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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Supplements
CREATINE

(Creatine Monohydrate, Creatine Ethyl Ester)


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Creatine Description
  • Creatine Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Creatine Dosage Information
  • Creatine Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Creatine Supplement Products




  • CREATINE DESCRIPTION

    Creatine is normally found in meat and fish. It is also naturally made in the human body in the kidney and liver. Creatine is mainly stored in muscles, but about 1.5 to 2-percent of the body's creatine is converted to creatinine daily. Carbohydrates enhance muscle creatine uptake. Oral consumption of creatine increases the creatine in muscle, which serves to regenerate adenosine triphoshate (ATP), which provides energy to the body.

    Creatine supplements are athletic aids used to increase high-intensity athletic performance. Researchers have known of the use of creatine as an energy source by skeletal muscles since the middle of the 20th century. They were popularized as a performance-enhancing supplement beginning in the 1990s. Overall, creatine appears to have modest benefits for intense, repetitive exercise lasting less than 30 seconds. It does not appear to have significant benefits on endurance aerobic exercise.





    CREATINE USES, HEALTH BENEFITS, & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE ENHANCER

    Creatine is often taken by many fitness enthusiasts, athletes of all levels, and bodybuilders all around the world to increase performance in anaerobic type activities. There are a number of forms but the most common are creatine monohydrate (creatine complexed with a molecule of water) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE). A number of methods for ingestion exist: as a powder mixed into a drink, or as a capsule or caplet. Once ingested, creatine is highly bioavailable, whether it is ingested as the crystalline monohydrate form, the free form in solution, or even in meat. Creatine salts will become the free form when dissolved in aqueous solution. Conventional wisdom recommends the consumption of creatine with high glycemic index carbohydrates or a combination of 50-percent protein and 50-percent carbohydrate mixture for maximal insulin release and creatine retention.

  • Aging is associated with lower total creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations. Creatine-induced effects of increased muscle strength, body mass, and performance have not been confirmed in studies on elderly subjects. Additional research is needed in this area.
  • Most studies lack support for creatine in improving performance in trained cyclists. Further research is needed on this topic.
  • Recent studies suggest creatine use in females increases the strength and endurance of muscle contractions. Additional research is needed in this area.
  • Research suggests that creatine may increase endurance in high-intensity exercise. Further research is needed on this topic.
  • Creatine may offer benefit to rowers, for endurance and speed. Additional research is needed in this area.
  • Studies using creatine in runners have mixed results. Overall, most evidence suggests a lack of benefits for runners. However, additional research is needed in this area.
  • Overall, data suggests that creatine may benefit elite hockey players, football players, rowers, squash players, and wrestlers. Improvement was lacking in tennis players. Additional research is needed in this area.
  • Evidence is mixed regarding creatine use during short bursts of anaerobic muscle activity with short recovery times. Additional research is needed in this area.
  • Data on effectiveness of creatine for swimming performance shows mixed results. Additional research is needed in this area.


  • COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE

    Memory: Studies suggest that creatine supplementation increases speed of brain processing in vegetarians and the elderly. Creatine administration was shown to significantly improve performance in cognitive and memory tests in vegetarian individuals involved in double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trials. Vegetarian supplementation with creatine seems to be especially beneficial as they appear to have lower average body stores, since meat is a primary source of dietary creatine. This study did not, however, compare the differing effects of creatine on vegetarians and non-vegetarians. In a later study, a 20-gram daily dose of creatine monohydrate over 5 days was shown to improve memory in young adult female vegetarians, compared with young adult female omnivores. Note that the vegetarians and non-vegetarians had similar memory scores at the beginning of the study.

    In addition, experiments have shown that creatine supplementation improved the health and lifespan of mice. Whether these beneficial effects would also apply to humans is still uncertain. It has also been used in the treatment of chronic heart failure and mitochondrial disorders.

