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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Deer Antler Velvet

(Cervus Nippon, Cervus Elaphus (Wapati), Cervi Parvum)

For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.

  • Antler Velvet Description
  • Antler Velvet Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Antler Dosage Information
  • Antler Safety & Interaction Information
  • Antler Velvet Supplement Products

  • deer with velvet antlers



    Antler velvet is obtained from Cervus nippon T., Cervus elaphus L. (Wapiti), Cervi parvum deer species. Common names are Deer Velvet, Velvet Antler, Cornu Cervi Parvum, Lu Rong (Hairy Young Horn). The antlers of male deer are not formed in the epidermis and do not consist of keratin but are entirely of bone. They are shed each year and are often branched, especially in older animals. When growing they are covered in skin called velvet that forms the bone. Later the velvet is shed to leave the bony antler. The velvet is often removed artificially to be sold in Asia as a traditional medicine. Deer antler velvet is a common ingredient used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It supposedly belongs to the broad category of substances known as adaptogens. These substances help to restore balance to numerous body processes, especially the endocrine and hormonal processes. Under physical or mental stress, that is either chronic (e.g. because of lifestyle) or short term (e.g. workout or injury) the body processes can be out of balance, thereby causing several minor or serious consequences for a person.

    Anatomy: Deer antler with velvet and without, bone only


    Deer antlers are the only mammalian bone structures to regenerate completely every year. Deer antler velvet is the epidermis covering the inner structure of the growing bone and cartilage, which develops into antlers. This tissue grows each spring on male Cervus sp . (North American elk and red deer) and should be removed by a veterinarian or certified farmer. The ethics, including use of local anesthetics, and procedures of harvesting antler velvet have been reported. Velvet yield depends on several factors, including season, parasites, or injury. After removal of the deer velvet, it is collected and then frozen or dried prior to its manufacture into various medicinal forms including powders, extracts, teas, capsules, and tablets. Each part of elk velvet contains varying compounds, but the deer antler velvet contains the largest concentrations of those found to be beneficial. (Antler also has been sold by the slice). Heating during processing may reduce or destroy the purported beneficial effects of velvet antler. Various preparation methods, including freeze-drying and non-heat-producing methods have been reported.


    The word antler is derived from the Latin Anteoculae, meaning "in front of the eyes." Antlers are present in almost all members of the deer family Cervidae. The first documented evidence of deer velvet as a medicinal was found on a scroll recovered from a tomb in Hunan China dating back 2000 years. The use of antler dates back to the Han Dynasty 206 BC to 220 AD. A 16th century medical text, Pen Ts'ao Kang Mu , lists several antler preparations including pills, tinctures, and ointments. In traditional Chinese medicine, velvet antler has been used for over 2000 years as a tonic, to improve bone health, to nourish the blood, reduce swelling, and to treat impotence. Later research on deer antler dates back to the 1980s in Russia. Hundreds of articles have since been published including those documented by Chinese, Korean, and Japanese scientists. In 1999, the use of velvet antler was scientifically supported by clinical research in compliance with FDA regulations for its beneficial effects in treating arthritis. However, empirical evidence suggests several other therapeutically valuable actions including immune stimulation, antiaging, protective and rejuvenating effects, and beneficial effects in blood and circulation. Further study into future directions in antler research has been addressed, mentioning unsolved problems of antler evolution, development, and other areas of investigation.


    Chemical comparison of various sections of growing antler (e.g., tip, upper, middle, base) finds different concentrations of collagen, ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein, lipids, amino and fatty acids, uronic acid, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and others. Collagen and minerals had higher concentrations at the base, where as the antler tip was found to be rich in chondroitin, containing 6-fold greater amounts than in the middle and base sections. Chondroitin structures and other anti-inflammatory substances have been reported from deer velvet as well. Fat-soluble constituents from antler velvet and certain lipids from both antler velvet and antler have been reported. Hairy young horn of C. nippon also contains amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, vitamin A, sex hormones, estrone and estradiol, sphingomyelin, ganglioside, and prostaglandins. Prostaglandins A, E, and F (primarily PGF1 alpha and PGF2 alpha) have all been reported from velvet antler. In vivo and in vitro production of 1,25-dihydroxy–vitamin D precursors, and calcium from deer antler cells has been also investigated. Gelatin components of antler velvet vs antler were compared. They were found to contain similar amino acids (glycine, proline, glutamic acid) trace elements, and polysaccharides. Cervi parvum horn contains lecithin, choline, and uracil. Epidermal growth factor has been isolated from C. nippon velvet antler. Habitat has marked influence on quality of velvet antler.



