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BORIC ACID

(Hydrogen Borate)


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Boric Acid Description
  • Boric Acid Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Boric Acid Dosage Information
  • Boric Acid Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Boric Acid Products




  • Boric Acid Powder


    BORIC ACID DESCRIPTION

    Boric Acid is also known as Hydrogen Borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid, and acidum boricum.

    Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds. It has the chemical formula H3BO3 (sometimes written B(OH)3), and exists in the form of colorless crystals or a white powder that dissolves in water. When occurring as a mineral, it is called sassolite.

    Boric Acid may be prepared by reacting Borax (Sodium Tetraborate Decahydrate) with a mineral acid, such as hydrochloric acid. Borax is an important Boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of Boric Acid. Powdered Borax is white, consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water. Boric Acid is also formed as a by product of hydrolysis of Boron Trihalides and Diborane.

    Boric Acid, or sassolite, is found natively in its free state in some volcanic districts, for example, in the Italian region of Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and the US state of Nevada. In these volcanic settings it issues, mixed with steam, from fissures in the ground. It is also found as a constituent of many naturally occurring minerals, such as borax, boracite, boronatrocaicite and colemanite. Boric Acid and its salts are found in seawater. It is also found in plants, including almost all fruits.

    Boric Acid was first prepared by Wilhelm Homberg (1652 to 1715) from Borax, by the action of mineral acids, and was given the name sal sedativum Hombergi ("sedative salt of Homberg"). However borates, including boric acid, have been used since the time of the Greeks for cleaning, preserving food, and other activities.

    Boric Acid Molecule


    BORIC ACID PROPERTIES

    Boric Acid is soluble in boiling water. When heated above 170°C, it dehydrates, forming Metaboric Acid (HBO2. Metaboric Acid is a white, cubic crystalline solid and is only slightly soluble in water. Metaboric Acid melts at about 236°C, and when heated above about 300°C further dehydrates, forming Tetraboric Acid or Pyroboric Acid (H2B4O7). The term Boric Acid may sometimes refer to any of these compounds. Further heating leads to Boron Trioxide.

    There are conflicting interpretations for the origin of the acidity of aqueous Boric Acid solutions. Raman spectoscopy of strongly alkaline solutions has shown the presence of B(OH)4- ion, leading some to conclude that the acidity is exclusively due to the abstraction of OH- from water or more properly expressed in the aqueous solution. This may be characterized as Lewis acidity of Boron toward OH-, rather than as Brønsted acidity. However, other sources say that Boric Acid is also a tribasic Brønsted acid, with successive ionizaton steps. Polyborate anions are formed at pH 7 to 10 if the Boron concentration is higher than about 0.025 mol/L. The best known of these is the tetraborate ion, found in the mineral Borax. Boric Acid makes an important contribution to the absorption of low frequency sound in seawater.

    With polydyric alcohols such as glycerol and mannitol the acidity is increased. With mannitol for example the pK decreases to 5.15. This is due to the formation of a chelate and this feature is used in analytical chemistry. Boric Acid dissolves in anhydrous sulfuric acid and acts a strong acid. Boric acid reacts with alcohols to form borate esters, B(OR)3 where R is alkyl or aryl. A dehyrating agent, such as concentrated sulfuric acid is typically added.

    Crystalline Boric Acid consists of layers of B(OH)3 molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. The B-O bond length is 136 pm and the )-H is 97 pm with a hydrogen bond of 272 pm. The distnce between two adjacent layers is 318 pm.





    BORIC ACID USES, HEALTH BENEFITS, & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    MEDICAL USES

  • Boric Acid can be used as an antiseptic for minor burns or cuts and is sometimes used in dressings or salves.
  • Boric Acid is applied in a very dilute solution as an eye wash.
  • Dilute Boric Acid can be used as a vaginal douche to treat bacterial vaginosis due to excessive alkalinity, as well as candidiasis due to non-albicans candida.
  • As an antibacterial compound, Boric Acid can also be used as an acne treatment.
  • It is also used as prevention of athlete's foot, by inserting powder in the socks or stockings.
  • In alcohol solution can be used to treat some kinds of otitis externa (ear infection) in both humans and animals.
  • The preservative in urine sample bottles in the UK is Boric Acid.