    HEART DISEASE

  • Research supports the use of creatine supplementation in people with chronic heart failure. Several studies have reported a positive outcome of improved muscle strength and endurance.
  • Research shows mixed results for creatine use in various cardiac (heart) measurements.
  • Some research supports creatine supplementation with cardioplegic solution in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery. Benefits include reduced irregular heartbeat and reduced need for defibrillation.
  • Heart attack: Preliminary evidence suggests that phosphocreatine use may offer benefits for heart attack when combined with nifedipine.
  • Ischemic heart disease: Early evidence suggests creatine has a potential benefit in the total number of premature ventricular beats.

  • OTHER HEALTH-RELATED DISORDERS & CREATINE RESEARCH STUDIES

  • AGAT Deficency: This is a lack of enzyme for creatine production. Limited research suggests that long-term creatine use when started early in diagnosis may improve neurologic abilities.
  • Respiratory Apnea In Infants: Apnea is the cessation of breathing. Early studies of creatine have found mixed results in infants with a breathing disorder called apnea of prematurity.
  • Bone Density: Early research suggests that creatine may benefit bone density effects combined with resistance training.
  • Dehydration: The effect of creatine on dehydration shows mixed results. Additional research is needed in this area.
  • Depression: Early research suggests a potential benefit of creatine supplements in depression.
  • Diabetes (Type 2): Studies suggest that creatine decreases glucose concentrations with short-term use.
  • Dialysis: Limited research suggests that creatine lacks an effect on homocysteine levels in hemodialysis patients. Creatine may offer some benefit for muscle cramping as a complication of hemodialysis.
  • Fibromyalgia (nervous system disorder): Limited research reports significant effects on severe fibromyalgia when creatine is combined with current medical treatments.
  • GAMT Deficiency (lack of an enzyme for creatine production): Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is diagnosed by a deficiency of creatine in the brain and has been treated with oral creatine supplementation. Early research suggests that creatine is a potentially effective treatment for disorders of creatine production.
  • High Cholesterol: Limited research suggests creatine may lower cholesterol. Additional, larger studies are needed to in this area.
  • Huntington's Disease: Creatine supplementation has mixed results with regards to Huntingdon's disease.
  • Hyperornithinemia (high ornithine levels): High amounts of ornithine may lead to blindness, muscle weakness, and reduced storage of creatine in muscles and the brain. Early evidence suggests that long-term creatine supplements may help replace missing creatine and slow vision loss.
  • Insulin Potentiation: Creatine may have significant effects in insulin release and glucose tolerance. Effects on diabetic patients are unclear. Further well-designed trials are required before conclusions can be made.
  • McArdle's Disease (metabolism disorder): Creatine may be beneficial for the treatment of McArdle's disease.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Preliminary results suggest that creatine supplementation does not improve work production in individuals with multiple sclerosis.
  • Muscle Wasting: According to preliminary research, creatine helped maintain or increase lean body and tissue mass, strength, and endurance in HIV-related and cast-induced muscle wasting.
  • Muscular Dystrophy: The decrease of intracellular creatine in Duchenne muscular dystrophy may aggravate muscle weakness and deterioration. Some studies showed preliminary evidence supporting the use of creatine to alleviate these symptoms of muscular dystrophy.
  • Neuromuscular Disorders (general, mitochondrial disorders): The evidence for the use of creatine for individuals with neuromuscular diseases is unclear. It is possible that creatine may be useful in some, but not all, mitochondrial diseases.
  • Orthostatic Hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing): One study reported significant effects of creatine with glycerol on orthostatic hypotension. The effects of creatine alone are unclear.
  • Osteoarthritis: Limited research suggests that creatine may improve physical function, lower limb mass, and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. The effect of creatine alone, without exercise, is unclear.
  • Parkinson's Disease: In limited research, creatine was reported to slow progression of Parkinson's disease and slightly decrease the use of symptomatic treatment.
  • Rett Syndrome (neurodevelopmental disorder): Early research suggests that creatine may be beneficial for Rett syndrome.
  • Skin Aging: Creatine skin products, in combination with other supplementation, may benefit skin aging conditions such as wrinkles, crow's feet, and (ultraviolet) UV damage.
  • Spinal Cord Injury: Limited research reports inconclusive results on creatine supplementation for spinal cord injury.
  • Traumatic Brain Injury: Preliminary evidence suggests creatine may reduce hospital stay and intubation duration in people with traumatic brain injury.