    The use of velvet antler was scientifically supported in compliance with FDA regulations for its beneficial effects in treating arthritis. Other therapeutically valuable actions include immune stimulation, antiaging, protective and rejuvenating effects, and beneficial effects in blood and circulation.

    Many of the components in deer antler velvet are used by the body to maintain health and proper function, for example IGF-1 that plays a huge role in enhancing human growth hormone levels and hormonal restoration. Deer antler velvet supplements have no synthetic substances and the velvet are themselves entirely natural and unique blend of several amino acids, peptides, minerals, vitamins and more. Overall, deer antler has several health benefits.

    Both in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies have demonstrated that deer antler base possess immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-fatigue, anti-osteoporosis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-stress, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hematopoietic modulatory activities and the therapeutic effect on mammary hyperplasia. Although the mechanism of actions is still not clear, the pharmacological activities could be mainly attributed to the major bioactive compounds amino acids, polypeptides and proteins. Based on animal studies and clinical trials, deer antler base causes no severe side effects.

    PHARMACOLOGY & USE: In Chinese medicine, deer velvet has been used to treat impotence, female disorders, urinary problems, skin ailments, and knee weakness. It is also employed as a tonic in children with learning disabilities or insufficient growth. koreans use antler velvet to treat anemia and impotence and to stimulate the immune system, treat impotence, improve heart function, muscle tone, lung efficiency, and nerve function.

    CELL GROWTH & REPAIR: Velvet antler's effects on cell growth and repair have been investigated in several areas. Antler regeneration not only involves bone, but nerves as well, which can grow up to 1 cm/day, an exceptional rate of growth.
      Animal Data: In velvet antler, expression of neurotropin-3 mRNA in the growing process has been studied. Pantocrin, a preparation of deer velvet, Improved induced, whiplash-type injury in rats and rabbits by enhancing glycolysis in nervous tissue. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2) are important mediators for antler growth as well. Insulin-like growth factors and their receptors have been isolated from deer blood during periods of antler growth. These growth factors augment cell division, suggesting a possible role in cell regeneration and repair processes in humans. In chickens administered velvet antler, growth rate and testes weight were both increased.

      Clinical Data: Factors contributing to deer antler's effects in growth, include the fact that the tissue contains many cell types besides nutrients such as fibroblasts, chrondroblast, and chondrocytes. Deer velvet has been shown to improve wound healing in a like manner. Stimulation of body tissue/cell growth, such as reticuloendothelial cells and leukocytes improve metabolism and overall health. It comes as no surprise then, that velvet antler has been promoted for performance-enhancing effect on the human body. Russian bodybuilders have claimed to benefit from velvet antler by increasing muscle and nerve strength. Earlier studies found similar results in laboratory animals and athletes given pantocrin. Later reports in this area were not reliable with regard to scientific methods (eg, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, mainstream medical literature searches). Instead, certain commercially-oriented Web sites (e.g, ) contained incomplete information related to performance enhancement. Some of these include positive outcomes in police recruits, male university athletes, and New Zealand rugby players and rowers given deer velvet. In addition, sexual enhancement and antiaging effects of deer velvet were claimed.