  • Boric Acid solutions used as an eye wash or on abraded skin are known to be toxic, particularly to infants, especially after repeated use; this is because of its slow elimination rate.

    INSECTICIDAL USES

    Boric Acid was first registered in the US as an insecticide in 1948 for control of cockroaches, termites, fire ants, fleas, silverfish, and many other insects.

    The product is generally considered to be safe to use in household kitchens to control cockroaches and ants. It acts as a stomach poison affecting the insects' metabolism, and the dry powder is abrasive to the insects' exoskeletons.

    PRESERVATION USES

    In combination with its use as an insecticide, Boric Acid also prevents and destroys existing wet and dry rot in timbers. It can be used in combination with an ethylene glycol carrier to treat external wood against fungal and insect attack. It is possible to buy borate-impregnated rods for insertion into wood via drill holes where dampness and moisture is known to collect and sit. It is available in a gel form and injectable paste form for treating rot affected wood without the need to replace the timber. Concentrates of borate-based treatments can be used to prevent slime, mycelium, and algae growth, even in marine environments.

    Boric Acid is added to salt in the curing of cattle hides, calfskins, and sheepskins. This helps to control bacteria development, and helps to control insects.

    PH BUFFER USES

    Boric acid in equilibrium with its conjugate base the borate ion is widely used (in the concentration range 50 to 100 ppm boron equivalents) as a primary or adjunct pH buffer system in swimming pools. Boric acid is a weak acid, with pKa (the pH at which buffering is strongest because the free acid and borate ion are in equal concentrations) of 9.24 in pure water at 25°C. But apparent pKa is substantially lower in swimming pool or ocean waters because of interactions with various other molecules in solution. It will be around 9.0 in a salt-water pool. No matter which form of soluble boron is added, within the acceptable range of pH and boron concentration for swimming pools, Boric Acid is the predominant form in aqueous solution, as shown in the accompanying figure. The Boric Acid - Borate system can be useful as a primary buffer system (substituting for the bicarbonate system with pKa1 = 6.0 and pKa2 = 9.4 under typical salt-water pool conditions) in pools with salt-water chlorine generators that tend to show upward drift in pH from a working range of pH 7.5 to 8.2. Buffer capacity is greater against rising pH (towards the pKa around 9.0), as illustrated in the accompanying graph. The use of boric acid in this concentration range does not allow any reduction in free HOCl concentration needed for pool sanitation, but it may add marginally to the photo-protective effects of cyanuric acid and confer other benefits through anti-corrosive activity or perceived water softness, depending on overall pool solute composition.

    LUBRICATING USES

    Colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles of boric acid dissolved in petroleum or vegetable oil can form a remarkable lubricant on ceramic or metal surfaces with a coefficient of sliding friction that decreases with increasing pressure to a value ranging from 0.10 to 0.02. Self-lubricating H3BO3 films result from a spontaneous chemical reaction between water molecules and B2O3 coatings in a humid environment. In bulk-scale, an inverse relationship exists between friction coefficient and Hertzian contact pressure induced by applied load.

    Boric Acid is used to lubricate carrom and novuss boards, allowing for faster play.

    NUCLEAR POWER USES

    Boric Acid is used in some nuclear power plants as a neutron poison. The Boron in Boric Acid reduces the probability of thermal fission by absorbing some thermal neutrons. Fission chain reactions are generally driven by the probability that free neutrons will result in fission and is determined by the material and geometric properties of the reactor. Natural boron consists of approximately 20-percent Boron-10 and 80-percent Boron-11 isotopes. Boron-10 has a high cross-section for absorption of low energy (thermal) neutrons. By increasing Boric Acid concentration in the reactor coolant, the probability that a neutron will cause fission is reduced. Changes in Boric Acid concentration can effectively regulate the rate of fission taking place in the reactor. Boric Acid is used only in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (boiling water reactors (BWRs) use Sodium Pentaborate for the same purpose). Boric Acid may be dissolved in spent fuel pools used to store spent fuel elements. The concentration is high enough to keep neutron multiplication at a minimum. Boric Acid was dumped over Reactor 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant after its meltdown to prevent another reaction from occurring.