  • CREATINE SUPPLEMENT TYPES

    CREATINE ETHYL ESTER (CEE)

    CEE is a form of commercially available creatine touted to have higher absorption rates and a longer serum half-life than regular creatine monohydrate by several supplement companies. However, no peer-reviewed studies have emerged on creatine ethyl ester which conclusively prove these claims. A study presented at the 4th International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) annual meeting demonstrated that the addition of the ethyl group to creatine actually reduces acid stability and accelerates its breakdown to creatinine. The researchers concluded that creatine ethyl ester is inferior to creatine monohydrate as a source of creatine. As a supplement, the compound was patented, and licensed through UNeMed, the technology transfer entity of the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

    BUFFERED CREATINE

    Buffered creatine monohydrate (trademarked as Kre-Alkalyn) is claimed to enhance the effects of creatine through the promotion of greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses (1.5 grams/day for 28-days vs 4 x 5 grams/day for 7-days). Research performed found no significant difference in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations between buffered creatine monohydrate and creatine monohydrate. There was also no evidence that supplementing the diet with a buffered form of creatine resulted in fewer side effects.

    CREATINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    Creatine hydrochloride (Creatine HCL) is a hydrochloride salt patented in 2009 and marketed as an athletic and bodybuilding supplement. A study by Vireo Systems (commissioned by supplement manufacturer ProMera Health) found creatine hydrochloride to be 59 times more soluble in water than creatine monohydrate. Due to its higher solubility, the recommended dosage for creatine hydrochloride is much lower than that for creatine monohydrate.

    CREATINE MAGNESIUM CHELATE

    Creatine magnesium chelate is a form of creatine bound to two magnesium atoms. Its effects are similar to creatine monohydrate.

    CREATINE MALATE

    Creatine malate is a creatine compound containing three creatine monohydrate molecules attached to one molecule of malic acid. Creatine monohydrate supports the production of ATP, the muscles primary source of energy in the body. Malic acid plays a supporting role as an intermediate substance that encourages energy transport to the muscles during physical activity, enhancing the Krebs cycle.

    CREATINE NITRATE

    Creatine nitrate is a nitrate salt form of creatine. No benefits have been noted except that it may be more water-soluble.

    CREATINE GLUCONATE

    Creatine gluconate is a form of creatine where the molecule is bound to gluconic acid.

    MICRONIZED CREATINE

    Since 2011, products containing micronized creatine monohydrate have been marketed as sports supplements. Micronization involves reducing the size of creatine particles to between 0.36 and 9.08 µm in diameter. Purported benefits of these products include easier mixing into drink format for supplementation and faster absorption of the creatine into the bloodstream. While reducing particle size may make powdered creatine easier to dissolve in water due to exposure of a greater total particle surface area to collisions with solvent molecules (increasing the rate of reaction), it cannot change its overall solubility. There is no evidence that micronized creatine monohydrate offers any physiological benefit over other forms or can reduce the risk of gastrointestinal side effects.

    Synthetic creatine is usually made from sarcosine (or its salts) and cyanamide which are combined in a reactor with catalyst compounds. The reactor is heated and pressurized, causing creatine crystals to form. The crystalline creatine is then purified by centrifuge and vacuum dried. The dried creatine compound is milled into a fine powder for improved bioavailability. Milling techniques differ, resulting in final products of varying solubility and bioavailability. For instance, creatine compounds milled to 200 mesh are referred to as micronized.





    CREATINE DOSAGE INFORMATION

    A DIETARY SUPPLEMENT

    These doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

    For athletic performance: At the recommended dose of being loaded with 20 grams per day for 5 days followed by a maintenance dose of 2 or more grams daily (up to 5 grams), creatine is likely safe and most studies have not found significant side effects. However, people with kidney disease, high blood pressure, or liver disease should not take creatine as a dietary supplement. Being a dietary supplement, it is advised that creatine should be taken under the supervision of a health professional.

