MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Chondroitin Sulfate, Chondroitin Sulphate
For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.
Chondroitin is a substance that occurs naturally in the connective tissues of people and animals. Chondroitin sulfate is a chemical that is normally found in cartilage around joints in the body. It is an important structural component of cartilage providing much of its resistance to compression. Chondroitin sulfate is manufactured from animal sources, such as cow cartilage. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of painful joint disorders caused by the breakdown of cartilage.
Chondroitin sulfate is used as a popular treatment for osteoarthritis and is often taken in higher dosages than found naturally. In osteoarthritis, the cartilage in the joints breaks down. Taking chondroitin sulfate, one of the building blocks of cartilage, might slow this breakdown. It is often used in combination with other products, including manganese ascorbate, glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine. Research from a couple of decades ago showed that chondroitin sulfate helped arthritis pain when taken with conventional medicines, such as aspirin, for pain and swelling. But later research was mixed and not so positive. Now, scientists believe that, overall, chondroitin sulfate may reduce arthritis pain slightly, increase joint mobiity, and decrease the need for painkillers.
Some people use chondroitin sulfate for heart disease, weak bones (osteoporosis), and high cholesterol. Chondroitin sulfate is also used in a complex with iron for treating iron-deficiency anemia. Chondroitin sulfate is available as an eye drop for dry eyes. In addition, it is used during cataract surgery, and as a solution for preserving corneas used for transplants. It is approved by the FDA for these uses. Some people with arthritis use ointments or skin creams for pain that contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor.
Glucosamine is a building block for cartilage that is formed when glucose combines with an amino acid. Glucosamine Sulfate is a form of Glucosamine and is particularly useful in healing connective tissue. It can repair the damage caused by arthritis and aid body builders and athletes with joint pain by lubricating the cartilage around the damaged joints. Glucosamine hydrochloride is beneficial for those with sulfate allergies that still want the benefits of Glucosamine. Glucosamine is often taken in combination with Chondroitin and MSM.
There is great variability among chondroitin and chondroitin plus glucosamine products. Some products contain no chondroitin despite label claims, while others contain more chondroitin than the label shows. Price is not always a guarantee of quality. Low-cost chondroitin products (less than $1 per 1200 mg chondroitin) seem to contain little chondroitin, but some higher-priced products may also contain less chondroitin than claimed. Look out for chondroitin plus glucosamine combination products that also contain manganese (e.g., CosaminDS). Be sure to follow product directions. When taken at doses slightly higher than the recommended dose, these products can sometimes supply more than the safe daily intake of manganese, which is 11 mg per day. Taking more than 11 mg per day of manganese might significantly poison the central nervous system.
CHONDROTIN USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Chondroitin is used in dietary supplements as an alternative medicine to treat osteoarthritis and is also approved and regulated as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for this disease in Europe and some other countries. It is commonly sold together with glucosamine.
Veterinary Care: Chondroitin and glucosamine are also used in veterinary medicine. Formulated with collagen and wound dressing matrix, one product that uses chondroitin sulfate is the veterinary would gel Chondroprotec, which is applied over scrapes, burns, and lesions and serves to keep the wound moist and promote healing.
Osteoarthritis. Chondroitin sulfate is considered a promising treatment for general osteoarthritis. It is most often used to treat osteoarthritis of the finger, knee, hip joints, low back, and facial joints. Research has mostly focused on knee osteoarthritis, with fewer studies conducted on other joints. Clinical trials suggest that chondroitin may have significant effects when compared to placebo. Chondroitin is a slow-acting medication that may lead to reduced doses of other drugs. Clinical research on the effectiveness of chondroitin sulfate taken by mouth for osteoarthritis is inconsistent. The reason for contradictory findings is unclear, but could be due to differences in people studied, different products used, or other differences in study design. Overall, the evidence shows that some people with osteoarthritis of the knee or hand can experience some benefit from taking chondroitin; however, pain relief is likely to be modest or possibly insignificant. Taking chondroitin sulfate might also reduce the progression of osteoarthritis.