    INDUSTRIAL USES

  • The primary industrial use of Boric Acid is in the manufacture of monofilament fiberglass usually referred to as textile fiberglass. Textile fiberglass is used to reinforce plastics in applications that range from boats, to industrial piping to computer circuit boards.
  • In the jewelry industry, Boric Acid is often used in combination with denatured alcohol to reduce surface oxidation and firescale from forming on metals during annealing and soldering operations.
  • Boric Acid is used in the production of the glass in LCD flat panel displays.
  • In electroplating, Boric Acid is used as part of some proprietary formulas. One such known formula calls for about a 1 to 10 ratio of H3BO3 to NiSO4, a very small portion of sodium lauryl sulfate and a small portion of H2SO4.
  • Boric Acid, mixed with Borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) at the weight ratio of 4:5, is highly soluble in water, though they are not so soluble separately. The solution is used for fire retarding agent of wood by impregnation.
  • It is also used in the manufacturing of ramming mass, a fine silica-containing powder used for producing induction furnace linings and ceramics.
  • Boric Acid is one of the most commonly used substances that can neutralize active hydrofluoric acid (HF). It works by forcing the free F- anions into complex salts. This process defeats the extreme toxicity of hydrofluoric acid, particularly its ability to sequester ionic calcium from blood serum which can lead to cardiac arrest and bone decomposition; such an event can occur from just minor skin contact with HF.
  • Boric Acid is added to borax for use as welding flux by blacksmiths.
  • Boric Acid, in combination with silicone oil, is used to manufacture Silly Putty.
  • Boric acid, in combination with eighty other chemicals, is used in Marcellus Shale hydraulic fracturing.


  • PYROTECHNIC USES

    Boron is used in pyrotechnics to prevent the amide-forming reaction between aluminum and nitrates. A small amount of boric acid is added to the composition to neutralize alkaline amides that can react with the aluminum. Boric Acid can be used as a colorant to make fire green. For example, when dissolved in methanol it is popularly used by fire jugglers and fire spinners to create a deep green flame.





    BORIC ACID DOSAGE INFORMATION

    SUPPLEMENT FORMS

    Boric Acid is available in the following forms:
      Ophthalmic Solution
      Oral Solution
      Otic Solution
      Topical Ointment
      Topical Solution

    Boric Acid is a topical astringent, mild disinfectant and eye wash. Sprinkled in crevices and corners, boric acid powder controls rodents and insects. Sodium borate is used in cold creams, eye washes and mouth rinses. Boron compounds are used to enhance the cell selectivity of radiation therapy.

    BORON DOSING

    Boric Acid is available in the following doses:
      Boric Acid Ophthalmic 0.05% Ophthalmic Solution
      Boric Acid Otic 2.75% Otic Solution
      Boric Acid Topical 10% Topical Ointment
      Boric Acid Topical 5% Topical Ointment
      Boric Acid Topical 5% Topical Solution
      Boric Acid Topical Compounding Powder

    Boron has been studied in several clinical studies at a wide range of doses. Daily dosage of 2.5 to 6 mg as Boron has been administered for osteoarthritis and strength conditioning. Intravaginal Boric Acid (600 mg daily) was administered for vulvovaginal candidiasis. A single dose of 102.6 mg sodium tetraborate was studied for its effects on factor VIIa.

