flavonoid concentrations in humans are likely to be 100 to 1,000 times lower than concentrations of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate (vitamin C), uric acid, or glutathione. Moreover, most circulating flavonoids are actually flavonoid metabolites, some of which have lower antioxidant activity than the parent flavonoid. For these reasons, the relative contribution of dietary flavonoids to plasma and tissue antioxidant function in vivo is likely to be very small or negligible.

  • Metal Chelation

  • Metal ions, such as iron and copper, can catalyze the production of free radicals. The ability of flavonoids to chelate (bind) metal ions appears to contribute to their antioxidant activity in vitro. In living organisms, most iron and copper are bound to proteins, limiting their participation in reactions that produce free radicals. Although the metal-chelating activities of flavonoids may be beneficial in pathological conditions of iron or copper excess, it is not known whether flavonoids or their metabolites function as effective metal chelators in vivo.

  • Effects on Cell-Signaling Pathways

  • Cells are capable of responding to a variety of different stresses or signals by increasing or decreasing the availability of specific proteins. The complex cascades of events that lead to changes in the expression of specific genes are known as cell-signaling pathways or signal transduction pathways. These pathways regulate numerous cell processes, including growth, proliferation, and death (apoptosis). Although it was initially hypothesized that the biological effects of flavonoids would be related to their antioxidant activity, available evidence from cell culture experiments suggests that many of the biological effects of flavonoids are related to their ability to modulate cell-signaling pathways. Intracellular concentrations of flavonoids required to affect cell-signaling pathways are considerably lower than those required to affect cellular antioxidant capacity. Flavonoid metabolites may retain their ability to interact with cell-signaling proteins even if their antioxidant activity is diminished. Effective signal transduction requires proteins known as kinases that catalyze the phosphorylation of target proteins at specific sites. Cascades involving specific phosphorylations or dephosphorylations of signal transduction proteins ultimately affect the activity of transcription factors - proteins that bind to specific response elements on DNA and promote or inhibit the transcription of various genes. The results of numerous studies in cell culture suggest that flavonoids may affect chronic disease by selectively inhibiting kinases. Cell growth and proliferation are also regulated by growth factors that initiate cell-signaling cascades by binding to specific receptors in cell membranes. Flavonoids may alter growth factor signaling by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation or blocking receptor binding by growth factors.

    FLAVONOIDS & CANCER PREVENTION

    Modulation of Cell-signaling pathways by flavonoids could help prevent cancer by:
      Stimulating Phase II Detoxification Enzyme Activity: Phase II detoxification enzymes catalyze reactions that promote the excretion of potentially toxic or carcinogenic chemicals.

      Preserving Normal Cell Cycle Regulation: Once a cell divides, it passes through a sequence of stages collectively known as the cell cycle before it divides again. Following DNA damage, the cell cycle can be transiently arrested at damage checkpoints, which allows for DNA repair or activation of pathways leading to cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is irreparable. Defective cell cycle regulation may result in the propagation of mutations that contribute to the development of cancer.

      Inhibiting Proliferation & Inducing Apoptosis: Unlike normal cells, cancer cells proliferate rapidly and lose the ability to respond to cell death signals that initiate apoptosis.

      Inhibiting Ttumor Invasion & Angiogenesis: Cancerous cells invade normal tissue aided by enzymes called matrix-metalloproteinases. To fuel their rapid growth, invasive tumors must develop new blood vessels by a process known as angiogenesis.

      Decreasing Inflammation: Inflammation can result in locally increased production of free radicals by inflammatory enzymes, as well as the release of inflammatory mediators that promote cell proliferation and angiogenesis and inhibit apoptosis.

    CANCER DISEASE PREVENTION

    Although various flavonoids have been found to inhibit the development of chemically-induced cancers in animal models of lung, oral, esophageal, stomach, colon, skin, prostate, and mammary (breast) cancer, epidemiological studies do not provide convincing evidence that high intakes of dietary flavonoids are associated with substantial reductions in human cancer risk. Most prospective cohort studies that have assessed dietary flavonoid intake using food frequency questionnaires have not found flavonoid intake to be inversely associated with cancer risk. Two prospective cohort studies in Europe found no relationship between the risk of various cancers and dietary intakes of flavones and flavonols, catechins, or tea. In a cohort of postmenopausal women in the U.S., catechin intake from tea, but not fruits and vegetables, was inversely associated with the risk of rectal cancer, but not other cancers.

    Two prospective cohort studies in Finland, where average flavonoid intakes are relatively low, found that men with the highest dietary intakes of flavonols and flavones had a significantly lower risk of developing lung cancer than those with the lowest intakes. When individual dietary flavonoids were analyzed, dietary quercetin intake, mainly from apples, was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer; myricetin intake was inversely associated with the risk of prostate cancer.

    Tea is an important source of flavonoids (flavanols and flavonols) in some populations, but most prospective cohort studies have not found tea consumption to be inversely associated with cancer risk. The results of case-control studies, which are more likely to be influenced by recall bias, are mixed. While some studies have observed lower flavonoid intakes in people diagnosed with lung, stomach, and breast cancer, many others have found no significant differences in flavonoid intake between cancer cases and controls. There is limited evidence that low intakes of flavonoids from food are associated with increased risk of certain cancers, but it is not clear whether these findings are related to insufficient intakes of flavonoids or other nutrients and phytochemicals found in flavonoid-rich foods.

    Clinical trials will be necessary to determine if specific flavonoids are beneficial in the prevention or treatment of cancer; a few clinical trials are currently under way. See www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials.

    FLAVONOIDS & CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION

    Modulation of cell-signaling pathways by flavonoids could help prevent cardiovascular disease by:
      Decreasing Inflammation: Atherosclerosis is now recognized as an inflammatory disease, and several measures of inflammation are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (heart attack).

      Decreasing Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression: One of the earliest events in the development of atherosclerosis is the recruitment of inflammatory white blood cells from the blood to the arterial wall. This event is dependent on the expression of adhesion molecules by the vascular endothelial cells that line the inner walls of blood vessels.

      Increasing Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Activity: eNOS is the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide by vascular endothelial cells. Nitric oxide is needed to maintain arterial relaxation (vasodilation). Impaired nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

      Decreasing Platelet Aggregation: Platelet aggregation is one of the first steps in the formation of a blood clot that can occlude a coronary or cerebral artery, resulting in myocardial infarction or stroke, respectively. Inhibiting platelet aggregation is considered an important strategy in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    Several prospective cohort studies conducted in the U.S. and Europe have examined the relationship between some measure of dietary flavonoid intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Some studies have found that higher flavonoid intakes to be associated with significant reductions in CHD risk, while others have reported no significant relationship. In general, the foods that contributed most to total flavonoid intake in these cohorts were black tea, apples, and onions. One study in the Netherlands also found cocoa to be a significant source of dietary flavonoids. Of seven prospective cohort studies that examined relationships between dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of stroke, only two studies found that higher flavonoid intakes were associated with significant reductions in the risk of stroke, while five found no relationship. Although data from prospective cohort studies suggest that higher intakes of flavonoid-rich foods may help protect against CHD, it cannot be determined whether such protection is conferred by flavonoids, other nutrients and phytochemicals in flavonoid-rich foods, or the whole foods themselves.

    VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION

    Vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining cardiovascular health by producing nitric oxide, a compound that promotes arterial relaxation (vasodilation). Arterial vasodilation resulting from endothelial production of nitric oxide is termed endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Several clinical trials have examined the effect of flavonoid-rich foods and beverages on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Two controlled clinical trials found that daily consumption of 4 to 5 cups (900 to 1,250 ml) of black tea for four weeks significantly improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease and in patients with mildly elevated serum cholesterol levels compared with the equivalent amount of caffeine alone or hot water. Other small clinical trials found similar improvements in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to daily consumption of about 3 cups (640 ml) of purple grape juice or a high-flavonoid dark chocolate bar for two weeks. More recently, a 6-week cocoa intervention trial in 32 postmenopausal women with high cholesterol levels found significant improvements in endothelial function with daily cocoa supplementation. Improvements in endothelial function were also noted in conventionally medicated type 2 diabetics following flavanol-rich cocoa supplementation for 30 days. The flavanol epicatechin appears to be one of the compounds in flavanol-rich cocoa responsible for its vasodilatory effects. Interestingly, a recent randomized controlled trial in 44 older adults found that low doses of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (6.3 grams per day for 18 weeks; equivalent to 30 calories) increased levels of plasma S-nitrosoglutathione, an indicator of nitric oxide production, compared to flavonoid-devoid white chocolate.

    Endothelial nitric oxide production also inhibits the adhesion and aggregation of platelets, one of the first steps in blood clot formation. A number of clinical trials have examined the potential for high flavonoid intakes to decrease various measures of platelet aggregation outside of the body (ex vivo); such trials have reported mixed results. In general, increasing flavonoid intakes by increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake did not significantly affect ex vivo platelet aggregation, nor did increasing black tea consumption. However, several small clinical trials in healthy adults have reported significant decreases in ex vivo measures of platelet aggregation after consumption of grape juice (approximately 500 ml per day) for 7 to 14 days. Similar inhibition of platelet aggregation has been reported following acute or short-term consumption of dark chocolate and following acute consumption of a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage. In addition, a placebo-controlled trial in 32 healthy adults found that 4-week supplementation with flavanols and procyanidins from cocoa inhibited platelet aggregation and function. The results of some controlled clinical trials suggest that relatively high intakes of some flavonoid-rich foods and beverages, including black tea, purple grape juice, and cocoa, may improve vascular endothelial function, but it is not known whether these short-term improvements will result in long-term reductions in cardiovascular disease risk.

    FLAVONOIDS & NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE

    Inflammation, oxidative stress, and transition metal accumulation appear to play a role in the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Because flavonoids have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and metal-chelating properties, scientists are interested in the neuroprotective potential of flavonoid-rich diets or individual flavonoids. At present, the extent to which various dietary flavonoids and flavonoid metabolites cross the blood brain barrier in humans is not known. Although flavonoid-rich diets and flavonoid administration have been found to prevent cognitive impairment associated with aging and inflammation in some animal studies, prospective cohort studies have not found consistent inverse associations between flavonoid intake and the risk of dementia or neurodegenerative disease in humans. In a cohort of Japanese-American men followed for 25 to 30 years, flavonoid intake from tea during midlife was not associated with the risk of Alzheimer's or other types of dementia in late life. Surprisingly, higher intakes of isoflavone-rich tofu during midlife were associated with cognitive impairment and brain atrophy in late life.

    A prospective study of Dutch adults found that total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer’s disease, except in current smokers whose risk of Alzheimer’s disease decreased by 50 percent for every 12 mg increase in daily flavonoid intake. In contrast, a study of elderly French men and women found that those with the lowest flavonoid intakes had a risk of developing dementia over the next five years that was 50 percent higher than those with the highest intakes. More recently, a study in 1,640 elderly men and women found that those with higher dietary flavonoid intake (greater than 13.6 mg per day) had better cognitive performance at baseline and experienced significantly less age-related cognitive decline over a 10-year period than those with a lower flavonoid intake (0 to 10.4 mg per day). Additionally, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 202 postmenopausal women reported that daily supplementation with 25.6 grams of soy protein (containing 99 mg of isoflavones) for one year did not improve cognitive function. However, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial in 77 postmenopausal women found that 6-month supplementation with 60 mg per day of isoflavones improved some measures of cognitive performance.

    Although scientists are interested in the potential of flavonoids to protect the aging brain, it is not yet clear how flavonoid consumption affects neurodegenerative disease risk in humans.





    FLAVONOID DOSAGE INFORMATION

    FOOD SOURCES OF FLAVONOIDS

    Dietary sources of flavonoids include tea, red wine, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Individual flavonoid intakes may vary considerably depending on whether tea, red wine, soy products, or fruits and vegetables are commonly consumed. Although individual flavonoid intakes may vary, total flavonoid intakes in Western populations appear to average about 150 to 200 mg per day. Information on the flavonoid content of some flavonoid-rich foods is presented below.

    Anthocyanin, Flavanol and Proanthocyanidin Content of Selected Foods
    (mg/100g or 100 ml*)
    Anthocyanin-Rich Foods
    Anthocyanins
    Flavanols
    Proanthocyanidins
    Blackberry
    89 to 211
    13 to 19
    6 to 47
    Blueberry
    67 to 183
    1
    88 to 261
    Grapes, Red
    25 to 92
    2
    44 to 76
    Raspberries (Red)
    10 to 84
    9
    5 to 59
    Strawberry
    15 to 75
    -
    97 to 183
    Red Wine
    1 to 35
    1 to 55
    24 to 70
    Plum
    2 to 25
    1 to 6
    106 to 334
    Red Cabbage
    25
    0
    -
    Red Onion
    13 to 25
    -
    -
    Blood Orange Juice
    3 to 10
    -
    -
    Flavanol-Rich Foods
    Anthocyanins
    Flavanols
    Proanthocyanidins
    Green Tea
    -
    24 to 216
    -
    Black Tea
    -
    5 to 158
    4
    Chocolate, Dark
    -
    43 to 63
    90 to 322
    Apple, Red Delicious With Peel
    1 to 4
    2 to 12
    89 to 148
    Apricot
    -
    10 to 25
    8 to 13
    Flavone-Rich Foods
    Anthocyanins
    Flavanols
    Proanthocyanidins
    Parsley, Fresh
    -
    -
    -
    Thyme, Fresh
    -
    -
    -
    Celery Hearts, Green
    -
    -
    -
    Celery
    -
    -
    -
    Oregano, Fresh
    -
    -
    -
    Chili Peppers, Green
    -
    -
    -
    Flavanone-Rich Foods
    Anthocyanins
    Flavanols
    Proanthocyanidins
    Lemon Juice, Fresh
    -
    -
    -
    Grapefruit Juice, Fresh
    -
    -
    -
    Orange Juice, Fresh
    -
    -
    -
    Grapefruit, Fresh
    -
    -
    -
    Orange, Fresh
    -
    -
    -
    Flavonol-Rich Foods
    Anthocyanins
    Flavanols
    Proanthocyanidins
    Onion, yellow
    -
    0
    -
    Kale
    -
    -
    -
    Leek
    -
    0
    -
    Broccoli
    -
    0
    -
    *per 100 grams (fresh weight) or 100 ml (liquids); 100 grams is equivalent to about 3.5 ounces; 100 ml is equivalent to about 3.5 fluid ounces.