Some skin creams containing chondroitin sulfate are promoted for reducing osteoarthritis pain. There is some evidence that a skin cream containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom relief is most likely due to the camphor and not the other ingredients. There is no research showing that chondroitin is absorbed through the skin.
Cataracts. Some early studies suggest that specific eye drops containing chondroitin and hyaluronate (Viscoat, DiCoVisc) can decrease pressure in the eye and improve overall eye health after a cataract is removed. However, the drops do not appear to be better than drops containing hyaluronate alone.
Dry Eyes. Early evidence suggests that using chondroitin sulfate eye drops seems to decrease dry eyes. However, other evidence suggests that eye drops containing chondroitin sulfate are less effective than tear-replacement drops (Gel-Larmes).
Muscle Soreness After Exercise. Chondroitin sulfate may reduce pain and inflammation, and has been studied for sore muscles. However, one study found a lack of effect on soreness before and after exercise. Early evidence suggests that taking chondroitin sulfate daily does not reduce muscle soreness after exercise in men.
Bladder Inflammation (Interstitial Cystitis). Early research suggests that chondroitin may benefit people who have inflammation of the bladder wall. Several studies suggest that administering chondroitin sulfate into the bladder with or without hyaluronic acid can improve symptoms of bladder inflammation. Other early evidence suggests that taking a product containing chondroitin (CystoProtek) by mouth can improve bladder inflammation. However, other research shows that inserting chondroitin sulfate into the bladder does not improve symptoms.
Bone & Joint Disease (Kashin-Beck disease). A study reports that chondroitin sulfate may benefit people who have Kaschin-Beck disease, which affects the bone and causes joint pain or stiffness. Early evidence suggests that chondroitin, with or without glucosamine hydrochloride, can reduce pain in people with Kashin-Beck disease. Also, taking chondroitin with glucosamine can slow joint space narrowing in people with this bone disease. However, it is unclear if taking chondroitin alone slows joint space narrowing.
Heart Attack. There is some early evidence that taking chondroitin sulfate by mouth might lower the risk of having a first or recurrent heart attack. Chondroitin is believed to improve symptoms and mortality of coronary artery disease. Long-term trials involving larger groups of people are needed. However, chondroitin may have benefits when used with conventional therapy.
Iron Absorption. Early evidence suggests that taking chondroitin and iron together may help improve iron absorption in healthy people.
Skin Rredness & Irritation (Psoriasis). Early evidence suggests that taking chondroitin sulfate for 2 to 3 months decreases pain and improves skin conditions in people with psoriasis.
Overactive Bladder. Early research suggests that inserting sodium chondroitin sulfate into the bladder through a urinary catheter improves quality of live in people with overactive bladder. Research suggests that chondroitin may benefit people who have overactive bladder. Sodium chondroitin sulfate may be as effective as overactive bladder drugs.
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs). Early evidence suggests that administering a specific chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid solution (IALURIL) through a catheter weekly for 4 weeks and then monthly for 5 months reduces UTIs in women with a history of recurring UTIs.
GLUCOSAMINE SULFATE MEDICAL USES
Anyone who suffers from arthritis, or joint pain caused by injury or strain can benefit greatly from Glucosamine Sulfate intake. Glucosamine supplementation helps the body manufacture collagen and proteoglycans, which are essential for rebuilding joints.
CHONDROTIN DOSAGE INFORMATION
Chondroitin occurs naturally in animal tissue, especially connective tissues. Gristle on animal bones is high in chondroitin. However, these sources are much lower than the doses provided in chondroitin supplements. Some chondroitin supplements come from animal sources, like shark or beef cartilage.