    EYEWASH & DISINFECTANT

    Boric Acid has mild antibioitic properties against fungal or bacterial infection. Boric Acid ophthalmic is used as an eyewash to cleanse or irrigate the eyes. Boric Acid provides soothing relief from eye irritation, and helps remove pollutants from the eye such as smog, chlorine, or other chemicals. Boric Acid solutions for topical use are generally used in diluted concentrations. A 2.2% solution of Boric Acid is isotonic with lacrimal fluid. Because Boric Acid has weak antifungal and antibacterial activity, it is employed as a mild disinfectant in concentrations ranging from 2% to 10%

    Use this medication as directed on the label, or as your health care provider has prescribed. Do not use the medication in larger amounts or for longer than recommended. Boric acid is usually given using an eye cup. Use only a clean or sterile eye cup. Avoid touching the rim of the eye cup with your fingers while you are using it. It may be best to use this medicine while standing over a sink or eye wash fountain. Fill the eye cup about half way with boric acid ophthalmic solution. Bend your head forward and bring the cup to your eye. Press it tightly to your face around the eye. Then tilt your head back and open your eye wide. Move the eye around in all directions to allow the boric acid to cleanse the eyeball thoroughly. While still pressing the cup to your eye, bend forward over a sink. Remove the eye cup from your face and empty it into the sink. Allow any remaining boric acid solution to drain from your eye into the sink. Repeat this procedure with your other eye if needed. After using this medication, pat the skin dry around your eye using a clean tissue or towel. Do not rub your eyelids with the tissue or towel, or apply it directly to your eye. Store boric acid ophthalmic at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

    VAGINAL YEAST INFECTION

    The first treatment for a vaginal yeast infection often is a drug from the class of compounds called imidazoles. Many of these drugs are available over the counter as vaginal creams with names that end in "azole." A prescription medication that is taken orally, fluconazole (Diflucan) may be taken as a single pill or as two pills taken three days apart. These are effective therapies for the most common type of vaginal yeast infection caused by Candida albicans.

    When a vaginal yeast infection is not treated by an imidazole, it is possible that the yeast is an atypical variety, such as C. glabrata or C. tropicalis. In this case, imidazole drugs are not generally effective. Other therapies include vaginal capsules of Boric Acid or Gentian Violet. Boric Acid is inexpensive, well tolerated and allows a woman to be in control of the therapy. Capsules of Boric Acid should be inserted vaginally and can be made by the patient or by a compounding pharmacy. Not all pharmacies are willing to make the Boric Acid capsules, so calling in advance can avoid an unnecessary trip.

    To make Boric Acid capsules, use Boric Acid Powder, NOT crystals. Use a size 0 gelatin capsule. Fill the capsule with as much powder as it will hold.

    To treat a current yeast infection with Boric Acid, place one Boric Acid capsule in your vagina each night before going to bed, for a two-week span or as recommended by your care provider. Do not take the capsule orally (by mouth)! Boric acid is very toxic when consumed this way. Boric acid is not toxic to your vagina. Keep this and all other medications away from children.

    To prevent recurrent yeast infections with Boric Acid after completing treatment for a current infection, continue to place the Boric Acid capsules in the vagina two nights in one week (e.g., Monday and Thursday) for six to 12 months or as recommended by your provider.

    Some women find that eating yogurt or douching with yogurt is helpful, because it may help return the "healthy" lactobacillus bacteria to the vagina and prevent yeast overgrowth. Unfortunately, only a minority (25 percent, in one study) of yogurt products contains the appropriate type of lactobacillus, so be sure to obtain a yogurt with the proper active cultures or make your own.

    RODENT & INSECT REPELLENT

    Boric acid powder has been used as an insect and rodent repellent, being sprinkled in corners and along floor boards. This use, however, should be avoided because of the serious toxicity that can occur if ingested orally by small children or pets.





    BORIC ACID SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    SAFETY CONCERNS

    EYEWASH

  • You should not use this medication if you are allergic to boric acid
  • Avoid using this medication if you have any open wound or other skin injury around your eyes.
  • Boric acid ophthalmic is for use only in the eyes. Do not allow the medicine to get in your mouth, nose, or ears. Avoid getting this medication on any skin wound or abrasion. Do not use boric acid ophthalmic while you are wearing contact lenses. This medication may contain a preservative that can be absorbed by soft contact lenses and cause discoloration. Wait at least 15 minutes after using boric acid ophthalmic before putting your contact lenses in. Call your health care provider at once if you have a serious side effect such as severe burning or stinging of your eyes, severe eye pain, vision changes that last for several hours after use, or if your eye condition does not improve or if it gets worse after using boric acid. Boric acid is a weak antibiotic and should not be used to treat any type of infection without the advice of a doctor. There are many other, more effective antibiotics available.