    Endogenous serum or plasma creatine concentrations in healthy adults are normally in a range of 2 to 12 mg/L. A single 5 gram (5000 mg) oral dose in healthy adults results in a peak plasma creatine level of approximately 120 mg/L at 1 to 2 hours post-ingestion. Creatine has a fairly short elimination half-life, averaging just less than 3 hours, so to maintain an elevated blood plasma level it would be necessary to take small oral doses every 3 to 6 hours throughout the day. Creatine is consumed by the body fairly quickly, and if one wishes to maintain the high concentration of creatine, 2 to 5 grams daily is the standard amount to intake.

    HEALTH-DISORDER-SPECIFIC DOSING
    Adults (18 years and older)

  • For Aging, 0.3 g/kg of creatine has been taken by mouth for five days, followed by 0.07g/kg by mouth for 79 days.
  • For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), 3 to 30 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for seven days to 56 weeks, in one or two divided doses.
  • For Bone Density, 0.3 g/kg of creatine has been taken daily by mouth for five days, followed by 0.07 g/kg daily by mouth for 79 days.
  • For Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD), 17.1 to 22 grams of creatine has been taken daily by mouth for five days to two weeks, followed by 3.76 to 5.7 grams daily for seven to 12 weeks. A dosage of 0.3 g/kg of creatine has been taken daily by mouth for seven days, followed by 0.07 /kg daily for seven weeks.
  • For Cognitive Function, 0.03 grams/kilogram of creatine has been taken daily by mouth for six weeks. In people with blocked coronary arteries, 2 grams of creatine phosphate has been injected into the blood over a two-hour time period, followed by 8 grams of creatine phosphate injected into the blood on the day of admission. Individuals also received 2 grams of creatine phosphate injected into the blood twice daily at the rate of 4 milliliters/minute for two additional days after admission. The total dose of creatine phosphate was 18 grams over three days.
  • For Congestive Heart Failure, 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five days. Doses of 5 to 6 grams have been injected into the blood for up to five days. Additionally, 2 grams has been injected into the blood daily for two weeks, followed by 0.5 grams injected into the muscle daily for one month. One gram injected into the blood daily for seven days has also been used.
  • For Coronary Heart Disease (surgery), 4 grams of creatine has been injected into the blood daily for three days with cardioplegic solution. Additionally, 10 millimoles/liter of creatine with cardioplegic solution has been given.
  • For Dehydration, 0.3 g/kg of creatine has been taken by mouth daily or 10 to 25 grams has been taken in 1 to 2 divided doses daily for 5 to 28 days.
  • For Depression, 3 to 5 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for four weeks.
  • For Diabetes (Type 2), 3 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth once or twice daily for five days.
  • For Dialysis, 2 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for two treatment periods of four weeks, separated by a washout of four weeks. A dose of 12 mg of creatine has been taken by mouth before each dialysis session for four weeks. Additionally, 12 mg of creatine before each dialysis session has been injected into the blood for four weeks.
  • For Enhanced Athletic Performance (loading dose), the typical dosing is four times daily for loading and twice daily for maintenance. Water intake should be 64 ounces daily to avoid dehydration. To rapidly increase muscle creatine levels and increase muscle mass or strength, 9 to 25 grams or 0.25 to 0.3 g/kg of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for 4 to 7 days.
  • For Enhanced Athletic Performance (maintenance dose), 2 to 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five days to 12 weeks. A dose of 0.03 to 0.15 g/kg of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for up to seven weeks, twice or thrice weekly, as has 10 grams of creatine daily for three weeks following a loading dose.
  • For Enhanced Athletic Performance (aging), 5 to 20 grams or 0.25 to 0.5 g/kg of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five days to 14 weeks or three days weekly for 12 weeks. 0.3 g/kg or 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for 5 to 10 days, followed by 0.07 g/kg or 4 grams by mouth daily for approximately 20 days to 11 weeks.
  • For enhanced athletic performance (cyclists), 25 grams of creatine by mouth daily for five days plus 5 grams per hour during testing has been used. A dosage of 5-20 grams of creatine by mouth daily for 5-7 days has been used.
  • For Enhanced Athletic Performance (endurance; general), 6 to 25 grams of a creatine loading dose has been taken daily for 5 to 7 days or for five days before exercise. 20 grams of creatine has been taken daily for seven days, followed by 2 grams daily for maintenance.
  • For Enhanced Athletic Performance (high-intensity endurance), 0.25 to 0.3 g/kg, 2.25 grams, 10 grams, 20 grams, or 25 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for 5 days to six weeks.
  • For enhanced athletic performance (rowers), 20 grams or 240 to 300 mg/kg of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five days.