      Animal Data: Deer velvet is reported to have accelerated the body's natural restorative processes, reduced liver damage in mice, and through its active compounds, promoted synthesis of proteins and RNA. Another report confirms these effects in induced liver injury in rats. Velvet antler products also are claimed to demonstrate the ability to prevent/reduce shock and stress responses. Pretreatment in rats reduced cell degradation and improved recovery times from extreme temperature and electric shock exposure. Velvet antler has shown marked effects on biochemical parameters related to aging in "senescence-accelerated" mice, a model for senility. Deer velvet's protective effects are also apparent in the area of cancer research. Pantocrine (deer velvet preparation) increased the survival rate of mice exposed to radiation. Extracts of deer antler have reduced tumor cell growth. Reports of enhancement of immune function from velvet antler demonstrate significant immune stimulatory activity from several preparations, as well as enhancement of phagocytes and immunoglobulin levels in mice. An increase in monocytes in rats, cells necessary to the immune function of lymph, spleen, bone marrow, and loose connective tissue also has been reported.

      Clinical Data:Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of deer velvet for acceleration of the body's natural restorative processes.

      Animal Data: Beneficial effects of deer velvet in the area of blood/circulation are also apparent. Preparations have been shown to stimulate red blood cell synthesis in induced anemia in laboratory animals. Antler extract also has increased neutrophil levels in mice, improving their ability to resist injury and disease. 10 Growth of fibroblasts from antler also has been reported.

      Clinical Data: Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of deer velvet for blood/circulation effects.


    Glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate, and glucosamine sulfate are supplements used in arthritis treatment. As a source for the agents, velvet antler has been considered to help treat rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. (GAGRA, a glycosaminoglycan-containing product from antlers, is commercially available). The main glycosaminoglycan in velvet antler, chondroitin sulfate, binds to certain proteins to form proteoglycans (as do other lesser glycosaminoglycans [eg, decorin, keratin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and dermatan sulfate]). These molecules regulate water retention and are important to proliferate and differentiate chondrocytes. Chondrocytes are cells that synthesize collagen and, eventually, cartilage. Type 2 collagen is necessary in the formation of elastic cartilage and is abundant in cartilaginous antler. Degenerative conditions caused by alterations in collagen synthesis include rheumatoid and osteoarthristis. Other research suggests that supplementation with type 2 collagen, like that found in antler, may help treat these conditions as well.

    Prostaglandins, also present in velvet antler, are known for their anti-inflammatory effects, reducing swelling in injury, infection, pain, and arthritis. Research reveals no animal or clinical data regarding the use of deer velvet for arthritis.


    The polysaccharides in velvet antler seem to be responsible for its antiulcer effects. Treatment with rantarin (a deer velvet preparation), prior to GI tumor surgery, reduced stress responses in patients. Other positive cardiovascular effects from velvet antler include hypotensive cholesterol reduction, circulation improvement, and reduction of blood clotting.


    Many scientific studies have been conducted to identify the health implications of deer antler velvet supplements and sprays on human beings. Deer antler velvet has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years and it has also been featured in Asian, European, and American remedies for various ailments. Research suggests that deer antler velvet is beneficial to numerous body functions. Almost 250 papers have been published about deer antler velvet since 1930. Below are some of the research findings on benefits of deer antler velvet in the fields of athletics, bodybuilding and anti aging.


    Effect of deer antler velvet on athletic performance, muscle strength, endurance, and recovery - Athletes have been using deer antler velvet to enhance performance for a long time in Russia, Korea, and China. The reported effect of deer antler velvet on athletic performance has caused a rapid increase in the number of American athletes using the supplement to make training more productive, improve physical recovery after workouts, and possibly to prevent injuries. But this popularity has resulted in lots of shady companies promoting their low quality deer antler products.

    There are several ways in which deer antler velvet could work to enhance performance. In 1960, Russian bodybuilders claimed that deer antler velvet improved muscle strength and nerve function. Several studies conducted on lab animals had earlier shown similar results. Other studies show that long-term, consistent use of deer antler velvet improves cardiovascular health. In 1969, Tanejeva conducted a study in which the performance of participants on a stationary bike was tested. Some of the participants were given pantocrin, a chemical substance extracted from deer antler velvet. The other group were given a placebo. The study concluded that the people given deer antler velvet had done more work than those who were given the placebo. Tanjeva later confirmed these results in another study in which athletes who were given pantocrin completed a 3 kilometer race in a higher average time than those who were given a placebo.