    Flavone, Flavonol & Flavanone Content of Selected Foods
    (mg/100g or 100 ml*)
    Anthocyanin-Rich Foods
    Flavones
    Flavonols
    Flavanones
    Blackberry
    -
    0 to 2
    -
    Blueberry
    -
    2 to 16
    -
    Grapes, Red
    -
    3 to 4
    -
    Raspberries (Red)
    -
    1
    -
    Strawberry
    -
    1 to 4
    -
    Red Wine
    0
    2 to 30
    -
    Plum
    0
    1 to 2
    -
    Red Cabbage
    0 to 1
    0 to 1
    -
    Red Onion
    0
    4 to 100
    -
    Blood Orange Juice
    -
    -
    10 to 22
    Flavanol-Rich Foods
    Flavones
    Flavonols
    Flavanones
    Green Tea
    0 to 1
    3 to 9
    -
    Black Tea
    0
    1 to 7
    -
    Chocolate, Dark
    -
    -
    -
    Apple, Red Delicious With Peel
    0
    2 to 6
    -
    Apricot
    0
    2 to 5
    8 to 13
    Flavone-Rich Foods
    Flavones
    Flavonols
    Flavanones
    Parsley, Fresh
    24 to 634
    8 to 10
    -
    Thyme, Fresh
    56
    0
    -
    Celery Hearts, Green
    23
    -
    -
    Celery
    0 to 15
    4
    -
    Oregano, Fresh
    2 to 7
    0
    -
    Chili Peppers, Green
    5
    13 to 21
    -
    Flavanone-Rich Foods
    Flavones
    Flavanols
    Flavanones
    Lemon Juice, Fresh
    0
    0 to 2
    2 to 175
    Grapefruit Juice, Fresh
    0
    0
    10 to 104
    Orange Juice, Fresh
    0 to 1
    0
    5 to 47
    Grapefruit, Fresh
    -
    1
    55
    Orange, Fresh
    -
    -
    42 to 53
    Flavonol-Rich Foods
    Flavones
    Flavonols
    Flavanones
    Onion, yellow
    0
    3 to 120
    -
    Kale
    0
    30 to 60
    -
    Leek
    0
    3 to 22
    -
    Broccoli
    0
    4 to 13
    -
    *per 100 grams (fresh weight) or 100 ml (liquids); 100 grams is equivalent to about 3.5 ounces; 100 ml is equivalent to about 3.5 fluid ounces.


    These values should be considered approximate since a number of factors may affect the flavonoid content of foods, including agricultural practices, environmental factors, ripening, processing, storing, and cooking. For more information about the flavonoid content of foods, see the USDA databases for the flavonoid and proanthocyanidin content of selected foods. For information on the isoflavone content of soy foods, see the separate article on Soy Isoflavones or the USDA database for the isoflavone content of selected foods.

    FLAVONOID SUPPLEMENTS

    Flavonoid supplements are not needed to prevent deficiencies in people eating a healthy diet. If a supplement is needed the standard dosage is 1000 mg of citrus flavonoids taken 1 to 3 times per day, or 240 to 600 mg of Bilberry (standardized to 25 percent anthcyanosides) may be taken per day.

  • Anthocyanins: Bilberry, Elderberry, Black Currant, Blueberry, Red Grape, and Mixed Berry extracts that are rich in anthocyanins are available as dietary supplements without a prescription in the U.S. The anthocyanin content of these products may vary considerably. Standardized extracts that list the amount of anthocyanins per dose are available.

  • Flavanols: Numerous tea extracts are available in the U.S. as dietary supplements and may be labeled as tea catechins or tea polyphenols. Green Tea extracts are the most commonly marketed, but Black and Oolong Tea extracts are also available. Green tea extracts generally have higher levels of catechins (flavanol monomers), while black tea extracts are richer in theaflavins and thearubigins (flavanol polymers found in tea). Oolong tea extracts fall somewhere in between green and black tea extracts with respect to their flavanol content. Some tea extracts contain caffeine, while others are decaffeinated. Flavanol and caffeine content vary considerably among different products, so it is important to check the label or consult the manufacturer to determine the amounts of flavanols and caffeine that would be consumed daily with each supplement.

  • Flavanones: Citrus Bioflavonoid supplements may contain glycosides of hesperetin (hesperidin), naringenin (naringin), and eriodictyol (eriocitrin). Hesperidin is also available in hesperidin-complex supplements.

  • Flavones: The peels of citrus fruits are rich in polymethoxylated flavones: tangeretin, nobiletin, and sinensetin. Although dietary intakes of these naturally occurring flavones are generally low, they are often present in Citrus Bioflavonoid supplements.

  • Flavonols: The flavonol aglycone, quercetin, and its glycoside rutin are available as dietary supplements without a prescription in the U.S. Other names for rutin include rutinoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and sophorin (114). Citrus Bioflavonoid supplements may also contain Quercetin or Rutin.





  • FLAVONOID SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    SIDE EFFECTS & ADVERSE REACTIONS

    No adverse effects have been associated with high dietary intakes of flavonoids from plant-based foods. This lack of adverse effects may be explained by the relatively low bioavailability and rapid metabolism and elimination of most flavonoids. Studies have shown the lowest intake of dietary flavonoids - particularly quercetin - was associated with the highest risk of developing a stroke. When taking supplements, always read and follow product dosage instructions carefully. If you have adverse effects, adjust dosage or discontinue use. Consult with your health care provider before taking supplements if you are pregnant, have health issues, or are taking prescribed medications. Supplements may interfere with or have interactions with medicines.

    QUERCETIN

    Some men taking Quercetin supplements (1,000 mg per day for one month) reported nausea, headache, or tingling of the extremities. Some cancer patients given intravenous quercetin in a phase I clinical trial reported nausea, vomiting, sweating, flushing, and dyspnea (difficulty breathing). Intravenous administration of Quercetin at doses of 945 mg/m2 or more was associated with renal (kidney) toxicity in that trial.

    CAMELLIA SINENSIS TEA EXTRACTS

    There have been several reports of hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity) following consumption of supplements containing tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts. In clinical trials of caffeinated Green Tea extracts, cancer patients who took 6 grams per day in 3 to 6 divided doses have reported mild to moderate gastrointestinal side effects, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Central nervous system symptoms, including agitation, restlessness, insomnia, tremors, dizziness, and confusion, have also been reported. In one case, confusion was severe enough to require hospitalization. These side effects were likely related to the caffeine in the Green Tea extract. In a 4-week clinical trial that assessed the safety of decaffeinated Green Tea extracts (800 mg per day of EGCG) in healthy individuals, a few of the participants reported mild nausea, stomach upset, dizziness, or muscle pain.

    PREGNANCY & LACTATION

    The safety of flavonoid supplements in pregnancy and lactation has not been established.

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by Grapefruit Juice and Flavonoids

    As little as 200 ml (7 fluid ounces) of grapefruit juice has been found to irreversibly inhibit the intestinal drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Although the most potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 in grapefruit are thought to be furanocoumarins, particularly dihydroxybergamottin, the flavonoids naringenin and quercetin have also been found to inhibit CYP3A4 in vitro. Inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 can increase the bioavailability and the risk of toxicity of a number of drugs, including but not limited to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin), calcium channel antagonists (felodipine, nicardipine, nisoldipine, nitrendipine, and verapamil), anti-arrhythmic agents (amiodarone), HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), antihistamines (terfenadine), gastrointestinal stimulants (cisapride), benzodiazepines (diazepam, midazolam, and triazolam), anticonvulsants (carbamazepine), anxiolytics (buspirone) serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors (sertraline), and drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction (sildenafil). Grapefruit juice may reduce the therapeutic effect of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan. Because of the potential for adverse drug interactions, some clinicians recommend that people taking medications that undergo extensive presystemic metabolism by CYP3A4 avoid consuming grapefruit juice altogether to avoid potential toxicities.

    Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by Grapefruit Juice and Flavonoids

    P-glycoprotein is an efflux transporter that decreases the absorption of a number of drugs. There is some evidence that the consumption of grapefruit juice inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein. Quercetin, naringenin, and the green tea flavanol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been found to inhibit the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in cultured cells. Thus, very high or supplemental intakes of these flavonoids could potentially increase flavonoid bioavailability, potentially increasing the toxicity of drugs that are substrates of P-glycoprotein. Drugs known to be substrates of P-glycoprotein include digoxin, antihypertensive agents, antiarrhythmic agents, chemotherapeutic (anticancer) agents, antifungal agents, HIV protease inhibitors, immunosuppressive agents, H2 receptor antagonists, some antibiotics, and others.

    Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs

    High intakes of flavonoids from purple grape juice (500 ml per day) and dark chocolate (235 mg per day of flavanols) have been found to inhibit platelet aggregation in ex vivo assays. Theoretically, high intakes of flavonoids (e.g., from supplements) could increase the risk of bleeding when taken with anticoagulant drugs, such as warfarin (Coumadin), and antiplatelet drugs, such as clopidogrel (Plavix), dipyridamole (Persantine), non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin, and others.

    NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS

    Nonheme Iron

    Flavonoids can bind nonheme iron, inhibiting its intestinal absorption. Nonheme iron is the principal form of iron in plant foods, dairy products, and iron supplements. The consumption of one cup of tea or cocoa with a meal has been found to decrease the absorption of nonheme iron in that meal by about 70 percent. To maximize iron absorption from a meal or iron supplements, flavonoid-rich beverages or flavonoid supplements should not be taken at the same time.

    Vitamin C

    Studies in cell culture indicate that a number of flavonoids inhibit the transport of vitamin C into cells, and supplementation of rats with quercetin and vitamin C decreased the intestinal absorption of vitamin C. More research is needed to determine the significance of these findings in humans.