  • For Enhanced Athletic Performance (runners), 0.35 g/kg or 20 to 25 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for 3 to 7 days.
  • For Enhanced Athletic Performance (sports/general), 15 to 30 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five days to four weeks, as has 20 grams daily for five days followed by 5 grams daily for 10 weeks. A dose of 0.3 g/kg of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for six days as a loading dose followed by 0.03 g/kg daily for four weeks. Additionally, 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily on days 1 to 4, followed by 10 grams daily on days 5 to 6, and 5 grams daily on days 7 to 28.
  • For enhanced athletic performance (sprinters), 300 mg/kg or 10 to 35 grams of creatine has been taken daily for 2 to 7 days. Additionally, 15 to 20 grams of creatine has been taken daily for 5 to 7 days, followed by 2 to 10 grams daily for 9 to 21 days.
  • For Enhanced Athletic Performance (power and spring performance), loading doses of 6 to 35 grams or 0.3 g/kg of creatine have been taken daily for up to seven days, with maintenance doses of up to 10 grams or 0.03 g/kg daily for up to seven weeks.
  • For Enhanced Athletic Performance (swimming), 10 to 25 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily in single or divided doses for four to nine days. 0.3 g/kg of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five days followed by 2.25 grams daily. 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for six days, followed by 10 grams daily for eight days.
  • For GAMT Deficiency (lack of an enzyme for creatine production), 400 to 670 mg/kg has been taken daily by mouth. 4 to 8 grams of creatine has been taken daily by mouth for 25 months.
  • For Heart Health, 5 grams of creatine has been taken twice daily by mouth for three weeks. A dose of 7 grams of creatine has been taken three times daily by mouth for three days, then 21 grams once daily on the fourth day.
  • For Heart Attack, 2 grams of creatine has been injected into the blood, followed by 4 grams per hour injected into the blood for two hours. A dose of 4 grams has been injected into the blood, followed by 8 grams injected into the blood over two hours, and 8 grams per 24 hours injected into the blood for five days. Additionally, 18 grams of Neoton® has been injected into the blood for the first three days of a heart attack.
  • For Huntington's Disease, 5 to 10 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for up to one year.
  • For High Cholesterol, 20 to 25 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five days, followed by 5 to 10 grams daily for 51 days.
  • For Hyperornithinemia (high ornithine levels), 1.5 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for one year.
  • For Insulin Potentiation, 5 grams of creatine has been taken by a tube into the stomach at three equally spaced intervals in one day. Additionally, 10 grams has been taken daily by mouth for greater than three months.
  • For Ischemic Heart Disease, 400 mg of creatine has been injected into the muscle daily and 200 mg has been injected into the blood daily for 10 days.
  • For McArdle's Disease (metabolism disorder), 150 mg/kg of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five days, followed by 60 mg/kg daily for five weeks.
  • For Memory, 5 grams of creatine taken by mouth once or four times daily has been taken from one to six weeks.
  • For Muscle Strength, 1 gram of creatine phosphate has been injected into the blood daily for 30 days.
  • For Muscle Wasting, 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five days, followed by a maintenance dose of 4.8 grams daily, for a total of 14 weeks. Additionally, 5 grams of creatine has been taken four times daily for seven days.
  • For Muscular Dystrophy, 10 grams of Creapure has been taken by mouth daily for eight weeks, 3 grams daily for three months, or 0.1 g/kg daily for four months. A dosage of 3 to 20 grams of creatine daily or 0.06 to 0.15 g/kg of creatine daily has been taken by mouth for one week to six months. 20 grams of creatine has been taken daily for one week, followed by 5 grams daily for an additional eight weeks.
  • For Neuromuscular Disorders, 10 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for five to 14 days, followed by 4 to 5 grams daily for five to seven days. A dosage of 4 to 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily in 1 to 4 divided doses for five days to 4 weeks, as has 150 mg/kg daily for six weeks.
  • For Orthostatic Hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for six days.
  • For Osteoarthritis, 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for one week, followed by 5 grams daily thereafter for 12 weeks.
  • For Parkinson's Disease, 10 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for 12 months.
  • For Rett Syndrome (neurodevelopmental disorder), 200 milligrams/kilogram of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for six months.
  • For Spinal Cord Injury, 10 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth twice daily for six days, then maintained with 5 grams daily. Additionally, 20 grams of creatine has been taken by mouth daily for seven days, followed by a 21-day washout period, then repeated for another seven days.
  • For Surgical Recovery (soft tissue), 10 grams of creatine has been taken daily by mouth for 10 days before surgery and 5 grams daily by mouth for 30 days after surgery.