    Fitness expert John Abdo sought to determine why Russian athletes showed a sudden improvement in their weightlifting performance in 1989. He found out that the reason for the sudden improvement in weightlifting performance was as a result of deer antler velvet. This was confirmed by Dr. Arkady Koltun, an expert in anabolic agents. According to Dr. Koltun, deer antler velvet improves muscular strength and reduces the time it takes for an athlete to recover after exercise.

    In other studies, deer antler velvet was shown to increase heart strength and blood pumped while keeping mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, pulse pressure, and central venous pressure largely unchanged. Deer antler velvet has the potential to increase growth hormone and testosterone. It supposedly increases HGH via the HGH-igf-1 mechanism.

    Several people have attempted to show the correlation between deer antler velvet and growth and repair of body tissues. It is believed that it has the potential to provide hormones and other substances that help muscle development. The natural substances identified in deer antler velvet that have been proven to promote growth of muscle and various other tissues. These substances include insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-2, and epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). In addition to these growth factors, deer antler velvet has amino acids that increase the amount of human growth hormone.
    • In a 2000 study, animals fed with active deer antler velvet were observed to grow significantly faster than others that were not fed the supplement. In the study, the animals that were fed active deer antler velvet were also confirmed to have larger livers and denser bones.
    • The University of Alberta, Canada conducted a study in 2004 that proved that deer antler velvet dramatically increases the amount of testosterone in blood plasma in a group of players from the University of Alberta Football team.
    • In a New Zealand study, deer antler velvet was proven to promote new blood vessel growth. This is a process that could help accelerate recovery from major surgery. Research into deer antler velvet and wound healing was also conducted in Russia in 1969.
    • In the study, a number of people who had undergone major surgery were given pantocrin whereas another group was not. Scientists observed normalization of arterial pressure, fewer surgical complications, and quicker return to active lives for people who were given deer antler velvet.
    Reason why Deer antler velvet's IGF-1 cannot be fully effective without natural stimulation of hGH - The effectiveness of deer antler velvet in improving muscle growth, strength, and regeneration is as a result of the insulin-like growth hormone present in it. Insulin-like growth hormone as the name suggests is a hormone that is quite similar to insulin. It is produced in the liver and later sent to the muscles where it is needed. The production of IGF-1 is dependent on the availability of human Growth Hormone (hGH). The human Growth hormone therefore is a precursor to IGF-1. One mechanism by which HGH causes the muscles to grow is signaling the liver to produce IGF-1 which is responsible for muscle growth.

    So, why must IGF-1 and hGH work so closely together to promote muscle growth and tissue repair among other things? HGH supplements are frequently used by bodybuilders for its many benefits when it comes to muscle production, ability to strengthen joints, and tissue repair. Bodybuilders use HGH together with anabolic steroids or other natural supplements to hasten muscle growth and boost energy. One of the best supplements to use in conjunction with HGH is IGF-1. And the best hGH supplements would be those that work on all seven mechanisms to increase HGH naturally including the igf-1 mechanism and the insulin mechanism. These two hormones work together perfectly to promote muscle growth and to heal damaged tissue.

    The pituitary gland in the brain is responsible for producing human Growth Hormone. One of the many functions of hGH is to cause the liver to produce IGF-1. Once the liver produces IGF-1 it is transported to the muscle where it is needed. When in the muscle, IGF-1 carries out many functions such as increasing muscle growth and promoting quicker healing after injury.

    There are many cells in the body that have IGF-1 receptors so the hormone does not act on muscles only. In this case however, for bodybuilding or athletic purpose, the only concern is with the hormone’s effect on muscle. The main effect of IGF-1 is to dramatically increase muscle production. It does that by triggering muscle hyperplasia. This is the process whereby muscle tissues rapidly multiply in order to form new groups of muscles or to add to existing muscles. The body naturally produces IGF-1 in the liver which is then taken to the muscles as required.