    FLAVONOID REFERENCES

    1. Beecher GR. Overview of dietary flavonoids: nomenclature, occurrence and intake. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3248S-3254S. (PubMed)
    2. Williamson G. Common features in the pathways of absorption and metabolism of flavonoids. In: Meskin MS, R. BW, Davies AJ, Lewis DS, Randolph RK, eds. Phytochemicals: Mechanisms of Action. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004:21-33.
    3. Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):727-747. (PubMed)
    4. Setchell KD, Brown NM, Lydeking-Olsen E. The clinical importance of the metabolite equol-a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. J Nutr. 2002;132(12):3577-3584. (PubMed)
    5. Yuan JP, Wang JH, Liu X. Metabolism of dietary soy isoflavones to equol by human intestinal microflora--implications for health. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51(7):765-781. (PubMed)
    6. Manach C, Williamson G, Morand C, Scalbert A, Remesy C. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(1 Suppl):230S-242S. (PubMed)
    7. Williams RJ, Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C. Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules? Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36(7):838-849. (PubMed)
    8. Kroon PA, Clifford MN, Crozier A, et al. How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(1):15-21. (PubMed)
    9. Heijnen CG, Haenen GR, van Acker FA, van der Vijgh WJ, Bast A. Flavonoids as peroxynitrite scavengers: the role of the hydroxyl groups. Toxicol In Vitro. 2001;15(1):3-6. (PubMed)
    10. Chun OK, Kim DO, Lee CY. Superoxide radical scavenging activity of the major polyphenols in fresh plums. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(27):8067-8072.
    (PubMed)
    11. Frei B, Higdon JV. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3275S-3284S. (PubMed)
    12. Lotito SB, Frei B. Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods and increased plasma antioxidant capacity in humans: cause, consequence, or epiphenomenon? Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;41(12):1727-1746. (PubMed)
    13. Mira L, Fernandez MT, Santos M, Rocha R, Florencio MH, Jennings KR. Interactions of flavonoids with iron and copper ions: a mechanism for their antioxidant activity. Free Radic Res. 2002;36(11):1199-1208. (PubMed)
    14. Cheng IF, Breen K. On the ability of four flavonoids, baicilein, luteolin, naringenin, and quercetin, to suppress the Fenton reaction of the iron-ATP complex. Biometals. 2000;13(1):77-83. (PubMed)
    15. Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C, Williams RJ. Modulation of pro-survival Akt/protein kinase B and ERK1/2 signaling cascades by quercetin and its in vivo metabolites underlie their action on neuronal viability. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(37):34783-34793. (PubMed)
    16. Spencer JP, Schroeter H, Crossthwaithe AJ, Kuhnle G, Williams RJ, Rice-Evans C. Contrasting influences of glucuronidation and O-methylation of epicatechin on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in neurons and fibroblasts. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;31(9):1139-1146.
    (PubMed)
    17. Hou Z, Lambert JD, Chin KV, Yang CS. Effects of tea polyphenols on signal transduction pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. Mutat Res. 2004;555(1-2):3-19. (PubMed)
    18. Lambert JD, Yang CS. Mechanisms of cancer prevention by tea constituents. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3262S-3267S. (PubMed)
    19. Kong AN, Owuor E, Yu R, et al. Induction of xenobiotic enzymes by the MAP kinase pathway and the antioxidant or electrophile response element (ARE/EpRE). Drug Metab Rev. 2001;33(3-4):255-271. (PubMed)
    20. Walle UK, Walle T. Induction of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A1 by flavonoids-structural requirements. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002;30(5):564-569. (PubMed)
    21. Chen JJ, Ye ZQ, Koo MW. Growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest effects of epigallocatechin gallate in the NBT-II bladder tumour cell line. BJU Int. 2004;93(7):1082-1086. (PubMed)
    22. Wang W, VanAlstyne PC, Irons KA, Chen S, Stewart JW, Birt DF. Individual and interactive effects of apigenin analogs on G2/M cell-cycle arrest in human colon carcinoma cell lines. Nutr Cancer. 2004;48(1):106-114. (PubMed)
    23. Stewart ZA, Westfall MD, Pietenpol JA. Cell-cycle dysregulation and anticancer therapy. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2003;24(3):139-145. (PubMed)
    24. Sah JF, Balasubramanian S, Eckert RL, Rorke EA. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Evidence for direct inhibition of ERK1/2 and AKT kinases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(13):12755-12762. (PubMed)
    25. Kavanagh KT, Hafer LJ, Kim DW, et al. Green tea extracts decrease carcinogen-induced mammary tumor burden in rats and rate of breast cancer cell proliferation in culture. J Cell Biochem. 2001;82(3):387-398. (PubMed)
    26. Ramos S. Effects of dietary flavonoids on apoptotic pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18(7):427-442. (PubMed)
    27. Bagli E, Stefaniotou M, Morbidelli L, et al. Luteolin inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis; inhibition of endothelial cell survival and proliferation by targeting phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity. Cancer Res. 2004;64(21):7936-7946. (PubMed)
    28. Kim MH. Flavonoids inhibit VEGF/bFGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro by inhibiting the matrix-degrading proteases. J Cell Biochem. 2003;89(3):529-538. (PubMed)
    29. O'Leary KA, de Pascual-Tereasa S, Needs PW, Bao YP, O'Brien NM, Williamson G. Effect of flavonoids and vitamin E on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription. Mutat Res. 2004;551(1-2):245-254. (PubMed)
    30. Sakata K, Hirose Y, Qiao Z, Tanaka T, Mori H. Inhibition of inducible isoforms of cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase by flavonoid hesperidin in mouse macrophage cell line. Cancer Lett. 2003;199(2):139-145. (PubMed)
    31. Cho SY, Park SJ, Kwon MJ, et al. Quercetin suppresses proinflammatory cytokines production through MAP kinases andNF-kappaB pathway in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;243(1-2):153-160. (PubMed)
    32. Steele VE, Hawk ET, Viner JL, Lubet RA. Mechanisms and applications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the chemoprevention of cancer. Mutat Res. 2003;523-524:137-144. (PubMed)
    33. Blake GJ, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein and other inflammatory risk markers in acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41(4 Suppl S):37S-42S. (PubMed)
    34. Choi JS, Choi YJ, Park SH, Kang JS, Kang YH. Flavones mitigate tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced adhesion molecule upregulation in cultured human endothelial cells: role of nuclear factor-kappa B. J Nutr. 2004;134(5):1013-1019. (PubMed)
    35. Ludwig A, Lorenz M, Grimbo N, et al. The tea flavonoid epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;316(3):659-665. (PubMed)
    >36. Stocker R, Keaney JF, Jr. Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis. Physiol Rev. 2004;84(4):1381-1478. (PubMed)
    37. Anter E, Thomas SR, Schulz E, Shapira OM, Vita JA, Keaney JF, Jr. Activation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase by the p38 MAPK in response to black tea polyphenols. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(45):46637-46643. (PubMed)
    38. Duffy SJ, Vita JA. Effects of phenolics on vascular endothelial function. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2003;14(1):21-27. (PubMed)
    39. Deana R, Turetta L, Donella-Deana A, et al. Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits platelet signalling pathways triggered by both proteolytic and non-proteolytic agonists. Thromb Haemost. 2003;89(5):866-874. (PubMed)
    40. Bucki R, Pastore JJ, Giraud F, Sulpice JC, Janmey PA. Flavonoid inhibition of platelet procoagulant activity and phosphoinositide synthesis. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1(8):1820-1828. (PubMed)
    41. Hubbard GP, Wolffram S, Lovegrove JA, Gibbins JM. The role of polyphenolic compounds in the diet as inhibitors of platelet function. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62(2):469-478. (PubMed)
    42. Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, Van der Kuip DA, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(5):880-886. (PubMed)
    43. Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Antioxidant flavonols and coronary heart disease risk. Lancet. 1997;349(9053):699. (PubMed)
    44. Hirvonen T, Pietinen P, Virtanen M, et al. Intake of flavonols and flavones and risk of coronary heart disease in male smokers. Epidemiology. 2001;12(1):62-67. (PubMed)
    45. Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Jarvinen R, et al. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(3):560-568. (PubMed)
    46. Yochum L, Kushi LH, Meyer K, Folsom AR. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(10):943-949. (PubMed)
    47. Hertog MG, Sweetnam PM, Fehily AM, Elwood PC, Kromhout D. Antioxidant flavonols and ischemic heart disease in a Welsh population of men: the Caerphilly Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(5):1489-1494. (PubMed)
    48. Rimm EB, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Relation between intake of flavonoids and risk for coronary heart disease in male health professionals. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125(5):384-389. (PubMed)
    49. Sesso HD, Gaziano JM, Liu S, Buring JE. Flavonoid intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(6):1400-1408. (PubMed)
    50. Mink PJ, Scrafford CG, Barraj LM, et al. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(3):895-909. (PubMed)
    51. Lin J, Rexrode KM, Hu F, et al. Dietary intakes of flavonols and flavones and coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(11):1305-1313. (PubMed)
    52. Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(6):637-642. (PubMed)
    53. Hirvonen T, Virtamo J, Korhonen P, Albanes D, Pietinen P. Intake of flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of stroke in male smokers. Stroke. 2000;31(10):2301-2306. (PubMed)
    54. Knekt P, Isotupa S, Rissanen H, et al. Quercetin intake and the incidence of cerebrovascular disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(5):415-417. (PubMed)
    55. Liu RH. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3 Suppl):517S-520S. (PubMed)
    56. Vita JA. Tea consumption and cardiovascular disease: effects on endothelial function. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3293S-3297S. (PubMed)
    57. Duffy SJ, Keaney JF, Jr., Holbrook M, et al. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2001;104(2):151-156. (PubMed)
    58. Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, Watts GF, Beilin LJ. Regular ingestion of black tea improves brachial artery vasodilator function. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;102(2):195-201. (PubMed)
    59. Stein JH, Keevil JG, Wiebe DA, Aeschlimann S, Folts JD. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1999;100(10):1050-1055. (PubMed)
    60. Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, et al. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(3):197-204. (PubMed)
    61. Wang-Polagruto JF, Villablanca AC, Polagruto JA, et al. Chronic consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;47 Suppl 2:S177-186; discussion S206-179. (PubMed)
    62. Balzer J, Rassaf T, Heiss C, et al. Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(22):2141-2149. (PubMed)
    63. Schroeter H, Heiss C, Balzer J, et al. (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(4):1024-1029. (PubMed)
    64. Taubert D, Roesen R, Lehmann C, Jung N, Schomig E. Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;298(1):49-60. (PubMed)
    65. Freese R, Vaarala O, Turpeinen AM, Mutanen M. No difference in platelet activation or inflammation markers after diets rich or poor in vegetables, berries and apple in healthy subjects. Eur J Nutr. 2004;43(3):175-182. (PubMed)
    66. Janssen K, Mensink RP, Cox FJ, et al. Effects of the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin on hemostasis in healthy volunteers: results from an in vitro and a dietary supplement study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(2):255-262. (PubMed)
    67. Duffy SJ, Vita JA, Holbrook M, Swerdloff PL, Keaney JF, Jr. Effect of acute and chronic tea consumption on platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21(6):1084-1089. (PubMed)
    68. Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, Beilin LJ, Mori TA, Chan SY. Acute effects of ingestion of black tea on postprandial platelet aggregation in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2002;87(2):141-145. (PubMed)
    69. Freedman JE, Parker C, 3rd, Li L, et al. Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation. 2001;103(23):2792-2798. (PubMed)
    70. Keevil JG, Osman HE, Reed JD, Folts JD. Grape juice, but not orange juice or grapefruit juice, inhibits human platelet aggregation. J Nutr. 2000;130(1):53-56. (PubMed)
    71. Polagruto JA, Schramm DD, Wang-Polagruto JF, Lee L, Keen CL. Effects of flavonoid-rich beverages on prostacyclin synthesis in humans and human aortic endothelial cells: association with ex vivo platelet function. J Med Food. 2003;6(4):301-308. (PubMed)
    72. Innes AJ, Kennedy G, McLaren M, Bancroft AJ, Belch JJ. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. Platelets. 2003;14(5):325-327. (PubMed)
    73. Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Pearson DA, et al. Cocoa and wine polyphenols modulate platelet activation and function. J Nutr. 2000;130(8S Suppl):2120S-2126S. (PubMed)
    74. Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Wun T, et al. Cocoa inhibits platelet activation and function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(1):30-35. (PubMed)
    75. Murphy KJ, Chronopoulos AK, Singh I, et al. Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(6):1466-1473. (PubMed)
    76. Yang CS, Yang GY, Landau JM, Kim S, Liao J. Tea and tea polyphenols inhibit cell hyperproliferation, lung tumorigenesis, and tumor progression. Exp Lung Res. 1998;24(4):629-639. (PubMed)
    77. Balasubramanian S, Govindasamy S. Inhibitory effect of dietary flavonol quercetin on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17(4):877-879. (PubMed)
    78. Li ZG, Shimada Y, Sato F, et al. Inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal tumorigenesis in F344 rats. Int J Oncol. 2002;21(6):1275-1283. (PubMed)
    79. Yamane T, Nakatani H, Kikuoka N, et al. Inhibitory effects and toxicity of green tea polyphenols for gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Cancer. 1996;77(8 Suppl):1662-1667. (PubMed)
    80. Guo JY, Li X, Browning JD, Jr., et al. Dietary soy isoflavones and estrone protect ovariectomized ERalphaKO and wild-type mice from carcinogen-induced colon cancer. J Nutr. 2004;134(1):179-182. (PubMed)
    81. Huang MT, Xie JG, Wang ZY, et al. Effects of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on UVB light-induced complete carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice: demonstration of caffeine as a biologically important constituent of tea. Cancer Res. 1997;57(13):2623-2629. (PubMed)
    82. Gupta S, Hastak K, Ahmad N, Lewin JS, Mukhtar H. Inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice by oral infusion of green tea polyphenols. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(18):10350-10355. (PubMed)
    83. Haddad AQ, Venkateswaran V, Viswanathan L, Teahan SJ, Fleshner NE, Klotz LH. Novel antiproliferative flavonoids induce cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006;9(1):68-76. (PubMed)
    84. Yamagishi M, Natsume M, Osakabe N, et al. Effects of cacao liquor proanthocyanidins on PhIP-induced mutagenesis in vitro, and in vivo mammary and pancreatic tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cancer Lett. 2002;185(2):123-130. (PubMed)
    85. Ross JA, Kasum CM. Dietary flavonoids: bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety. Annu Rev Nutr. 2002;22:19-34. (PubMed)
    86. Goldbohm RA, Van den Brandt PA, Hertog MG, Brants HA, Van Poppel G. Flavonoid intake and risk of cancer: a prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;41:s61.
    87. Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, Katan MB, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids and cancer risk in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Nutr Cancer. 1994;22(2):175-184. (PubMed)
    88. Arts IC, Hollman PC, Bueno De Mesquita HB, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary catechins and epithelial cancer incidence: the Zutphen elderly study. Int J Cancer. 2001;92(2):298-302. (PubMed)
    89. Goldbohm RA, Hertog MG, Brants HA, van Poppel G, van den Brandt PA. Consumption of black tea and cancer risk: a prospective cohort study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88(2):93-100. (PubMed)
    90. Arts IC, Jacobs DR, Jr., Gross M, Harnack LJ, Folsom AR. Dietary catechins and cancer incidence among postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13(4):373-382. (PubMed)
    91. Higdon JV, Frei B. Tea catechins and polyphenols: health effects, metabolism, and antioxidant functions. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2003;43(1):89-143. (PubMed)
    92. De Stefani E, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M, Deneo-Pellegrini H. Diet and risk of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract--II. Nutrients. Oral Oncol. 1999;35(1):22-26. (PubMed)
    93. Garcia-Closas R, Gonzalez CA, Agudo A, Riboli E. Intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids and the risk of gastric cancer in Spain. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(1):71-75. (PubMed)
    94. Lagiou P, Samoli E, Lagiou A, et al. Flavonoids, vitamin C and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(1):67-72. (PubMed)
    95. Peterson J, Lagiou P, Samoli E, et al. Flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk: a case--control study in Greece. Br J Cancer. 2003;89(7):1255-1259. (PubMed)br> 96. Garcia R, Gonzalez CA, Agudo A, Riboli E. High intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids does not reduce the risk of bladder cancer. Nutr Cancer. 1999;35(2):212-214. (PubMed)
    97. Garcia-Closas R, Agudo A, Gonzalez CA, Riboli E. Intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer in women in Barcelona, Spain. Nutr Cancer. 1998;32(3):154-158. (PubMed)
    98. Ramassamy C. Emerging role of polyphenolic compounds in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: a review of their intracellular targets. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;545(1):51-64. (PubMed)
    99. Youdim KA, Qaiser MZ, Begley DJ, Rice-Evans CA, Abbott NJ. Flavonoid permeability across an in situ model of the blood-brain barrier. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36(5):592-604. (PubMed)
    100. Schmitt-Schillig S, Schaffer S, Weber CC, Eckert GP, Muller WE. Flavonoids and the aging brain. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;56 Suppl 1:23-36. (PubMed)