    INGESTION HAZARDS

    Boric acid and borates are toxic when ingested or absorbed through broken skin. An oral dose of 0.3 grams/kilogram (2.2 lbs) body weight can be fatal, and serious toxicity can occur following the ingestion of as little as 5 grams in infants and 15 to 20 grams in adults. Boric acid solutions should be labeled not to be used on broken skin or on severely irritated or inflamed mucous membranes in order to prevent toxicity as a result of its topical absorption.

    Fatalities have been reported because of confusion between boric acid and similar-looking powders (ie, baking soda, dextrose). Stringent controls should be maintained in hospitals, nursing homes and other public facilities to prevent possible intoxications due to boron-containing products.

    There is no effective antidote to boron poisoning, and treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Symptoms of toxicity include irritation and sloughing of skin, gastrointestinal irritation, restlessness, weakness, kidney and liver damage, convulsions, coma or death.

    TOXICITY CONCERNS

    Based on mammalian median lethal dose (LD50) rating of 2,660 mg/kg body mass, Boric Acid is poisonous if taken internally or inhaled in large quantities. The minimal lethal dose of ingested Boron (as Boric Acid) was reported to be 2 to 3 grams in infants, 5 to 6 grams in children, and 15 to 20 grams in adults, according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

    Long term exposure to Boric Acid may be of more concern, causing kidney damage and eventually kidney failure. Although it does not appear to be carcinogenic, studies in dogs have reported testicular atrophy after exposure to 32 mg/kg bw/day for 90 days. This level is far lower than the LD50.

    According to Boric Acid IUDCLID Dataset published by the European Commission, Boric Acid in high doses shows significant developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in rabbit, rat, and mouse fetuses as well as cardiovascular defects, skeletal variations, and mild kidney lesions. As a consequence, its classification has been amended as reprotoxic category 2 and to apply the risk phrases R60 (may impair fertility) and R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child).





    BORIC ACID & RELATED PRODUCTS

  • Ammonium Carbonate Products
  • Borax Products

  • Boric Acid Products



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    FIRST AID INSTRUCTIONS FOR ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE: If on skin: Immediately flush with water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse. If in eyes: Flush with large amounts of water, lifting upper and lower lids occasionally. Get medical attention. If swallowed: Immediately drink two glasses of water and induce vomiting by either giving Ipecac Syrup or by placing finger at back of throat. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention. If inhaled: Remove to fresh air. Consult physician if irritation occurs. DANGER POISON. Do not use in the eyes or as a dusting powder on the skin. Avoid breathing dust. May cause irritation to eyes, skin and mucous membranes. KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. In case of accidental ingestion, seek professional assistance or contact a Poison Control Center immediately. If emergency assistance is not available, see first aid instructions.

  • Nutrition Basics: Boric Acid Supplement Information



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  • Nutrition Basics: Ammonium Carbonate Information



  • BORAX PRODUCTS

    MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS

    A natural source cosmetic grade Sodium Borate that does not contain surfactants and detergents which are commonly found in commercial Borax products. Borax acts as an emulsifier, natural preservative and buffering agent for moisturizers, scrubs and bath salts. Choose from three different sizes.

    Mountain Rose Herbs: Borax Powder, Cosmetic Grade, Miscellaneous Bulk Ingredients


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Borax (Sodium Borate Mineral; Peng Sha), Whole, Plum Flower Brand, 500 grams (1.17 lb.): V (Special Order)


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Borax (Sodium Borate), Lab Grade, PAS-Science Shop USA, 500 grams
    Amazon: Griffith Borax Powder, 7 oz.
    Amazon: Griffith Borax Powder, 16 oz.




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    TakeHerb.com


    Wild Divine - Stress relief training software and meditation.


    Aleva Health - Hosiery, Orthopedics, Wound Care, Support, Diabetic Socks


    ShareASale Merchant-Affiliate Program








    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




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