    There are several synthetic versions of this hormone that have been developed to increase the effectiveness of the hormone and to increase its half-life. One of the most potent versions of IGF-1 is Long R3 IGF-1. It is a chemically enhanced version of IGF-1 to prevent deactivation by IGF-1 binding proteins that are found in the bloodstream. The enhanced hormone therefore lasts longer in the body hence increasing its effectiveness. Lr3 IGF-1 has a half-life of 20-30 hours which is a huge improvement compared to the 20-minute half-life of naturally occurring IGF-1. The enhanced IGF-1 is injected directly into the muscle that a person wants to build for maximum effectiveness. When injected directly on the muscle, the Lr3 IGF-1 causes additional muscles to be produced hence it gives you the choice of which muscle to grow with each injection. Due to the longer half-life of the enhanced IGF-1, it is several times more effective than the naturally occurring variant. However, many bodybuilders and athletes are reluctant to use the longer lasting versions of IGF-1 injections for various reasons. A good alternative to longer lasting IGF-1 peptides is using a quality deer antler plus HGH secretagagogue supplement.


    Both these hormones have a part to play in muscle production. However, they play a complementing role to each other rather than a competing one. HGH causes the liver to produce IGF-1 which is then taken to where it is needed. This is the natural process and it is quite effective but not in the same way as Lr3 IGF-1 injection is. Using enhanced IGF-1 supplements causes a spike in localized concentration of the hormone which affects only the muscle tissue into which it is injected. On the other hand, HGH causes IGF-1 to be evenly distributed all over the body. So, while using enhanced IGF-1 injections beats the natural order of things, the HGH + deer antler’s IGF-1 provides a more natural, safe and balanced approach. The enhanced growth hormone also improves uptake of nutrients by various tissues. HGH also affects metabolism and nutrient uptake.

    It is a false choice to try to figure out which of the two hormones HGH or IGF-1 is more effective because they serve different functions. However, comparing modified IGF-1 steroids to the naturally occurring one, the modified version is definitely more effective. It resists binding to all known IGF-1 binding proteins which means that it stays active for longer - an advantage that naturally occurring IGF-1 or deer antler velvet cannot match. But, at the same time the modified synthetic version may possess some side effects and no long term administration study on safety is available yet.

    One of the most prominent functions of deer antler velvet’s IGF-1 is making anabolic cycles more effective. It does that by acting on several types of tissues to increase growth. IGF-1 is one of the many growth factors produced by the body. These incredible substances possess the ability to cause cell division and differentiation. Each type of growth factor affects certain tissues more than it does others. IGF-1 has a big role to play in muscle production. It is responsible for the development of new muscle tissue and as a result also increases the number of testosterone receptors in the muscles. Significant number of users of IGF-1 supplements have confirmed in various forums that the supplement noticeably enhances steroid cycles. Users also strongly agree that the supplement reduces fat and increases vascularity significantly. One of the unexpected effects of IGF-1 is reduction of testicular atrophy. If a person with shrunk testicles takes IGF-1 supplements, his testicles soon return to their normal size just like he was in the middle of his steroid cycle. According to users, testicles do not shrink during the steroid cycle if they use IGF-1 all the time.


    IGF-1 helps to regulate the process in which fat is converted to energy thus resulting in overall fat loss. Using IGF-1 supplements can fight against the effects of aging. Natural production of IGF-1 reduces as we grow older. That leads to age-related health problems like heart failure, reduced brain activity, and lower neuron function. It also causes muscle tissue to be broken down for energy just like carbohydrates. IGF-1 supplementation mitigates against all these negative effects and restores vitality and creates a sense of well-being. It helps to boost nutrient shuttling, also known as protein synthesis. It is known to boost regeneration of nerve tissues. Boosts the process of muscular hyperplasia which causes the production of fuller and harder muscle tissue. The best way to use a deer antler velvet extract supplement. Since, HGH and IGF-1 work so closely together, several bodybuilders and athletes have had most success when they try a supplement that increases both HGH and IGF-1. Since IGF-1 can be enhanced using deer antler velvet, the obvious choice would be an HGH supplement that contains deer antler velvet.