    101. Goyarzu P, Malin DH, Lau FC, et al. Blueberry supplemented diet: effects on object recognition memory and nuclear factor-kappaB levels in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci. 2004;7(2):75-83. (PubMed)
    102. Joseph JA, Denisova NA, Arendash G, et al. Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model. Nutr Neurosci. 2003;6(3):153-162. (PubMed)
    103. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci. 1999;19(18):8114-8121. (PubMed)
    104. Patil CS, Singh VP, Satyanarayan PS, Jain NK, Singh A, Kulkarni SK. Protective effect of flavonoids against aging- and lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Pharmacology. 2003;69(2):59-67. (PubMed)
    105. Laurin D, Masaki KH, Foley DJ, White LR, Launer LJ. Midlife dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of late-life incident dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(10):959-967. (PubMed)
    106. White LR, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, et al. Brain aging and midlife tofu consumption. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2):242-255. (PubMed)
    107. de Rijk MC, Breteler MM, den Breeijen JH, et al. Dietary antioxidants and Parkinson disease. The Rotterdam Study. Arch Neurol. 1997;54(6):762-765. (PubMed)
    108. Engelhart MJ, Geerlings MI, Ruitenberg A, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2002;287(24):3223-3229. (PubMed)
    109. Commenges D, Scotet V, Renaud S, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Barberger-Gateau P, Dartigues JF. Intake of flavonoids and risk of dementia. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000;16(4):357-363. (PubMed)
    110. Letenneur L, Proust-Lima C, Le Gouge A, Dartigues JF, Barberger-Gateau P. Flavonoid intake and cognitive decline over a 10-year period. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(12):1364-1371. (PubMed)
    111. Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Grobbee DE, et al. Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292(1):65-74. (PubMed)
    112. Casini ML, Marelli G, Papaleo E, Ferrari A, D'Ambrosio F, Unfer V. Psychological assessment of the effects of treatment with phytoestrogens on postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril. 2006;85(4):972-978. (PubMed)
    113. Gu L, Kelm MA, Hammerstone JF, et al. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption. J Nutr. 2004;134(3):613-617. (PubMed)
    114. Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.
    115. Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Shahed A, Rajfer J. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology. 1999;54(6):960-963. (PubMed)
    116. Ferry DR, Smith A, Malkhandi J, et al. Phase I clinical trial of the flavonoid quercetin: pharmacokinetics and evidence for in vivo tyrosine kinase inhibition. Clin Cancer Res. 1996;2(4):659-668. (PubMed)
    117. Bonkovsky HL. Hepatotoxicity associated with supplements containing Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis). Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(1):68-71. (PubMed)
    118. Javaid A, Bonkovsky HL. Hepatotoxicity due to extracts of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis): a growing concern. J Hepatol. 2006;45(2):334-335; author reply 335-336. (PubMed)
    119. Jatoi A, Ellison N, Burch PA, et al. A phase II trial of green tea in the treatment of patients with androgen independent metastatic prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;97(6):1442-1446. (PubMed)
    120. Pisters KM, Newman RA, Coldman B, et al. Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(6):1830-1838. (PubMed)
    121. Chow HH, Cai Y, Hakim IA, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(9):3312-3319. (PubMed)
    122. Bailey DG, Dresser GK. Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2004;4(5):281-297. (PubMed)
    123. Dahan A, Altman H. Food-drug interaction: grapefruit juice augments drug bioavailability--mechanism, extent and relevance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(1):1-9. (PubMed)
    124. Zhou S, Lim LY, Chowbay B. Herbal modulation of P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Rev. 2004;36(1):57-104. (PubMed)
    125. Marzolini C, Paus E, Buclin T, Kim RB. Polymorphisms in human MDR1 (P-glycoprotein): recent advances and clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;75(1):13-33. (PubMed)
    126. Hurrell RF, Reddy M, Cook JD. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr. 1999;81(4):289-295. (PubMed)
    127. Zijp IM, Korver O, Tijburg LB. Effect of tea and other dietary factors on iron absorption. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2000;40(5):371-398. (PubMed)
    128. Song J, Kwon O, Chen S, et al. Flavonoid inhibition of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) and glucose transporter isoform 2 (GLUT2), intestinal transporters for vitamin C and Glucose. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(18):15252-15260. (PubMed)
    129. U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA database for the flavonoid content of selected foods. March 2003. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/Flav/flav.html. Accessed September 13, 2004.
    130. U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA database for the proanthocyanidin content of selected foods. August, 2004. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/PA/PA.html. Accessed September 13, 2004.
    131. Vrhovsek U, Rigo A, Tonon D, Mattivi F. Quantitation of polyphenols in different apple varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(21):6532-6538. (PubMed)
    132. Moyer RA, Hummer KE, Finn CE, Frei B, Wrolstad RE. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: vaccinium, rubus, and ribes. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(3):519-525. (PubMed)
    133. Lee HS. Characterization of major anthocyanins and the color of red-fleshed Budd Blood orange (Citrus sinensis). J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(5):1243-1246. (PubMed)
    134. Ryan JM, Revilla E. Anthocyanin composition of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo grapes at different stages of ripening. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(11):3372-3378. (PubMed)
    135.  Henning SM, Fajardo-Lira C, Lee HW, Youssefian AA, Go VL, Heber D. Catechin content of 18 teas and a green tea extract supplement correlates with the antioxidant capacity. Nutr Cancer. 2003;45(2):226-235. (PubMed)





    FLAVONOID / BIOFLAVONOID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

  • Bilberry Herbal Products
  • Black Tea Herbal Products
  • Citrus Bioflavonoid Supplement Products
  • Elder & Elderberry Herbal Products


  • Green Tea Herbal Products
  • Hesperidin Supplement Products
  • Quercetin Supplement Products
  • Rutin Supplement Products


  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


    FTC Advertising & Affilate Disclosure: This website has an affiliate relationship with certain merchants selling products and we recieve commissions from those sales to help support this website. Any products listed here are not listed by any rating system. We do not rate any product or post any feedback about products listed here. We leave this to the individual merchants to provide. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit. All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual.


    BILBERRY HERBAL SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Bilberry or vaccinium myrtillus is a close relative of the blueberry and are often called huckleberry. Bilberry has been sought after for many reasons. Whole dried bilberry have been said to offer many positive uses for promoting eye health. The bilberry leaf and whole bilberry are have had many historical uses. Modern research shows that bilberries contain the flavonoids known as anthocyanosides, known for their antioxidant activity. Bilberry is intended to help support healthy night vision and general eye health. It can also be used to help maintain healthy circulation, most notably, in the capillaries. Bilberry leaf isused in connection with vascular and blood disorders and shows positive effects when treating varicose veins, thrombosis, and angina. Bilberry extract is high in bioflavonoid complex anthocyanosides and supports healthy vision. Bilberry is useful for maintaining a healthy digestive system, is an anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant. Bilberry has long been valued as a nutritious fruit due to its high vitamin C content.

    MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS

    Mountain Rose Herbs: Bilberry Leaf (Vaccinium Myrtillus), Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Bilberry Fruit (Vaccinium Myrtillus), Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Bilberry Extract (Vaccinium Myrtillus), Certified Organic, Single Herbal Extracts & Tinctures


    STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS

    Starwest Botanicals: Bilberry Leaf Capsules (Vaccinium Myrtillus), Organic, 400 mg, 100 VCaps
    Starwest Botanicals: Bilberry Leaf Capsules (Vaccinium Myrtillus), Organic, 400 mg, 500 VCaps
    Starwest Botanicals: Bilberry Leaf (Vaccinium Myrtillus), Cut & Sifted, Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Bilberry Leaf Powder (Vaccinium Myrtillus), Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Bilberries (Vaccinium Myrtillus), Whole, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Bilberries (Vaccinium Myrtillus), Whole, Organic, 1 lb.


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Bilberry, Woodland Publishing, 31 Page Booklet (90192)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Tea, Alvita Teas, 24 Bags (13494)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry, Alcohol Free, Eclectic Institute Inc, 1 fl. oz. (2223)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Eclectic Institute Inc, 1 fl. oz. (76125)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry, Alcohol Free, Eclectic Institute Inc, 2 fl. oz. (31829)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Eclectic Institute Inc, 2 fl. oz. (76134)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry FDP, Eclectic Institute Inc, 90 Grams (13092)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Eye Complex, Planetary Herbals, 30 Tabs (13092)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extra Strength, Yerba Prima, 50 Caps (20252)
    HerbsPro: SFP Bilberry Berry Extract, Solgar, 60 VCaps (36223)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Fruit Extract, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 60 VCaps (100885)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Natrol, 60 Caps (16565)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry, Oregon's Wild Harvest, 60 Caps (83564)
    HerbsPro: Strix Bilberry Extract, Scandinavian Formulas, 60 Caps (36143)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Eye Complex, Planetary Herbals, 60 Tabs (13093)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Plus Grapeskin Polyphenols, Jarrow Formulas, 60 Caps (1120)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Ginkgo Eyebright Complex, Solgar, 60 VCaps (36225)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Ginkgo Eyebright Complex Plus Lutein, Solgar, 60 VCaps (36226)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Vision Complex, Natures Answer, 60 VCaps (35182)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Standardized Extract, Natures Way, 60 Caps (17735)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Standardized Extract, Natures Way, 90 Caps (17736)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Standardized Extract, Natures Way, 90 VCaps (34449)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry 25%, Kroeger Herb, 90 Caps (65516)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry, Foodscience of Vermont, 90 Caps (70193)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Standardized Extract, Natures Answer, 90 VCaps (35181)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Plus Grapeskin Polyphenols, Jarrow Formulas, 120 Caps (1119)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Eye Complex, Botanical Eye Support, Planetary Herbals, 120 Tabs (13046)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Vision, Botanical Support, Planetary Herbals, 120 Tabs (13047)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Fruit Extract, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 120 VCaps (100886)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Natural Factors, 40 mg, 60 Caps (83937)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry, Sundown Naturals, 40 mg, 60 Caps (98471)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 30 Tabs (6120)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Thompson Nutritional, 60 mg, 60 Caps (35527)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Vita Plus, 60 mg, 120 Caps (72882)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Complex, Now Foods, 80 mg, 50 Caps (67787)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Complex, Now Foods, 80 mg, 100 Caps (67786)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 30 Tabs (6117)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 60 Tabs (6118)
    HerbsPro: European Bilberry Extract, Certified, Life Extension, 100 mg, 100 VCaps (91809)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 120 Tabs (6119)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Plus Grapeskin Polyphenols, 100:1 Concentrate, Jarrow Formulas, 120 Caps
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Complex With Standardized Extract, Futurebiotics, 125 mg, 60 Caps (15213)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Extract, Enzymatic Therapy, 160 mg, 60 Caps
    HerbsPro: Bilberry I Sight, Natures Life, 360 mg, 30 VCaps (90580)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry I Sight, Natures Life, 360 mg, 60 VCaps (90581)
    HerbsPro: Bilberry Eye, Dr. Christophers Formulas, 475 mg, 100 VCaps (109463)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Bilberry Extract, Natrol, 40 mg, 60 Caps: K
    Kalyx: Bilberry Extract, Thompson Nutritional, 60 mg, 60 Caps: K
    Kalyx: Bilberry (With Elderberry) Standardized, Natures Way, 80 mg/125 mg, 90 VCaps: HF
    Provides antioxidant protection to the eyes. Bilberry Extract is standardized to 25% anthocyanins. Supports visual adaptation to light and nighttime vision, improve microcirculation, protmote healthy connective tissues and provide antioxidant protection to the eyes.
    Kalyx: Bilberry, FutureBiotics, 140 mg, 60 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Bilberry, Kroeger Herb, 350 mg, 90 VCaps: HF
    Kalyx: Bilberry Leaf Powder (Vaccinium myrtillus), Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Bilberry Berry Whole, Frontier Brand, 1 lb: K
    Kalyx: Bilberry Juice Powder, Kalyx, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Bilberry Fruit & Leaf Extract (Vaccinium myrtillus), Health & Herbs, 16 fl. oz.: HH


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Bilberry Herbal Products
    Amazon: Bilberry Grocery & Gourmet Products
    Amazon: Blueberry Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: Blueberry Herbal Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Bilberry Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Bilberry Antioxidant Information



  • BLACK TEA HERBAL PRODUCTS

    Classic and enduring, black tea is a revered classic throughout the world. Because of the fermentation process, black tea is usually richer in color, more penetrating in flavor, and has a higher concentration of caffeine when compared to other teas. A universal beverage that speaks many languages, Black tea has its beginnings from the same plant which produces both green and white tea (Camellia sinensis), and its mark of distinction can be found in the deep dark color achieved through the fermenting process. For those who prefer milder flavors, you can add a dash of honey, cream, or soymilk for a truly delightful sipping experience.

    MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS

    Mountain Rose Herbs: Ancient Forest Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    This handsome tea is worthy of all our esteem and veneration because it comes to us exclusively from stands of protected ancient growth tea plants in the Yunnan province of China, all of which range in age from 500 to 2,700 years old. The most alluring aspect of this tea is the deeply penetrating flavor and aroma that it imparts, which is unlike any other black or green tea on the market. Bold, dark and inviting; this certified organic and fair trade tea is not to be missed. Partially fermented which will appeal to the senses of both the black tea lover and the green tea lover. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Assam Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    By far the most popular and palatable black tea, Assam has proven its superiority by consistently delivering a full-bodied flavor, which is both dark and malty. Produced exclusively from the highly skilled tea region of Assam in India, this tea has become a morning favorite because of its rich aroma, crisp flavor, and penetrating color.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Ceylon Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    Ceylon tea comes from partially fermenting young tea leaves and is revered as a lively classic with a smooth taste that is not too bitter to the palate. It makes a very nice afternoon tea and works great with snacks. This Ceylong tea is Fair Trade Certified and contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Classic Chai Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    A warm, piquant, and delightful Oregon Chai. A great alternative for those who wish to avoid large amounts of caffeine, sugar, and dairy products, which are commonly found in commercial Chai products. An exotic beverage that is sure to tickle your taste buds! This Chai tea contains organic Ginger root, organic Cinnamon bark, organic Darjeeling Tea, organic Cardamom, organic Cloves, organic Nutmeg, and organic Vanilla bean. Contains Caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Darjeeling Tea (First Flush), Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    A true unblended Darjeeling tea from fresh, green, subtle leaves. Darjeeling is one of the most sought after tea beverages for its astringent qualities and its ability to indulge the taste buds. Has a wonderfully grounding aftertaste, and is complex in characteristics. From the Northern Himalayas in India comes this exquisite tea fit for the most occasions. This Darjeeling tea is Fair Trade certified and contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Earl Grey Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    An exceptionally rich black tea, fermented to perfection with a complementary pinch of bergamot oil. This combination creates an ultra fine tea where precision and process gives birth to this much revered beverage. Great with honey, and a hint of sugar; this tea makes an excellent drink to incorporate into your daily schedule. This Earl Grey tea is Fair Trade certified and contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: English Breakfast Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    A classic, and now organic! Enjoy this dark, hearty tea as a wonderful morning beverage. Stands up well to milk, honey and sugar. A great alternative to coffee and better for you! This English Breakfast tea is Fair Trade certified and contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Formosa Oolong Tea, Organic Black Teas
    Formosa oolong is a darker style oolong tea from Taiwan, which was formerly known as Formosa. This tea has a fruity component to its flavor, which makes it stand out from Chinese oolong tea.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Kumaon Black Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    This rare, organic black tea hails from a Himalayan tea-producing region in northern India. Fragrant with a light body reminiscent of its Darjeeling counterparts, its unique and festive vegetal finish sets it apart.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Lapsang Souchong Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    This intoxicating and alluring tea has one of the most powerful flavors and is best suited for those with established tastes for tea. What makes this Lapsong so special is that the semi-fermented mature tea leaves are laid out onto bamboo trays and are smoked over a smoldering bundle of Spruce wood. The result is a rich and robust tea with an imparted smoke flavor and rich crimson color. This tea makes for a divine evening experience. Certified Organic and Fair Trade Certified by IMO. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Mango Ceylon Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    A delightfully zesty Ceylon blend from Sri Lanka. This fruity classic has essence of Mango and Marigold petals added to it, which complements the fine, fermented Ceylon leaves. For those of us who sometimes prefer a flavored tea, this makes a perfect cup that is pure rapture to the taste buds. This Mango Ceylon tea is Fair Trade certified and contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Matcha Tea, Organic Black Teas
    Matcha tea is a deeply alluring beverage containing rich historic roots within Japanese tea drinking ceremonies. Matcha, which literally means "finely powdered tea," is made from young green tea leaves and is strictly harvested from certified organic plantations. With a bold color and mildly sweet flavor, we are sure that most will find this tea to be purely delectable. Our Matcha Tea is ceremonial grade. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Nepalese Black Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    This rare and exotic tea from the Himalayan region of Nepal is truly complex and has the flavor characteristics of both a green and a black tea. Because of its semi-fermented nature and the unique growing region it comes from, Nepalese Black tea produces a finish which is smooth to the taste buds, devoid of a rough edge, and the tannins do not linger. While this tea is suitable for most occasions, we have found it particularly delightful in the mornings and afternoons. This Nepalese Black tea is certified organic and contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Oolong Tea, Organic Black Teas
    A succulent tea especially palatable for those that do not enjoy the sharpness typical of green teas. Oolong tea is unique because of its partial fermentation which produces a diverse arrangement of both off-green and black leaves. This tea is beautiful, tasty, full bodied, healthy and with a mildly smooth aftertaste. Highly recommended to those that enjoy the health benefits of green tea but have a hard time with its lingering, semi bitter taste. Sure to appeal to the senses of both the black tea lover and the green tea lover. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Oolong Tea Light, Organic Black Teas
    This mellow tea is well-balanced and is an excellent choice for those who do not prefer the astringency typical of many green teas. Light Oolong tea has a shorter, partial fermentation process and the finished product contains a stunning array of off-green and black leaves.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Orange Spice Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    A warm, soothing, Ceylon tea blend with just the right ingredients to give toasts to. Includes orange peel, cinnamon chips, and clove. A marvelous way to savor the serenity of an evening's peace is to brew up a cup of this fine tea, sit back and relax. A very robust and fragrant tea blend sure to give you pleasure! This Orange Spice tea is Fair Trade certified and contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Pu'erh Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    The Black Pu-erh tea Mountain Rose Herbs offers is hand harvested from wild and semi-wild broad leaf antique tea trees located in the Yunnan province of China. Black Pu-erh is often referred to as "cooked" due to the fact that sun-dried green tea leaves are transformed through natural fermentation from a greenish-golden color to a blackish-red tone. Over the years Pu-erh has garnered a committed following amongst tea connoisseurs who regard it as a sacred relic leftover from ancient tea cultures and traditions. The Black Pu-erh Mountain Rose Herbs offers brews up a deep ochre red and has a rich earthy taste with notes of smoke and moss. Partially fermented which will appeal to the senses of both the black tea lover and the green tea lover. Certified Organic and Fair Trade. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Vanilla Black Tea, Fair Trade Certified, Organic Black Teas
    An intoxicating blend of organic vanilla, organic fair trade Assam tea from India, and organic chrysanthemum flowers. The crisp aroma and deep invigorating flavor of this tea is filled with pure vanilla bliss! Contains organic Assam tea, organic Vanilla beans, organic Chrysanthemum flowers, and organic Vanilla flavoring. Contains caffeine.


    STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS

    Starwest Botanicals: Lychee Black Tea, Organic, Camellia Sinensis, 1 lb.
    A base of black OP Leaf scented with the essence of the Lychee fruit. This tea has a natural, sweet and very aromatic character.
    Starwest Botanicals: China Black Tea, Organic FOP, Camellia Sinensis, 1 lb.
    This full flavored FOP tea from China brews to be a rich brown cup.
    Starwest Botanicals: China Black Tea, BOP, Camellia Sinensis, 1 lb.
    Withered, rolled, fermented and dried, this tea produces a dark, full-bodied cup of tea.
    Starwest Botanicals: English Breakfast Tea, Camellia Sinensis, 1 lb.
    A blend of Chinese Black OP and Keemum Tea. This tea has a full bodied and robust flavor.
    Starwest Botanicals: Oolong Tea, Camellia Sinensis, 1 lb.
    Partially oxidized tea yielding a mild aromatic flavor between that of black and green tea. Oolong tea is commonly served as the house tea in Chinese restaurants in the US.
    Starwest Botanicals: Keemun Tea, Camellia Sinensis, 1 lb.
    Due to its superb bouquet, this north China black tea is often referred to as the "burgundy of teas". This full-bodied, sweet liquoring tea produces a dark red cup with a strong aroma resembling both fruit and roses. Keemum is considered one of the best China black teas. It makes an excellent "English Breakfast" and is useful for ice tea, in that it does not cloud easily.
    Starwest Botanicals: Chai Spice Black Tea, Fair Trade, Choice Organic, 20 Tea Bags
    This distinctive organic chai favors the rich Assam black teas of the Brahmapurra Valley, and highly prized Cardamom. Make this tea strong, and temper it with milk and sweetener.
    Starwest Botanicals: Chai Black Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Tea Bags
    An authentic, rich and spicy blend, which has been a mainstay in northern India for centuries. The classic spices of organic cinnamon, cardamom, ginger and clove buds are mixed with organic Assam black tea to capture this truly authentic flavor. After brewing, add milk or a milk substitute and sweetener to create an exquisite taste that is delightfully unique to chai.
    Starwest Botanicals: Black Tea, Fair Trade Organic, Choice Organic, 16 Tea Bags
    One of the purest teas on Earth, brisk and bright in character. From organic mountain-top gardens, tucked deeply into the interior of a protected wildlife preserve in the South of India.
    Starwest Botanicals: Earl Grey Black Tea, Choice Organic, 16 Tea Bags
    Starwest Botanicals: Oolong Tea, Choice Organic, 16 Tea Bags


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Russian Caravan Black Tea, Choice Organic Teas, 16 Tea Bags (109532)
    HerbsPro: English Breakfast Decaffeinated Black Tea, Choice Organic Teas, 16 Tea Bags (109515)
    HerbsPro: Masala Chai Black Tea, Choice Organic Teas, 16 Tea Bags (109523)
    HerbsPro: Wild Forest Black Tea, Choice Organic Teas, 16 Tea Bags (109535)
    HerbsPro: Berry Black Tea, Numi Tea, 16 Tea Bags (89257)
    HerbsPro: Golden Chai Black Tea, Numi Tea, 18 Tea Bags (49655)
    HerbsPro: Chinese Breakfast Black Tea, Numi Tea, 18 Tea Bags (49637)
    HerbsPro: Chai Spice Gourmet Black Tea, Choice Organic Teas, 20 Tea Bags (109538)
    HerbsPro: Premium Black Tea, Prince of Peace, 100 Tea Bags (66354)


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Black Tea Grocery & Gourmet Food Products

    Note: The merchants above all have many more Black Teas selections in various delicious flavors and blends not included on this page. Click on one of the links above and do a store search to find a specific blend and brand of black tea that you may be searching for. The flavors included here are basic common black teas.

  • Nutrition Basics: Black Tea Herbal Information



  • CITRUS BIOFLAVONOID PRODUCTS

    Bioflavonoids are not true vitamins in the strictest sense, sometimes being referred to as vitamin P, and may be found in herbal plants, fruits, nuts and bark; and because they cannot be manufactured by the body, they must be supplied through the diet. The letter ''P'' represents permeability factor, and it was given to this group of nutrients because they improve capillary strength and permeability. Citrus Bioflavonoids are a class of flavonoids that includes Rutin, Hesperidin, Quercitin, Eriodictyl and Citron, and they are essential for the absorption of vitamin C, which should be taken simultaneously, so they may act synergistically for maximum benefit. Citrus fruits are well known for providing ample amounts of vitamin C, but they also provide Citrus Bioflavonoids, which are located in the white material just beneath the peel of citrus fruits and may be found in grapefruits, lemons, tangerines, limes and oranges. Other sources of bioflavonoids include apricots, nuts, peppers, buckwheat, blackberries, black currants cherries, grapes, plums, prunes and rose hips. In addition, several herbs also provide bioflavonoids, including Chervil, Elderberry, Hawthorne Berry, Horsetail and Shepherd's Purse.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Bioflavonoid Complex, Plantioxidants, Source Naturals, 30 Tabs (7297)
    HerbsPro: Bioflavonoid Complex, Plantioxidants, Source Naturals, 60 Tabs (7298)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin Bioflavonoid Complex, Natural Factors, 60 Caps (83870)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin Bioflavonoid Complex, Natural Factors, 90 Caps (83871)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Rutin Complex, Country Life, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (37099)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Rutin Complex, Country Life, 500 mg, 90 Tabs (37000)
    HerbsPro: Lemon Bioflavonoids, Natures Life, 500 mg, 100 Tabs (89606)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Country Life, 500 mg, 250 Tabs (37098)
    HerbsPro: Bioflavonoids, Natural Factors, 650 mg, 90 Caps (83869)
    HerbsPro: Bioflavonoid, Now Foods, 700 mg, 100 Caps (67788)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 750 mg, 90 VCaps (100610)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 750 mg, 180 VCaps (100611)
    HerbsPro: Bioflavonoids Complex, FoodScience of Vermont, 1000 mg, 60 Tabs (15153)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Solgar, 1000 mg, 100 Tabs (36326)
    HerbsPro: Lemon Bioflavonoids, Natures Life, 1000 mg, 100 Tabs (89607)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Country Life, 1000 mg, 100 Tabs (37095)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Country Life, 1000 mg, 250 Tabs (37096)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Solgar, 1000 mg, 250 Tabs (36327)
    HerbsPro: Lemon Bioflavonoids, Natures Life, 1000 mg, 250 Tabs (89608)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid, TwinLab, 1400 mg, 100 Caps (19509)
    HerbsPro: Bioflavonoids Complex, Organic With Rosehips, Natures Answer, 5000 mg / Teaspoon, 4 fl oz. (17243)
    HerbsPro: Bioflavonoids Complex, Organic With Rosehips, Natures Answer, 5000 mg / Teaspoon, 8 fl oz. (17082)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Ester-C Powder with Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 4 oz: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C Powder with Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 8 oz: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C with Citrus Bioflavonoids, Berry Flavor, American Health, 250 mg, 8 fl oz: HF
    Kalyx: Vitamin C Beverage Blend with Bioflavonoids, Frontier, 1 lb: K
    Kalyx: Citrus Bioflavonoid 10% Total Bioflavonoids Powdered Extract, Kalyx, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Citrus Bioflavonoid 20% Total Bioflavonoids Powdered Extract, Kalyx, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Ester-C with Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 60 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C with Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 90 VTabs: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 120 Caps: K
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 120 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 120 VCaps: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 225 VTabs: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 240 Caps: K
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 240 VCaps: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 240 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 450 VTabs: K
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 500 mg, 450 VTabs: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 1000 mg, 45 VTabs: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 1000 mg, 90 Caps: K
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 1000 mg, 90 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 1000 mg, 90 VTabs: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, American Health, 1000 mg, 100 Tabs: K
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 1000 mg, 120 VTabs: K
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 1000 mg, 120 VTabs: HF
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids. American Health, 1000 mg, 180 VTabs: K
    Kalyx: Ester-C With Citrus Bioflavonoids, American Health, 1000 mg, 180 VTabs: HF
    Kalyx: Citrus Bioflavonoids, TwinLabs, 100 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: C-Plus Citrus Bioflavonoids, TwinLabs, 100 Caps: HF


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Bioflavonoids Supplement Products
    Amazon: Citrus Bioflavonoid Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Bioflavonoid Information



  • ELDER & ELDERBERRY (BLACK) HERBAL PRODUCTS

    Elderberry is the berry of the black elder tree (Sambucus nigra). Its constituents may strengthen the bodys immune system. Elderberries contain bioflavonoids and anthocyanins, which positively influence cell function. A tea from Elderberry flowers for treating respiratory infections. The leaves and flowers are in poultices and applied them to wounds; and used the bark as a laxative.

    MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS

    Mountain Rose Herbs: Elder Berries, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herb & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Elder Berry Powder, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herb & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Elder Flowers, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Elder Berry Herbal Extract, Certified Organic, Single Herbal Extracts & Tinctures
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Clear Chest Syrup, Urban Moonshine, 4.2 fl. oz. With Measuring Cup
    Urban Moonshine's Clear Chest Syrup is an expectorant formula blended to be fast-acting and supportive of long-term health. Containing herbal actives including certified organic elecampane, thyme, licorice, elder flower, and lobelia, all in a base of raw honey and lemon to promote absorption.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Flashes Tea, Certified Organic, Herbal Tea Blends
    This cooling and slightly astringent infusion blend is helpful in soothing those hot "power surges" often associated with menopause. This herbally tasty tea is also useful for anyone feeling hot or overwhelmed. Brew up a pot and sip as needed, or refrigerate to enhance the cooling effect. Contains: organic Motherwort herb, organic Sage, organic Dandelion leaf, organic Chickweed, organic Elder flowers, organic Violet leaf, and organic Oatstraw.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Vanilla & Elder Flower Facial Wash, Fawn Lily Botanica, 8.3 oz Bottle with Foamin Pump Top
    This artisan foaming facial wash is handcrafted in the Pacific Northwest. An aromatic and gentle blend formulated for normal to dry or mature skin. A mild and soothing wash with an exotic and sweet aroma.


    STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS

    Starwest Botanicals: Elder Flowers, Cut & Sifted, Wildcrafted, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Elder Flowers, Cut & Sifted, Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Elder Berries, Whole, Wildcrafted, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Elder Berries, Whole, Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Elder Berry Extract, Organic, 1 fl. oz.
    Starwest Botanicals: Elder Berry Extract, Organic, 4 fl. oz.


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Elderberry Fruit Extract, Standardized, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 150 mg, 60 VCaps (100895)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Berry Extract, Standardized, Solgar, 150 mg, 60 VCaps (36380)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Flower (Sambucus Canadensis Flower), Eclectic Institute, 300 mg, 90 Caps (1082)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry, Gaia Herbs, 400 mg, 30 Caps (82212)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry, Gaia Herbs, 400 mg, 60 Caps (82213)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Extract, Quantum Research, 400 mg, 60 Caps (18545)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry, Natures Way, 460 mg, 100 Caps (17853)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Extract, Source Naturals Wellness, 500 mg, 30 Tabs (3825)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Extract, Now Foods, 500 mg, 60 VCaps (68130)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Extract, Source Naturals Wellness, 500 mg, 120 Tabs (3827)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Full Spectrum Extract, Planetary Herbals, 525 mg, 42 Tabs (3265)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Full Spectrum Extract, Planetary Herbals, 525 mg, 90 Tabs (3370)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Full Spectrum Extract, Planetary Herbals, 525 mg, 180 Tabs (6564)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Zinc Herbal Lozenges, Zand, 12 Pack (89765)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry & Zinc, Now Foods, 30 Lozenges (68131)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry & Zinc, Now Foods, 90 Lozenges (68132)
    HerbsPro: NNI Elderberry, Nutrition Now, 60 Chews (93667)
    HerbsPro: Elder Flower Tea, Organic, Alvita Teas, 24 Tea Bags (108599)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Extract, Alcohol Free, Eclectic Institute Inc, 1 fl. oz. (31931)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Extract, Gaia Herbs, Organic, 1 fl. oz. (90883)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Extract (Sambucus nigra), Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz. (77564)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Glycerite Extract (Sambucus nigra), Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz. (31297)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Extract, Gaia Herbs, Organic, 2 fl. oz. (90884)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Extract, Alcohol Free, Eclectic Institute Inc, 2 fl. oz. (76207)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Fluid Extract, Full Spectrum, Planetary Herbals, 2 fl. oz. (6565)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Liquid Extract, Source Naturals Wellness, 2 fl. oz. (3043)
    HerbsPro: Elderol, Wild Raw Purple Elderberry Extract, North American Herb & Spice, 2 fl. oz. (93655)
    The powers of elderberry are legendary. Elderol is a cold-pressed extract of wild, raw purple elderberry. This extract is a true whole food. All the components of the elderberry, even the seed, are extracted. Get your elderberry raw, without alcohol extraction of the use of any other harsh chemicals. Since Elderol is raw, it is rich in natural enzymes, plus the pigments are unaltered, as are the naturally occurring vitamins. Take this under the tongue; it is potent. Combined with wild, raw arona berry extract to increase potency.
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Extract, Gaia Herbs, Organic, 4 fl. oz. (90885)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Fluid Extract, Full Spectrum, Planetary Herbals, 4 fl. oz. (6566)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Extract (Sambucus nigra), Herb Pharm, 4 fl. oz. (77565)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Glycerite Extract (Sambucus nigra), Herb Pharm, 4 fl. oz. (32304)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Liquid Extract, Source Naturals Wellness, 4 fl. oz. (3044)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Alcohol Free Extract, Natures Answer, 4 fl. oz. (17169)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Fluid Extract, Full Spectrum, Planetary Herbals, 8 fl. oz. (6567)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Extract, Honey Gardens Apiaries, 8 fl. oz. (51083)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Liquid Extract, Source Naturals Wellness, 8 fl. oz. (3045)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Extract, Gaia Herbs, Organic, 8 fl. oz. (90886)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Extract, Gaia Herbs, Organic, 16 fl. oz. (90887)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Liquid Concentrate, Now Foods, 8 fl. oz. (84919)
    Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is a multipurpose fruit used widely throughout Europe. As a centuries old tradition, it has been used by herbalists as a tonic to maintain health and well-being. More recently, Elderberry has been recognized for its high nutritive value. Elderberry provides vitamins A and C, as well as anthocyanins, which are potent free radical scavengers. It is truly among nature's sweet and healthy surprises. Healthy immune support in a 10:1 concentrate, 500 mg per teaspoon.
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Liquid Extract, 100% Pure Juice Concentrate, Dynamic Health, 8 oz. (42575)
    Natural Black Elderberry 100% Juice Concentrate is a Non-Alcoholic source for the health benefits of Elderberries. A medically proven strong anti-viral and immune system enhancer, elderberry is recommended as part of a health maintenance program.
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Concentrate, Natural Sources, 8 fl. oz. (50091)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Concentrate, Natural Sources, 16 fl. oz. (50092)
    Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) has immune enhancing; laxative; and diuretic properties and may be helpful for flu; colds; rheumatism; syphilis; constipation; fluid retention; colic; diarrhea; colds; coughs; bronchitis; nerve disorders; back pain; urinary tract inflammation; asthma; and fever. Natural Elderberry Concentrate - Use full strength and mix 8 ounces of concentrate to 56 ounces water or juice to make a healthy delicious drink (makes 1/2 gallon). Approximately 8.5 pounds of fresh whole fruit is pressed and concentrated to get one pint of Natural Fruit Concentrate.
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Syrup, Planetary Herbals, 2 fl. oz. (3333)
    HerbsPro: Echinacea-Elderberry Syrup, Planetary Herbals, 2 fl. oz. (1398)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Syrup, Gaia Herbs, 3 fl. oz. (94161)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Syrup, Planetary Herbals, 4 fl. oz. (3266)
    HerbsPro: Echinacea-Elderberry Syrup, Planetary Herbals, 4 fl. oz. (1410)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Zinc & Echinacea Syrup, Now Foods, 4 fl. oz. (68134)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry Syrup, Gaia Herbs, 5.4 fl. oz. (82227)
    HerbsPro: Black Elderberry NightTime Syrup, Gaia Herbs, 5.4 fl. oz. (82229)
    HerbsPro: Elderberry Syrup, Planetary Herbals, 8 fl. oz. (20686)
    HerbsPro: Echinacea-Elderberry Syrup, Planetary Herbals, 8 fl. oz. (2035)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Elder Flowers, Cut & Sifted, Certified Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 4 oz.
    Kalyx: Elder Flowers, Rubbed, Certified Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb.
    Kalyx: Elder Flowers, Whole, Frontier Natural Brand Bulk Herbs, 1 lb.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Elderberry Whole Herb Products
    Amazon: Elderberry Powder Herb Products
    Amazon: Elderberry Syrup Herb Products
    Amazon: Elderberry Extract Herb Products
    Amazon: Elder Flowers Herb Products
    Amazon: Elder Tea Herb Products
    Amazon: Sambucus Black Elderberry Herb Products


  • Nutrition Basics: Elder / Black Elderberry / Sambucus Herbal Information



  • GREEN TEA HERBAL PRODUCTS

    Enjoy a cup of Green Tea Super Anti-Oxidant for anti-aging, to support the immune system and to rejuvenate the body. Green Tea inhibits cancer growth, kills cancer cells, lowers LDL cholesterol levels, inhibits abnormal clotting (reducing heart attack risks), burns calories, and prevents tooth decay. Green tea is simply the dried leaves of the tea plant. Black tea are dried tea plant leaves that have been through a fermentation process. The key ingredients of green tea are molecules called catechins and have a variety of actions including vasorelaxation (arteries relaxing) which has aided cardiovascular activity. Catechins of green tea are selectively bactericidal. They do not affect lactic acid bacteria but will reduce the proliferation of other bacteria types particularly those that use alpha-amylase activity in their growth and cell division. Green tea also contains antioxidants and may help to lower cholesterol. Of greatest interest to the research community green tea apparently has a protective effect against a range of cancers, including the reduction in the frequency of smoke-induced mutations and is particularly useful in protection from stomach and colon cancer. Some studies have shown green tea may influence blood concentrations of hormones linked to at least one form of genetic hair loss known as androgenic alopecia. In one study published in the journal Nutrition and Cancer in 1998, Japanese researchers found that drinking green tea could increase levels of the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in women. Since this biochemical binds testosterone, the more SHBG present in a woman's body, at least theoretically, the less testosterone will be in her bloodstream. And that, say some experts, may block the chain of hormonal activity that initiates some forms of hair loss. Since green tea is certainly a good source of healthful antioxidants and may have some anti-cancer properties, so it certainly would not hurt a woman to include it in her diet. One cup of green tea roughly equals 100 mg of tea catechins. Typically research investigations have involved individuals drinking 3 cups of green tea (300 mg catechins) each day. Alternatively, capsules of green tea are widely available. Most catechins when ingested in green tea are passed through the gut and excreted intact. Very little is actually absorbed into the blood stream. Research indicates that ingestion of 3 grams of green tea solids will yield plasma levels of catechins in the nanograms per milliliter of plasma range which is very low. The researchers also noted that increasing green tea intake to 4.5 grams did not significantly increase the amount absorbed into the blood plasma so there seems to be an upper limit to the amount of catechins that can be absorbed and carried in the blood stream. Taking larger amounts of green tea will not necessarily equate to an increased level of blood plasma catechins or improved treatment effect! Green tea is well tolerated by most individuals with no significant side effects reported.

    MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS

    Mountain Rose Herbs: Ancient Forest Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This handsome tea is worthy of all our esteem and veneration because it comes to us exclusively from stands of protected ancient growth tea plants in the Yunnan province of China, all of which range in age from 500 to 2,700 years old. The most alluring aspect of this tea is the deeply penetrating flavor and aroma that it imparts, which is unlike any other black or green tea on the market. Bold, dark and inviting; this certified organic and fair trade tea is not to be missed. Partially fermented which will appeal to the senses of both the black tea lover and the green tea lover. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Dao Ren Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This exceptionally delicate green tea gets its name from the famous Dao Ren Peak in the Zhejiang province of China and has rich and complex history dating back hundreds of years. Dao Ren is a truly superior tea which is carefully hand plucked during the optimal Spring harvest to yield a cup which has a delicate, yet, pronounced flavor with soft fruity notes. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Earl Grey Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    A wonderfully rich and floral green tea, delicately fermented with an added touch of bergamot oil. Delicate and refreshing, this tea is a great way to start your day. Less astringent than traditional Earl Grey, this decadent tea shines with a bit of cream and honey.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Formosa Oolong Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    Formosa oolong is a darker style oolong tea from Taiwan, which was formerly known as Formosa. This tea has a fruity component to its flavor, which makes it stand out from Chinese oolong tea.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Genmaicha Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    Fair Trade Certified by IMO Genmaicha is a flavorful Japanese classic which includes a stunning combination of whole, fresh Green Sencha leaves combined with roasted organic brown rice. The almost sweet, toasted flavor of the rice adds a lovely contribution to the whole bodied green tea leaves. A great tea for early dining, and well suited for afternoon dishes. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Green Sencha Leaf Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This organic green sencha leaf tea from Japan is a delicate, stimulating beverage made from the season’s fresh harvest of the first young leaves. These handpicked tea leaves from the high mountaintops of Japan are immediately steamed to retain their peak flavor and vibrant, brilliant, green color. Extensive research confirms the high anti-oxidant and poly phenol activity found in green tea, and it comes highly recommended as a general cleansing beverage. Because of the caffeine content, green tea should be prepared using small amounts of herb and steeped no longer than 1 to 2 minutes. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Green Sunrise Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This synergistic blend provides a heightened sense of relaxation for mind, body, and spirit. Each golden brewed cup has a full bodied citrus flavor with a smooth floral finish. The Dao Ren tea and chamomile flowers are the perfect complement, making this tea a delicious warming treat for morning or afternoon. Contains: organic Dao Ren tea, organic Chamomile flowers, organic Lemon peel, organic Ginger root, and organic Lemon flavoring. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Gunpowder Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    A hearty, strong, green tea that is rolled in small pellets and was aptly awarded its title, because of its resemblance to the pellets used for gunpowder ammunitions during the 17th century. Originally rolled tightly to preserve freshness and maintain moisture during long voyages overseas, it still holds true as an unsurpassable fresh tea that is full of dark bold color and a striking taste that is unforgettable. Gunpowder tea is astringent and mildly bitter and you can add a very small pinch of Stevia or Spearmint to soften the taste. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Houjicha Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    Houjicha green tea is a classic beverage popularly sipped in China and Japan, and what makes this organic tea so delectable is that the freshly picked tea leaves have their fermentation period shortened by slowly roasting the whole leaves to a warm brown color. This process yields a cup which produces a lovely amber color, smooth texture, and without the tannic sharpness of traditional green teas. Lovers of Oolong will especially enjoy Houjicha. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Jasmine Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    Fair Trade Certified by IMO A fabulous all purpose tea made from freshly picked green tea leaves semi-fermented within fresh Jasmine flowers to impart a distinct floral aroma and flavor. A fragrant and euphoric fair trade tea that can be enjoyed any time of the day, however many of us at Mountain Rose Herbs are partial to afternoon sipping of this blend. Fresh, floral and a full of flavor. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Jasmine Pearls Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This delectable organic tea is made from the long and graceful leaves of the tea plant with slender silver buds which are hand rolled into tight pearls. After completion, these beauties are “infused” with fresh Jasmine blossoms producing a delicately perfumed tea with the typical well-roundedness of the dominant green tea leaves. A richly aromatic cup of tea that is pure bliss to the olfactory senses as well as the palate. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Kukicha Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This is probably one of the most opulent blends from the green tea family. It has a unique brand of full body sweetness that is more often agreeable with seniors and children. Kukicha is harvested from the carefully-aged twigs and stems of the tea plant. After the correct aging, the twigs are toasted, providing a lightly flavored tea with a taste reminiscent of nectar sweetness. Mild, and soothing, Kukicha twig tea is quite low in caffeine and can be enjoyed at any hour. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Matcha Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    Matcha tea is a deeply alluring beverage containing rich historic roots within Japanese tea drinking ceremonies. Matcha, which literally means “finely powdered tea,” is made from young green tea leaves and is strictly harvested from certified organic plantations. With a bold color and mildly sweet flavor, we are sure that most will find this tea to be purely delectable. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Oolong Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    A succulent tea especially palatable for those that do not enjoy the sharpness typical of green teas. Oolong tea is unique because of its partial fermentation which produces a diverse arrangement of both off-green and black leaves. This tea is beautiful, tasty, full bodied, healthy and with a mildly smooth aftertaste. Highly recommended to those that enjoy the health benefits of green tea but have a hard time with its lingering, semi bitter taste. Sure to appeal to the senses of both the black tea lover and the green tea lover. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Oolong Light Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This mellow tea is well-balanced and is an excellent choice for those who do not prefer the astringency typical of many green teas. Light Oolong tea has a shorter, partial fermentation process and the finished product contains a stunning array of off-green and black leaves.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Pu'erh Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    The Black Pu-erh tea we offer is hand harvested from wild and semi-wild broad leaf antique tea trees located in the Yunnan province of China. Black Pu-erh is often referred to as "cooked" due to the fact that sun-dried green tea leaves are transformed through natural fermentation from a greenish-golden color to a blackish-red tone. Over the years Pu-erh has garnered a committed following amongst tea connoisseurs who regard it as a sacred relic leftover from ancient tea cultures and traditions. The Black Pu-erh we offer brews up a deep ochre red and has a rich earthy taste with notes of smoke and moss. Partially fermented which will appeal to the senses of both the black tea lover and the green tea lover. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Spring Green Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This alluring green tea, known in China as Guo Lu, is harvested from the first flush of spring buds in the Anhui Province. These delicate leaves yield a cup with a subtle mild flavor with a slightly fruity aftertaste sure to please lovers of green tea everywhere.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Tulsi Delight Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This delightful blend is lightly caffeinated and filled with Ayurvedic inspiration. The Ayurvedic name for Holy Basil is Tulsi, meaning The Incomparable One. It is considered a hot herb with pungent bitter tastes. This infusion blend combines these flavors with cooling mint and hibiscus. The lightly astringent taste from the Dao Ren tea and pungent ginger flavors combine wonderfully to give this tea a flavor that touches all of your senses. It is both uplifting and energetic. Contains organic Holy Basil Rama leaf, organic Dao Ren tea, organic Peppermint leaf, organic Lemongrass, organic Hibiscus flowers, and organic Ginger root.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: White Peony Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    White tea is picked early in the season when the buds are still fresh, young and tender. Because of this early picking, the taste white tea produces is very mild, and sweet without the sometimes astringent qualities of regular green teas. White tea consists of beautiful, full length leaves, and young tight buds which produces a perfectly balanced cup. While the name of this tea can be a misnomer, it should be understood that it is embodied with hues of green, and fermented brown, with delicate white "needles" to lay the final touches. Contains caffeine.
    Mountain Rose Herbs: White Silver Needle Tea, Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Green & White Tea
    This exceptional tea is one of the rarest and finest organic teas available in the world. It is only harvested for 2 to 3 days each spring in China's Fujian province, and consequently only a very limited supply is available. Silver Needle tea is handpicked from the first unopened leaf buds, and are immediately dried, allowing for a minimal amount of processing. Stunning to look at, the tea needles are frosted with graceful white hairs, and smooth texture. Silver Needles Tea brews to a light golden color, and has a soft fragrant aroma. The taste is truly unique, with a mildly sweet floral finish, that is refreshing and delicate, yet with a pronounced and lingering flavor. Contains Caffeine.

    STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS

    Starwest Botanicals: Green Tea Leaf, Chinese (Camellia sinensis), Organic, 4 oz. (Approx. 42 Tea Bags)
    Starwest Botanicals: Green Iced Tea Bags, Organic, Chinese (Camellia sinensis), 24 Tea Bags


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Standardized, Sundown Naturals, 50 Caps (98475)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Standardized Extract, Natures Way, 60 VCaps (62661)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Antioxidant Formula, Country Life, 90 Tabs (37209)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Phytosome, Natural Factors, 50 mg, 60 Caps (84466)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 60 Tabs (6926)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 120 Tabs (69804)
    HerbsPro: EGCg Green Tea Extract, Source Naturals, 350 mg, 120 Tabs (75184)
    HerbsPro: EGCg Green Tea Extract, Now Foods, 400 mg, 90 VCaps (68128)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Now Foods, 400 mg, 100 Caps (68304)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea, Life Time Nutritional Specialties, 400 mg, 100 Caps (90611)
    HerbsPro: EGCg Green Tea Extract, Now Foods, 400 mg, 180 VCaps (76118)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Leaf, Thompson Nutritional Products, 450 mg, 60 Caps (62873)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea, Natrol, 500 mg, 60 Caps (16699)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Olympian Labs, 500 mg, 60 Caps (74354)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Jarrow Formulas, 500 mg, 100 Caps (1103)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz. (32410)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Organic, Gaia Herbs, 1 fl. oz. (90922)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Alcohol Free, Natures Answer, 1 fl. oz. (17208)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Glycerite Alcohol Free, Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz. (75304)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Organic, Gaia Herbs, 2 fl. oz. (90923)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Glycerite Alcohol Free, Herb Pharm, 4 fl. oz. (75305)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract, Herb Pharm, 4 fl. oz. (32411)
    HerbsPro: Asian Green Tea (Camellia sinensis), Jason Winters, 4 oz. (16190)
    HerbsPro: Simply Pure Green Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Tea Bags (45246)
    HerbsPro: Premium Korean Green Tea, Choice Organic Teas, 16 Tea Bags (109528)
    HerbsPro: Imperial Organic Green Tea, Uncle Lees Teas, 18 Tea Bags (87773)
    HerbsPro: Premium Green Tea, Prince of Peace, 20 Tea Bags (51058)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea, Health King, 20 Tea Bags (110827)
    HerbsPro: Original Green Tea, Uncle Lees Teas, 20 Tea Bags (30491)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea, Decaffeinated, Uncle Lees Teas, 20 Tea Bags (30616)
    HerbsPro: Green Tea Antioxidant Supplement, Celestial Seasonings, 40 Tea Bags (Case of 6) (78956)
    HerbsPro: Premium Green Tea, Prince of Peace, 100 Tea Bags (51059)
    HerbsPro: Organic Green Tea, Prince of Peace, 100 Tea Bags (51060)
    HerbsPro: Legends Of China Green Tea, Organic, Uncle Lees Teas, 100 Bags (66951)
    HerbsPro: Original Green Tea, Uncle Lees Teas, 100 Tea Bags (30583)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Antioxidant Green Tea, Celestial Seasonings, 20 Tea Bags: K
    Kalyx: Antioxidant Green Tea, Celestial Seasonings, 40 Tea Bags: K
    Kalyx: China Green Tea, Certified Organic, Frontier Bulk Herbs, 1 lb.: K
    Kalyx: Indian Green Tea, Decaffeinated,Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Green Tea, Certified Organic, Prince of Peace, 100 Tea Bags: K
    Kalyx: Green Tea Extract, Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz.: HF
    Kalyx: Green Tea Extract, Alcohol Free, Natures Answer, 1 fl. oz.: HF


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Green Tea Herbal Supplement Products
    Amazon: White Tea Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: White Tea Herbal Supplement Products



  • Nutrition Basics: Green Tea Herbal Information



  • HESPERIDIN BIOFLAVONOID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Hesperidin is a naturally occurring flavonoid which can be found in citrus rinds. Citrus bioflavonoids possess antioxidant properties have been shown to positively impact normal capillary integrity.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: VeinFactors, Varicose Vein Complex For Normal Vein Function, Futurebiotic, 90 Caps (67625)
    VeinFactors supports normal vein function with patented extracts, traditional compounds and natural co-factors. Diosmin and Hesperidin are naturally-occurring flavonoids which can be found in citrus rinds. Widely used in Europe where it has been clinically studied, Diosmin has been shown to help maintain blood vessel tone and support healthy leg circulation. VeinFactors Diosmin is "micronized," reducing nutrient particle size for better absorption and efficacy. Venocin is extracted from Horse Chestnut seed and is standardized for 20% escin, a triterpenic saponin mixture that helps normalize swelling while protecting healthy veins. Centellin is extracted from Gotu Kola and is standardized for 8% total triterpenes, which research shows may be beneficial for normal vein function. Soluble Citrus Extract contains nine different flavonoids from natural citrus extract. Citrus bioflavonoids possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to positively impact normal capillary integrity. Butcher's Broom extract has been reported to improve healthy vein strength and tone. Whole Horse Chestnut, Butcher's Broom and Citrus powder provide natural whole plant co-factors that nature created and have been added to provide a complete venous support formula.
    HerbsPro: Diosmin, Baywood, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (69321)
    Baywood's Diosmin Caps combine Diosmin and Hesperidin to make the most complete, effective combination formula for supporting healthy veins. Diosmin and Hesperidin are two natural citrus bioflavonoids. Both have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity and support over-all cardiovascular health, in addition to the cosmetic benefits of reducing the appearance of varicose veins and spider veins. Diosmin and Hesperidin are used widely in Europe for decreasing the appearance of varicose veins and spider veins, and also hemmorhoids. Hesperidin is the predominant flavonoid in lemons and oranges. The peel and membranous parts of these fruits have the highest hesperidin concentrations. Hesperidin is classified as a citrus bioflavonoid. Hesperidin, Diosmin and other flavonoids thought to reduce capillary permeability and to have anti-inflammatory action were collectively known as vitamin P. These substances, however, are not vitamins and are no longer referred to, except in older literature, as vitamin P.
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Country Life, 500 mg, 250 Tabs (37098)
    Hypoallergenic/Vegetarian/Kosher Contains the naturally occurring flavonones Hesperidin and Eriocitrin. A Special Combination of Lemon, Orange and Grapefruit Bioflavonoids with Rutin.
    HerbsPro: Hy-C Tablets With Bioflavonoids, Rutin, Hesperidin & Rose Hips, Solgar, 600 mg / 100 mg, 250 Tabs (36502)
    Solgars HY-C offers 600 mg of pure Vitamin C combined with natural citrus bioflavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, which may enhance the absorption and utilization of Vitamin C. Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient with revered antioxidant and immune supportive properties. Combined with 175 mg natural bioflavonoids and 25 mg of rose hips, each single tablet serving of HY-C offers synergistic antioxidant support to combat cell-damaging free radicals which can cause premature aging.
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoids Plus Hesperidin, Natural Factors, 650 mg, 90 Caps (83869)
    Citrus Bioflavonoids plus Hesperidin is derived from citrus fruit peels, which is an abundant source of bioflavonoids. Although hesperidin is part of the bioflavonoid complex, it is so important that extra amounts are added to ensure high levels. Bioflavonoids are brightly-coloured substances that are found in fruits and vegetables, and are typically a companion to vitamin C. Bioflavonoids are essential for the proper absorption of vitamin C and have been shown to have antioxidant properties, increase capillary strength and keep collagen healthy.
    HerbsPro: Bioflavonoids, Now Foods, 700 mg, 100 Caps (67788)
    Citrus Bioflavonoid Caps contain 30% total bioflavonoids as Hesperidin. There are many varieties of bioflavonoids available and ours includes a number of flavonols, flavones, and flavanones including: Hesperidin, Eriocitrin, Naringen, Naringenin, and Quercetin.
    HerbsPro: Mega Bio-C Formula, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 90 VCaps (100592)
    Mega Bio-C Formula Vcaps provide 750 mg of buffered vitamin C from pure calcium ascorbate with rutin, plus 750 mg of citrus bioflavonoids, including hesperidin, from fresh oranges, lemons, tangerines, grapefruits and limes. Available in easy-to-swallow vegetable capsules for maximum assimilation and absorption.
    HerbsPro: Mega Bio-C Formula, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 180 VCaps (100593)
    Mega Bio-C Formula Vcaps provide 750 mg of buffered vitamin C from pure calcium ascorbate with rutin, plus 750 mg of citrus bioflavonoids, including hesperidin, from fresh oranges, lemons, tangerines, grapefruits and limes. Available in easy-to-swallow vegetable capsules for maximum assimilation and absorption.
    HerbsPro: Bioflavonoids Complex, FoodScience of Vermont, 1000 mg, 60 Tabs (15153)
    A bioflavonoid complex supplement with hesperidin, rutin, and bromelain. Bioflavonoids enhance the effectiveness of Vitamin C. Bioflavonoids support capillary strength and proper vascular function.
    HerbsPro: C-1000 Plus Bioflavonoids, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 180 Caplets (100589)
    C-1000 mg Plus Bioflavonoids Caplets provide 1000 mg of high potency vitamin C from pure L-ascorbic acid, 100 mg of rutin and 500 mg of citrus bioflavonoids, including hesperidin, from fresh oranges, lemons, tangerines, grapefruits and limes. Available in easy-to-swallow caplets for maximum assimilation and absorption.
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid Complex, Country Life, 1000 mg, 250 Tabs (37096)
    Hypoallergenic/Vegetarian/Kosher Contains the naturally occurring flavonones Hesperidin and Eriocitrin. A Special Combination of Lemon, Orange and Grapefruit Bioflavonoids with Rutin.
    HerbsPro: Varicose Veins Lotion, Reviva, 8 oz. (35493)
    Varicose Veins & Deeper Spider Veins Lotion with Vitamin P & Horse Chestnut - A stronger Vitamin P formula with hesperidin and horse chestnut added, for deeper veins on legs. Also aids circulation to combat swelling of ankles and lower leg. Aids circulation and helps strengthen veins. Helps diminish vein appearance once varicose veins exist on the legs, they will not improve without therapy. Walking and massage are helpful to move blood out of the veins. Lightly massage legs daily with our new Varicose Veins Lotion not only aids circulation, but can work wonders in helping strengthen veins and diminish their appearance.