  • HEALTH-SPECIFIC DOSING
    Children (younger than 18 years)

  • For AGAT deficiency (lack of enzyme for creatine production), a child received up to 800 mg/kg of creatine by mouth daily and was followed for eight years.
  • For Apnea (cessation of breathing), 200 mg/kg of creatine has been given by mouth daily for two weeks.
  • For GAMT Deficiency (lack of an enzyme that produces creatine), the following doses have been given, 2 grams/kilogram of body weight by mouth, 4 to 8 grams by mouth daily in an infant for 25 months, and 400 to 670 mg/kg of body weight by mouth for up to two years. Dosing in children should be done under medical supervision because of potential adverse effects.
  • For Muscular Dystrophy, 5 grams of Creapure has been given by mouth daily for eight weeks.
  • For Neuromuscular Disorders, a dose of 0.1 g/kg of creatine daily by mouth for one week has been used.
  • For Rett Syndrome (neurodevelopmental disorder), children three years and older received 200 mg/kg of creatine by mouth daily for six months.
  • For Spinal Muscular Atrophy, children aged 2 to 5 years were given 2 grams of creatine daily by mouth, and those aged 5 to 18 years were given 5 grams daily by mouth for six months.
  • For Traumatic Brain Injury, 0.4 g/kg of creatine oral suspension was taken by mouth daily for six months.





  • CREATINE SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    SAFETY CONCERNS

    Current studies indicate that short-term creatine supplementation in healthy individuals is safe, although those with renal disease should avoid it due to possible risks of renal dysfunction, and before using it healthy users should bear these possible risks in mind. Small-scale, longer-term studies have been done and seem to demonstrate its safety.

    There have been reports of muscle cramping with the use of creatine, though a study showed no reports of muscle cramping in subjects taking creatine on a 15-item panel of qualitative urine markers. Creatine did not cause any clinically significant changes in serum metabolic markers, muscle and liver enzyme efflux, serum electrolytes, blood lipid profiles, red and white whole blood cell hematology, or quantitative and qualitative urinary markers of renal function.

    Creatine supplementation may accelerate the growth of cysts in humans with polycystic kidney disease. PKD is prevalent in approximately 1 in 1000 people and may not be detectable until affected individuals reach their thirties.

    In 2004 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a record that stated that oral long-term intake of 3 grams pure creatine per day is "unlikely to pose any risk". The reports of damage to the kidneys or liver by creatine supplementation have been scientifically refuted

    CREATINE SIDE EFFECTS
    • Weight gain due to extra water retention to the muscle.
    • Potential muscle cramps, strains and pulls.
    • Upset stomach.
    • Diarrhea.
    • Dizziness.
    • High blood pressure due to extra water consumption.

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Creatine taken with medications that can harm the kidney can increase the risk of kidney damage. It is advised to speak with your health care provider or pharmacist before taking creatine if you are on these type of medications.
    • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and naproxen (Aleve).
    • Caffeine and creatine taken together can increase risk of dehydration and cause kidney damage.
    • Diuretics (water pills), such as furosemide (Lasix).
    • Cimetidine (Tagamet)
    • Probenicid
    Caffeine may counteract the benefit of creatine on intermittent exercise performance. Furthermore, creatine in combination with caffeine and ephedra may have adverse effects. However, more research is needed in this area to confirm these interactions.