Chondroitin is used to reduce pain and inflammation, improve joint function and slows progression of osteoarthritis . It is believed to enhance the shock-absorbing properties of collagen and block enzymes that break down cartilage. Helps cartiage retain water and may reverse cartilage loss when used with glucosamine. Since chondroitin is not an established treatment, the ideal dosage is uncertain. For osteoarthritis, some studies have used 1,200 mg to 1,800 mg once a day. Other studies have used smaller doses multiple times a day, 800 mg to 1,200 mg daily in two to four divided doses. Ask your health care provider for advice.
Chondroitin is available in capsule, tablet and powder forms. It is often combined with glucosamine. Allow up to one month to notice effects. The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
ADULT DOSE (18 Years and older) BY MOUTH:
For osteoarthritis: the typical dose of chondroitin sulfate is 200 to 400 mg two to three times daily, or 1000 to 1200 mg as a single daily dose. Higher doses (up to 2,000 mg) may have similar effectiveness. For osteoarthritis, full effects may take several weeks to occur. Treatment durations have ranged from three weeks to three years. A dose of 100 milligrams of Matrix« has been injected into the vein daily. Chondroitin has been injected into the muscle daily for six weeks or two 13-week intervals. Chondroitin has been injected into the muscle twice weekly.
To treat bone disease, 600 mg of chondroitin sulfate have been taken by mouth twice daily for six months.
To treat coronary artery disease, 4.5 grams (4,500 mg) of chondroitin have been taken by mouth for 64 months. A dose of 1.5 to 10 grams (1,500 to 10,000 mg) has been taken by mouth daily for six years. Chondroitin sulfate A has been injected into the vein at a dose of 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. Chondroitin sulfate C has been injected into the vein at doses of 10 to 20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
To treat psoriasis, 400 to 800 mg of chondroitin sulfate has been taken by mouth daily for two months. A dose of 800 mg of CS (Condrosan«) has been taken by mouth daily for three months.
To treat bladder wall inflammation, a single dose of 20 to 40 milliliters of sodium chondroitin sulfate 0.2 percent (Uracyst«) has been inserted into the bladder weekly for up to six weeks and then once monthly for up to one year. A dose of 20 milliliters of sterile 2 percent sodium chondroitin sulfate has been inserted into the bladder for 30 to 60 minutes once weekly for seven weeks (for a total of eight treatments).
To treat frequent urination, sodium chondroitin sulphate (Uropol« S) has been inserted with a catheter at a dose of 2 milligrams once a week for four weeks, then monthly for 11 months.
To treat dry eye, eye drops containing chondroitin sulfate have been applied to the eyes.
Note: Chondroitin sulfate products made for tube feeding are not available in the United States.
Children (under 18 years old): There is no proven safe or effective dose for chondroitin in children.
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
For osteoarthritis: a cream containing 50 mg/g of chondroitin sulfate, 30 mg/g of glucosamine sulfate, 140 mg/g of shark cartilage, and 32 mg/g of camphor has been used as needed for sore joints for up to 8 weeks.
GLUCOSAMINE SULFATE DOSAGE INFORMATION
The recommended supplemental dosage is 500 mg 3 times a day.
DOSAGE FOR GLUCOSAMINE & CHONDROITIN SULFATE DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
The generally accepted daily dosages for the nutritional supplements are the following:
Patients weighing less than 100 lbs
Patients weighing more than 100 lbs
Patients who are obese or who weigh over 200 pounds should discuss proper dosage with their health care provider, as they may need to take higher levels of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Both types of dietary supplements are available in capsule form over-the-counter (without a prescription). Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate dietary supplements are often sold in combination formulas, and some patients find this easier to take.
If you choose to use chondroitin and glucosamine, use it as directed on the package or as directed by your health care provider. Do not use more of this product than is recommended on the label. Do not use different formulations of chondroitin and glucosamine at the same time without medical advice. Using different formulations together increases the risk of an overdose of chondroitin and glucosamine. If you miss a scheduled dose, skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not use extra chondroitin and glucosamine to make up the missed dose.