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Heathy Veins, FoodScience of Vermont, 60 VCaps: HF
    Kalyx: Healthy Veins, FoodScience Labs, 60 VCaps: K
    Healthy Veins is designed specifically to support vascular integrity and tone throughout the body. It features a combination of two powerful flavonoids, Diosmin and Hesperidin (in a 10:1 ratio) along with high-quality Butcher's Broom Extract and Vitamin C. This formula optimizes vascular elasticity and strength and supports the proper function and structure of leg veins.
    Kalyx: Devita Under Eye Repair Serum, 0.5 fl oz: HF
    Helps to reduce the appearance of puffiness, dark circles, and fine lines and wrinkles. Natural Skin Care With Hesperidin and Astaxanthin Paraben-Free 100% Vegan In many cases, dark circles under the eyes are a result (inherited or not) of inadequate circulation to these fine and delicate tissues. Devita offers the latest in cosmeceutical technology in this under eye complex formulation containing Hesperidin for increased moisturization and Astaxanthin, a powerful new antioxidant breakthrough at the highest allowable and effective level of Vitamin K to assist in bringing circulation to the area.
    Kalyx: Varicose Vein Lotion, Reviva Labs, 8 fl. oz.: K
    For All Skin Types. Aids Circulation, Helps Strengthen Veins & Diminish Vein Appearance. Lightly massaging legs daily with their Varicose Veins Lotion not only aids circulation, but can also strengthen vein walls to help prevent problems as well as diminish appearance of existing varicose veins. With vitamin P (rutin and an exclusive blend of citrus bioflavonoids featuring hesperidin), plus horse chestnut, grapeseed extract and more. It is Reviva Lab's solution to this very complex skin problem.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Hesperidin Supplement Products



  • Nutrition Basics: Hesperidin Bioflavonoid Information



  • QUERCETIN (QUERCETIN-C / ACTIVATED QUERCETIN) SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Quercetin is a bioflavonoid similar to rutin that is commonly found in red apples and red onions. Combined with Vitamin C, bioflavonoids work to rebuild small blood vessels and other structural parts of the body. Quercetin has powerful anti-inflammatory effects, acts as an antihistamine, and helps reduce viral activity. Human cell culture studies with quercetin have demonstrated its capability to inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells. As an antioxidant, it may help to prevent heart disease by protecting LDL cholesterol from becoming damaged, which cardiologists believe is the underlying cause of heart disease. Quercetin may also block an enzyme that leads to accumulation of sorbitol, which has been linked to nerve, eye and kidney damage in people with diabetes. Quercetin is a potent natural reverse transcriptase blocker. Though large doses may be required in humans to produce therapeutic effects, quercetin has been shown to have antiviral activity against HIV, herpes simplex, polio virus and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). One study even showed that it was possible to overcome the polio virus by pairing vitamin C with quercetin. Vitamin C is an antioxidant vitamin, which helps prevent oxidation of water-soluble molecules that could otherwise create free radicals. It also acts as a stimulator to the immune system; through this function, along with its antioxidant properties, it may help in the prevention and treatment of infections and other diseases. It may be helpful against bacterial, viral and fungal diseases.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Quercetin Complex With Ester-C Plus, Solgar, 50 VCaps (36716)
    HerbsPro: Nettle Quercetin, Eclectic Institute Inc, 90 Caps (45767)
    Each 350 mg. capsule contains: Wildcrafted freeze-dried Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) leaf, 175 mg. Quercetin dihydrate, 175 mg.
    HerbsPro: Quercetin With Bioflavonoid Complex, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 50/400 mg, 100 Caps (38755)
    Quercetin and other bioflavonoids extracted from lemon have made up the classical bioflavonoid nutritional supplements. By strengthening the outer cell membrane, these flavonoids may help stabilize cell surfaces, potentially inhibiting the release of histamine involved in allergic reactions, as well as neutralizing many chemicals involved in inflammatory processes. Each capsule contains 400 mg Lemon Bioflavonoid Complex, 50 mg Quercetin, 50 mg Rutin, 50 mg, and Hesperidin 50 mg.
    HerbsPro: Quercetin Complex With Ester-C Plus, Solgar, 100 VCaps (36715)
    Solgars Quercetin Complex includes the important bioflavonoid Quercetin in a synergistic formula with Ester-C Plus and Bromelain to provide unique antioxidant protection as well as natural seasonal support. Quercetin is found in onions and other foods. It possesses antioxidant properties which help to stabilize cell membranes. Ester-C Plus provides a patented, pH neutral (non acidic), form of vitamin C that is gentle on the stomach. Ester-C Plus offers the additional benefits of incorporating acerola berry, citrus bioflavonoids, rutin and rose hips. This formula also features bromelain, a natural enzyme derived from pineapple.
    HerbsPro: Optimized Quercetin, Life Extension, 250 mg, 60 VCaps (91950)
    Quercetin is a bioflavonoid that supports cellular health and function. In human cell culture studies, it has been shown to block the manufacture and release of inflammation-causing substances,which can help support a healthy immune response to the seasonally changing environment. It also helps promote a healthy cardiovascular system by preserving endothelial integrity and supporting healthy blood glucose levels for those already within normal range. Optimized Quercetin is a proprietary formulation that sets the gold standard for high-quality quercetin derived from a food-source blend (500 mg supplying 250 mg, Quercetin), Vitamin C from Camu Camu berry extract (30 mg), and Camu Camu extract from wildcrafted berry (150 mg).
    HerbsPro: Quercetin & Bromelain, Doctors Best, 250 mg / 125 mg, 180 Caps (69162)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin Bioflavonoid Complex, Natural Factors, 250 mg / 250 mg, 60 Caps (83870)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin Bioflavonoid Complex, Natural Factors, 250 mg / 250 mg, 90 Caps (83871)
    HerbsPro: Activated Quercetin, Source Naturals, 300 mg, 50 Tabs (7213)
    HerbsPro: Activated Quercetin, Source Naturals, 300 mg, 50 Caps (38226)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin-300, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 300 mg, 60 Caps (38754)
    HerbsPro: Activated Quercetin, Source Naturals, 300 mg, 100 Caps (38227)
    HerbsPro: Activated Quercetin, Source Naturals, 300 mg, 100 Tabs (7214)
    HerbsPro: Activated Quercetin, Source Naturals, 300 mg, 200 Caps (38228)
    HerbsPro: Activated Quercetin, Source Naturals, 300 mg, 200 Tabs (7215)
    Activated Quercetin is a unique bioflavonoid derived from plant sources. In human cell culture studies, Quercetin has been shown to inhibit histamine release. Additional research needs to be conducted to confirm the effects of Quercetin, if any, in humans. Bromelain is a pineapple enzyme that may assist the body in times of stress. Magnesium ascorbate is a buffered (nonacidic) form of vitamin C that helps support the immune system.
    HerbsPro: Quercetin, Natures Life, 400 mg, 100 VCaps
    HerbsPro: Quercetin With Bromelain, Now Foods, 400 mg / 100 mg, 120 VCaps (68653)
    Quercetin is a naturally occurring bioflavonoid that supports healthy histamine levels, thereby helping to sustain a balanced immune response. Bromelain, an enzyme derived from pineapple stems, also supports healthy immune system function. The combination of Quercetin and Bromelain therefore provides powerful immunomodulating benefits important for the management of occasional seasonal discomfort.
    HerbsPro: Quercetin With Bromelain, Now Foods, 400 mg / 100 mg, 240 VCaps (82067)
    Quercetin is a naturally occurring bioflavonoid that supports healthy histamine levels, thereby helping to sustain a balanced immune response. Bromelain, an enzyme derived from pineapple stems, also supports healthy immune system function. The combination of Quercetin and Bromelain therefore provides powerful immunomodulating benefits important for the management of occasional seasonal discomfort.
    HerbsPro: Super Quercetin, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 500 mg, 30 VCaps (100598)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin Plus Vitamin C & Citrus Bioflavonoids, Natrol, 500 mg, 50 Caps (16833)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin Plus C, TwinLab, 500 mg / 1400 mg, 50 Caps (19840)
    HerbsPro: Super Quercetin, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 500 mg, 60 VCaps (100599)
    Super Quercetin Vcaps provide a potent combination of antioxidants and allergy-supporting natural ingredients. Each serving (2 capsules) contains quercetin (1000 mg), vitamin C from pure L-ascorbic acid (500 mg), rose hips (25 mg), acerola (25 mg), rutin (20 mg), citrus bioflavonoid complex (1000 mg), pineapple bromelain (140 mg), and hesperidin (40 mg). Available in easy-to-swallow vegetable capsules for maximum assimilation and absorption.
    HerbsPro: Quercetin Plus (Vitamin C), Olympian Labs, 500 mg / 100 mg, 60 Caps (74414)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin Plus C, TwinLab, 500 mg / 1400 mg, 100 Caps (19841)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin, A Bioflavonoid Antioxidant, Jarrow Formulas, 500 mg, 100 Caps (1228)
    HerbsPro: Quercetin, A Bioflavonoid Antioxidant, Jarrow Formulas, 500 mg, 200 Caps (1227)


    LIFE EXTENSION PRODUCTS

    LEF: Optimized Quercetin, Life Extension, 250 mg, 60 VCaps
    Quercetin is a bioflavonoid that supports cellular health and function. In human cell culture studies, it has been shown to block te manufacture and release of inflammation-causing substances.
    LEF: Quercetin-500, Jarrow Formulas, 500 mg, 100 Caps


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Quercetin, Natrol, 250 mg, 50 Caps: K
    Kalyx: Quercetin, Nutricology, 300 mg, 60 VCaps: N
    Kalyx: Quercetin, Natrol, 500 mg, 50 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Quercetin Plus C, TwinLab, 500 mg/1400mg, 50 Capsules: HF
    Kalyx: Quercetin With Bioflavonoids, Nutricology, 100 VCaps: N
    Quercetin extracted from a non-citrs source and other bioflavonoids extracted from lemon are found in the classical bioflavonoid group of nutritional supplements. They have been shown to support the integrity of mast cells, which play a key role in controlling the release of histamine. Bioflavonoids potentially support the health of the vascular system. Quercetin may also reduce the production of prostaglandins and leukotrines. A serving contains 800 mg Lemon Bioflavonoid Complex, 100 mg Quercetin, 100 mg Hesperidine, 100 mg Rutin. Take one to two capsules one to three times daily with meals or as directed by your health care provider.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Quercetin Supplement Products
    Amazon: Activated Quercetin Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Quercetin & Activated Quercetin Supplement Information



  • RUTIN BIOFLAVONOID PRODUCTS

    Rutin is a bioflavonoid, and it provides essential support molecules for vitamin C absorption (and should, in fact, be taken at the same time to gain maximum benefit). Rutin supplementation prevents the breakdown of vitamin C in the body before it is metabolized and intensifies its beneficial immune-enhancing effects in the body. With regard to eye health, the bioflavonoid, Rutin, is said to improve capillary integrity and believed to help lower ocular pressure when used in conjunction with conventional drugs. (Bilberry extract is particularly rich in Rutin and can be beneficial in cases of diabetic retinopathy.) Rutin may be very helpful in combating cataracts, macular degeneration (the most common cause of blindness) and free radical damage to the retina. The antioxidant activity that fights free radical damage appears to play a role in the prevention of cataracts and other forms of visual impairment. Because Rutin improves capillary integrity (it works synergistically with vitamin C in this regard) by protecting and preserving the structure (permeability) and strength of those capillaries, this action is said to be of great help for capillary fragility (easy bruising and bleeding) and venous insufficiency (varicose veins and spider veins). Because Rutin strengthens capillaries, it may be helpful in reducing the symptoms of hemophilia. The bioflavonoid, Rutin, is thought to lessen symptoms associated with prolonged bleeding and help in cases of bleeding gums and hemorrhage.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Rutin, Solgar, 50 mg, 100 Tabs (36725)
    HerbsPro: Rutin, Natural Factors, 250 mg, 90 Caps (83872)
    HerbsPro: Rutin Bioflavonoid, Solgar, 500 mg, 50 Tabs (36728)
    HerbsPro: Rutin Bioflavonoid Antioxidant, Country Life, 500 mg, 50 Tabs (37428)
    HerbsPro: Rutin Bioflavonoid Antioxidant, Thompson, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (35694)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid & Rutin Complex, Country Life, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (37099)
    HerbsPro: Rutin, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 500 mg, 60 VCaps (100601)
    HerbsPro: Citrus Bioflavonoid & Rutin Complex, Country Life, 500 mg, 90 Tabs (37100)
    HerbsPro: Acerola C with Bioflavonoid & Rutin NF, Country Life, 500 mg, 90 Wafers (36981)
    HerbsPro: Rutin Bioflavonoid, Solgar, 500 mg, 100 Tabs (36726)
    HerbsPro: Rutin Bioflavonoid Antioxidant, Country Life, 500 mg, 100 Tabs (37427)
    HerbsPro: Rutin Bioflavonoid Antioxidant, Now Foods, 500 mg, 100 VCaps (75316)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin C Complex With Bioflavonoids & Rutin, Country Life, 500 mg, 100 Tabs (37533)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin C Plus Bioflavonoid & Rutin, Natures Life, 500 mg, 100 Tabs (89610)
    HerbsPro: Acerola C with Bioflavonoid & Rutin NF, Country Life, 500 mg, 180 Wafers (36980)
    HerbsPro: Rutin Bioflavonoid, Solgar, 500 mg, 250 Tabs (36727)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin C Plus Bioflavonoid & Rutin, Natures Life, 500 mg, 250 Tabs (89611)
    HerbsPro: C-1000 With Rosehips Bioflavonoids & Rutin, 1000 mg, 90 Caps (90561)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Rutin Bioflavonoid Antioxidant, Thompson Nutritional, 500 mg, 60 Tabs: K


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Rutin Bioflavonoid Supplement Products



  • Nutrition Basics: Rutin Supplement Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Rutin Bioflavonoid Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |






    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







  • For a full list of available products from Mountain Rose Herbs, click on banner below:






    Starwest Botanicals




    HerbsPro Supplement Store


    HerbsPro




    Up to 70% Off Bath & Beauty - evitamins


    eVitamins








    Kalyx.com Herbs, Foods, Supplements, Bath & Body


    Chinese Herbs Direct


    Ayurvedic Herbs Direct


    Pet Herbs Direct


    TakeHerb.com


    Wild Divine - Stress relief training software and meditation.


    Aleva Health - Hosiery, Orthopedics, Wound Care, Support, Diabetic Socks


    ShareASale Merchant-Affiliate Program








    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




    Top