    The capsules or pills pass less processing, with totally pure, 100% deer antler velvet. The velvet is dried, then ground into the powder and after that, it is encapsulated. The absorption of the nutrients will happen in the digestive system after you swallow it. With this form, the nutrient of deer antler velvet will be retained fully that is almost 400 natural ingredients. However, users are advised to take a pill that has enteric coating so the stomach acid does not destroy the natural ingredients of the velvet.

    Whereas the deer antler velvet in extract or spray form is processed to maximize the growth factor of matrix like EGF, IGF-1, IGF-2, and more. The harvested deer antler velvet is processed under strict, regulated and proprietary methods to refine and improve the amount of growth factor. The spray is applied under the tongue, and then it will absorb through bloodstream.

    Because this product accentuates the IGF-1 and many other growth factors, the deer antler velvet extract is mostly chosen by professional and competitive athletes for body performance benefits. Nevertheless, as stated earlier the efficiency of a deer antler supplement will be enhanced substantially if used in the form of with deer antler velvet plus HGH secretagogues, even as pills. However, with increasing popularity of deer antler velvet, a lot of spray products have come up in the market that actually contain very little or nominal amounts of IGF-1 and are scams. Read product labels and use only trusted supplements.


    A recent study used 2 to 6 capsules containing 215 mg of Deer Velvet per day.



  • Contraindications have not yet been identified.
  • Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
  • No interactions well documented. A possible interaction of velvet antler with morphine has been reported. Velvet antler has inhibited the development of tolerance to repeated doses of morphine in mice. It has been suggested that it may even be useful for prevention and therapy of the adverse actions of morphine.
  • Chronic wasting disease may be present in antler products as an adverse reaction concern. No direct reports of chronic wasting disease (CWD) related to deer velvet supplementation have been published. However, several Web sites contain disclaimers mentioning the possibility of the disease being present in antler products. The CDC has not yet found a relationship between CWD and any neurological disease that affects humans with deer velvet use.


    Toxicity studies of deer antler powder in rats demonstrated no mortality or adverse events on a short term basis. Toxicity studies of deer antler powder in rats have been assessed. A 2 gram/kg dose demonstrated no mortality or adverse events on a short-term (14 days) basis. In a 90-day study, a 1 gram/kg/day regimen also found no observable, significant adverse effects, except for a minor change in liver weight.

    Use caution due to lack of scientific evidence supporting toxicities such as those from drug residues, in pregnancy, or allergic reactions. 68