If you need surgery or dental work, stop taking chondroitin and glucosamine at least 2 weeks ahead of time.
Call your health care provider if the condition you are treating with chondroitin and glucosamine does not improve, or if it gets worse while using this product. If you overdose, have allergic reactions, or serious side effects, seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help Line at `1-800-222-1222.
Store products at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
CHONDROTIN SAFETY & INTERACTION INFORMATIONE
Chondroitin sulfate is likely safe for most people when taken by mouth appropriately. Side effects are rare. It has been used safely in research for up to 6 years. Some chondroitin products contain excess amounts of manganese. Read labels carefully, use reliable quality products and make sure dosage amounts are within safe limits. Chondroitin sulfate is considered relatively safe when injected into the muscle, when applied to the skin in the short-term, and when inserted into the bladder with a catheter by a health care practitioner. Chondroitin is often taken with Glucosamine. There have been no reported cases of toxicity or side effects associated with Glucosamine Sulfate when taken in the recommended doses.
Some people have reported headaches, mood changes, rash, and hives. It can cause some mild stomach pain and nausea. Other side effects that have been reported are diarrhea, constipation, swollen eyelids, leg swelling, hair loss, and irregular heartbeat. If you experience side effects, discontinue use and see your health care provider.
However, there is some concern about the safety of chondroitin sulfate because it comes from animal sources. Some people are worried that unsafe manufacturing practices might lead to contamination of chondroitin products with diseased animal tissues, including those that might transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). So far, there are no reports of chondroitin causing disease in humans, and the risk is thought to be low.
SPECIAL CAUTIONS, RISKS & WARNINGS
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of chondroitin sulfate during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Children: Chondroitin supplements are not recommended for children due to the lack of evidence about safe usage.
Allergies: People who have shellfish allergies should avoid the use of chondroitin supplements without talking to a health care provider first. If you ar allergic to sulfonamides, start with a low dose of Chondroitin Sulfate and watch for any side effects. Side effects include diarrhea, constipation and abdominal pain, If you experience hiveds, difficult breathing, swelling of face, lips, tongue or throat, get emergency medical help.
Asthma: There is some concern that chondroitin sulfate might make asthma worse. If you have asthma, use chondroitin sulfate cautiously.
Blood Clotting Disorders: In theory, administering chondroitin sulfate might increase the risk of bleeding in people with blood clotting disorders. Chondroitin might work as a blood thinner. People taking blood thinning medications, such as Warfarin (Coumadin) used to slow blood clotting, should not take Chondroitin. There are several reports showing that taking chondroitin with glucosamine increases the effect of warfarin (Coumadin) on blood clotting. Chondroitin taken with NSAIDs may increase the risk of bleeding. Do not take chondroitin if you are taking cancer medication (chemotherapy)>
Prostate Cancer: Early research suggests that chondroitin might cause the spread or recurrence of prostate cancer. This effect has not been shown with chondroitin sulfate supplements. However, until more is known, do not take chondroitin sulfate if you have prostate cancer or are at high risk for developing it (you have a brother or father with prostate cancer).
Diabetes: Some initial reports that chondroitin may affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes have not been shown to be true in larger, more recent research studies. Glucosamine sulfate may increase insulin resistance.
Contamination: Because chondroitin is derived from animal sources, there is some concerns about contamination. Make sure that the product being used comes from reputable companies and manufacturers.
For More Information:
Wikipedia: Chondroitin Sulfate
CHONDROITIN & RELATED PRODUCTS
QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS
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CHONDROITIN SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS
HerbsPro: Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM, Liquid Health, 32 fl oz.