    CREATINE SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

  • Creatine Supplement Products


  • QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS


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    CREATINE SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    LIFE EXTENTION PRODUCTS

    LEF: Creatine Whey Glutamine Powder (Vanilla), Life Extension, 454 grams (1 lb)
    Creapure Creatine monohydrate 2 grams/serving. Creatine Whey Glutamine Powder contains creatine for optimal assimilation. The whey protein isolate has gone through a cross flow microfiltration process, which allows the product to retain its important subfractions in natural proportions. Whey protein can build lean muscle and prevent protein breakdown. Studies suggest whey protein isolate as a useful supplement for muscle recovery and immune regulation for athletes and others. In addition, protein supplementation may help enhance muscle protein anabolism and provide a means of reducing the progressive loss of muscle mass with age. It has also been shown to enhance the production of glutathione, the body's natural antioxidant. Long used by athletes to improve strength and exercise performance, creatine is being recognized as more than a muscle-building supplement. Creatine is present in the body. Skeletal muscles, the heart, brain, and other tissues metabolize creatine and use it as a major energy storage form. Creatine boosts levels of ATP in the mitochondria, the cells’ energy powerhouses. While studies have shown that creatine may indeed help build muscle and strength in explosive short duration activities, other research has demonstrated the supplement’s role in enhancing healthy muscle mass in aging humans. Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid that generates energy and helps increase strength, quicker recovery, and exercise endurance. Blood ammonia concentration increases during endurance exercise and has been proposed as a cause for both peripheral and central fatigue. In trials, glutamine supplementation reduced the accumulation of blood ammonia during prolonged, strenuous exercise in high-level athletes. As an immune booster, glutamine supplementation may prevent the negative effects of strenuous exercise on immune function. Moreover, glutamine supplementation has a protective effect in the DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptosis, and in regulation of the inflammatory process and immune suppression, which are induced by a single session of exercise. Glutamine also plays an important role in maintaining functional integrity of the gut. As a gut-trophic factor, glutamine improves intestinal function, allowing better absorption of nutrients.

    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Creatine Fuel, Twinlab, 60 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: Creatine Fuel, Twinlab, 90 Caps: HF
    Ingredients include Creatine Monohydrate 5,000 mg (6 Caps), L-Glutamine 2,000 mg (6 Caps), Taurine 200 mg (6 Caps). Take 3 capsules with a full glass of water twice daily for a total of 6 capsules per day, preferably 3 capsules before exercise and 3 capsules after exercise. For best results, use as part of a low-fat diet and exercise program.
    Kalyx: Creatine Fuel, Twinlab, 180 Caps: HF
    Ingredients include Creatine Monohydrate 5,000 mg (6 Caps), L-Glutamine 2,000 mg (6 Caps), Taurine 200 mg (6 Caps). Take 3 capsules with a full glass of water twice daily for a total of 6 capsules per day, preferably 3 capsules before exercise and 3 capsules after exercise. For best results, use as part of a low-fat diet and exercise program.
    Kalyx: Creatine Monohydrate, ProLab Nutrition, 1.32 lbs (600 g): HF
    Prolab Creatine Monohydrate is 100% pure, flavorless, micronized creatine monohydrate with no fillers or additives. Creatine is a naturally occurring molecule in the body that plays a key role in explosive energy metabolism. It helps to drive periods of short burst power output; like the first few reps in a set, or the explosive drive from the starting blocks. During exercise, intramuscular stores of creatine reload ATP molecules, the "energy machines of muscle", for fast between-set recovery. Unfortunately, the creatine produced by the body is available only in limited supply. Supplementing with Prolab Creatine Monohydrate helps to supersaturate muscles with rapid-fueling creatine-driving improved muscle power output, explosive strength and rapid intra-workout recovery. This product is to be used in conjunction with a healthy diet and exercise regimen.
    Kalyx: Creatine Monohydrate 99%, 80 Mesh, Kalyx, 25 kg (55 lbs): GF

    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Creatine Supplement Products



  • Nutrition Basics: Creatine Supplement Information






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    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




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