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    47. Fulder S. The drug that builds Russians. New Sci. 1980b;87:516-519.
    48. Breckman JT, Dubryakow, YL, Taneyeva AL. The biological activity of the antlers of deer and other deer species. Investio Sibirskogo Ordelemia Akalemi Nank Sisr. 10;112-115.
    49. Wang BX, Chen XG, Xu HB, Zhang W, Zhang J. Effect of polyamines isolated from pilose antler on syntheses of protein and RNA in mouse liver. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 1990;25:321-325.
    50. Wang BX, Chen XG, Xu HB, Zhang W, Zhang J. Effect of polyamines isolated from pilose antler (PASPA) on RNA polymerase activities in mouse liver. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 1990;25:652-657.
    51. Ha H, Yoon SH, et al. Study for new hapatotropic agent from natural resources. I. Effect of antler and old antler on liver injury induced by benzopyrene in rats. Nihon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkai Shi. Food & Nutrition 1990;23:9.
    52. Kang WS. Influence of antler (deer horn) on the mesentric mast cells of rates exposed to heat, cold, or electric shock. J Cathol Med Coll . 1970;19:1-9. 53. Wang BX, et al. Chem Pharm Bull. 1988;36:2593-2598.
    54. Narimanov AA, Kuznetsova SM, Miakisheva SN. The modifying action of the Japanese pagoda tree ( Sophora japonica ) and pantocrine in radiation lesions. Radiobiologiia. 1990;30:170-174.
    55. Wang B. Advances in Research of Chemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical Application of Pilose Antler: Proceedings of the 1996 International Symposium on Deer Science and Deer Products. I4-31.
    56. Yoon P. The effect of deer horn on the experimental anemia of rabbits. J Pharm Chem Soc. Korea 8:6-11.
    57. Sunwoo HH, Nakano T, Sim JS. Effect of water soluble extract from antlers of wapiti ( Cervus elaphus ) on the growth of fibroblasts. Can J Anim Sci . 1997;77:343-345.
    58. Kim KW, Park SW. A study of the hemopoietic action of deer horn extract. Korean Biochem J. 1982;15:151-157.
    59. Yasui N, Nimmi ME. Cartilage collagens In: Nimmi ME, ed. Vol 1. Collagen . ME Nimmi, ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press;1988:225-241
    . 60. Price JS, Oyajobi BO, Nalin AM, Frazer A, Russell RG, Sandell LJ. Chondrogenesis in the regenerating antler tip in red deer: expression of collagen types I, IIA, IIB, and X demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Dev Dyn. 1996;205:332-347.
    61. Trentham DE, Dynesius-Trentham RA, Orav FJ, et al. Effects of oral administration of type II collagen on rheumatoid arthritis. Science. 1993;261:1727-1730.
    62. Barnett ML, Gombitchi D, Trentham DE. A pilot trial of oral type II collagen in the treatment of juvenile rhematoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39:623-628.
    63. Kalden JR, Sieper J. Oral collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41:191-194.
    64. Wang BX, Liu AJ, Cheng XJ, Wang QG, Wei GR, Cui JC. Anti-ulcer action of the polysaccharides isolated from pilose antler. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao . 1985;20:321-325.
    65. Kim H, Lim HK. Inhibitory effects of velvet antler water extract on morphine-induced conditioned place preference and DA receptor supersensitivity in mice. J Enthnopharmacol. 1999;66:25-31.
    66. Kim HS, Lim HK, Park WK. Antinarcotic effects of the velvet antler water extract on morphine in mice. J Enthnopharmacol. 1999;66:41-49.
    67. Zhang H, Wanwimolruk S, Coville PF, et al. Toxicological evaluation of New Zealand deer velvet powder. Part I: actue and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000;38:985-990.
    68. Dalefield RR, Oehme FW. Deer velvet antler: some unanswered questions on toxicology. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1999;41:39-41.
    69. Allen M, Oberle K, Grace M, Russell A. Elk velvet antler in rheumatoid arthritis: phase II trial. Biol Res Nurs. 2002 Jan;3(3):111–118.


  • Antler Velvet Supplement Products


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    Antler Velvet is a tonifier that has been used in China for over 2,000 years. Antler velvet is the early stage of antler growth and is a rich source of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and glycoproteins, all of which support the skeletal system. Antler velvet is regenerated every year and harvested with great care in a humane manner by specially trained farmers or veterinarians who conform to the National Velvet Standards Body (NVSB) of New Zealand. Traditionally, antler velvet has been used to restore, balance, and strengthen the body, support joint function, and cultivate an overall feeling of well being.


    Chinese Herbs Direct: Antler Velvet, Full Spectrum, Planetary Herbals, 250 mg, 30 Tabs
    Chinese Herbs Direct: Antler Velvet, Full Spectrum, Planetary Herbals, 250 mg, 60 Tabs
    Chinese Herbs Direct: Deer Antler Velvet Powder (Lu Rong), 5:1 Extract Powder, Single Herbs Brand, 100 Grams
    Each gram of 5:1 Concentrated Extract Powder is equivalent to approximately 5 grams of raw herb powder (i.e. a 100 gram bottle of 5:1 Concentrated Extract Powder would be equivalent to 500 grams of Herb Powder).


    HerbsPro: Deer Antler Velvet, Woodland Publishing, 32 Page Booklet (90280)
    HerbsPro: Antler Velvet, Full Spectrum, Planetary Herbals, 30 Tabs (6546)
    HerbsPro: Antler Velvet, Full Spectrum, Planetary Herbals, 60 Tabs (6547)

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