Aloe Vera. Chondroitin. Dietary Supplement for Joint Health. Original Formula. Pharmaceutical Grade MSM. Seal of Quality. Superior Absorption. Serving size is 1 ounce (2 tablespoons) for persons under 120 pounds. Ingredients in 1 ounce serving include Pharmaceutical grade Glucosamine Sulfate (1000 mg), Chondroitin Sulfate (800 mg), pharmaceutical grade MSM 1000 mg, in 100% pure aloe vera juice, purified water, natural flavoring, citric acid, stevia, potassium benzoate, and potassium sorbate. Contains shellfish. For persons 120 to 200 lbs, dose is 1.5 ounces (3 tablespoons). For persons over 200 lbs, dosage is 2 ounces (4 tablespoons.
HerbsPro: Chondroitin Sulfate, Source Naturals, 400 mg, 30 Tabs (6237)
HerbsPro: Chondroitin Sulfate, Source Naturals, 400 mg, 60 Tabs (6235)
HerbsPro: Chondroitin Sulfate, Source Naturals, 400 mg, 120 Tabs (6236)
HerbsPro: Chondroitin Sulfate, Source Naturals, 600 mg, 30 Tabs (6240)
HerbsPro: Chondroitin Sulfate, Now Foods, 600 mg, 60 Caps (67949)
HerbsPro: Chondroitin Sulfate, Source Naturals, 600 mg, 60 Tabs (6238)
HerbsPro: Chondroitin Sulfate, Source Naturals, 600 mg, 120 Tabs (6239)
HerbsPro: Chondroitin Sulfate, Now Foods, 600 mg, 120 Caps (67948)
LIFE EXTENSION PRODUCTS
LEF: Glucosamine/Chondroitin Capsules, Life Extension, 100 Caps
Glucosamine and chondroitin have been shown in clinical studies to support healthy cartilage and joint function. As a component of cartilage, glucosamine is key for joint function and repair. Our bodies produce a certain amount, but as we grow older, we lose the capacity to make enough. This leads to drying of the cartilage in areas such as the knees, hips, and hands, which in turn causes the cartilage to harden. With this comes joint discomfort and stiffness. Like glucosamine, chondroitin is another major component of cartilage and attracts fluid and helps stimulate the production of cartilage. Chondroitin acts as a carrier of liquid nutrient to the joints, thus supporting healthy fluid balance and joint movement and mobility. Life Extension's Glucosamine/Chondroitin Caps are the highest quality supplement available on the market today. This combination uses only high-quality sources, yet is priced lower than products of comparable potency sold by commercial companies. Ingredients include Glucosamine sulfate (400 mg), Chondroitin sulfate (450 mg). Contains crusteacean shellfish from shrimp and crab. Take one capsule one to eight times daily with food or as recommended by a health care practitioner.
Kalyx: Chondroitin Powder, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
Kalyx: Glucosamine with Chondroitin and MSM, Liquid Health, 32 fl oz: HF
Pharmaceutical Grade Glucosamine with Chondroitin and MSM Superior Absorption Pharmaceutical Grade MSM with anti-Inflammatory Aloe Vera. Glucosamine / Chondroitin / MSM: Three supplements you have probably heard a lot about in the past couple of years. Used by millions of arthritis sufferers worldwide, Glucosamine combinations provide safe, effective relief with results supported in scientific studies. There seems to be little, if any, side effects associated with glucosamine, chondroitin, or MSM. Plus, they are relatively inexpensive, especially for the freedom and range of motion restored to so many users. For all these reasons, our Glucosamine is receiving a lot of attention in the industry. Taking the full suggested dosage is recommended, broken up into 2 to 3 smaller doses throughout the day. After several months of relief, many people can cut back a maintenance dose, which may be as little as half of the original dose. Typically one will need to take the maintenance dose for a number of months, perhaps a year. If you cut back too soon, do not despair; simply raise the dosage to an acceptable level.
Amazon: Chondroitin Supplement Products
Amazon: Chondroitin & Glucosamine Supplement Products
Amazon: Chondroitin, Glucosamine & MSM Supplement Products
Nutrition Basics: Chondroitin Supplement Information
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