MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
(Baker's Ammonia, Hartshorn, Ammonium Bicarbonate)
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Ammonium Carbonate, Baker's Ammonia, ABC-Trieb, Ammonium-Bicarbonate, E503ii (EU food additive), Hart's Horn, Hartshorn, Hornsalt, Bicarbonate of Ammonia, Ammonium Hydrogen Carbonate, AmBic, Powdered Baking Ammonia, Bicarbonate Salt of Ammonia, Salt of Hart’s Horn, Hjortetakksalt
Ammonium Carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3. Commercial samples labeled ammonium carbonate no longer contain this compound, but a mixture that has similar ammonia content. Since it readily degrades to gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide upon heating, it is used as a leavening agent and also as smelling salt. It is also known as Baker's Ammonia and was a predecessor to the more modern leavening agents Baking Soda and Baking Powder. It is a component of what was formerly known as sal volatile, salt of hartshorn, Hirschhornsalz, and hartshorn.
Ammonium Carbonate or baker's ammonia is a leavening agent that is sometimes used for flat, baked goods such as cookies and flat biscuits or crackers. It is not used for cakes since the gaseous ammonia given off during baking cannot escape the thicker, higher batters and would make the baked goods smell bad. It leaves no salty or soapy taste residue as baking powder sometimes does since it completely decomposes into three gases.
Ammonium Carbonate lends a distinctive crispness and lightness to the baked good by building large pores, which has caused it to persist in certain recipes, despite the overwhelming use of baking powder and baking soda in modern baked goods. You can substitute baking powder for Ammonium Carbonate in a pinch, but the final baked product may not have the exact same texture. The designs on molded cookies are also said to keep their shape much better when Ammonium Carbonate is used.
If Ammonium Carbonate is not available, Baking Powder can be substituted in a 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3 ratio. That is: 1 teaspoon baking powder for every 1/2 teaspoon of baker's ammonia (or 1.5 teaspoons baking powder for every 1/2 teaspoon baker's ammonia). You can also add some baking soda together with the baking powder. Usually, Ammonium Carbonate is mixed in with the liquid before adding to the dry ingredients, so that it dissolves well and mixes thoroughly. It must be stored dry, in a well-sealed container, because it is very hydroscopic and clumps easily. To tell if it is still active, place a small amount in hot water. If it bubbles vigorously, you can use it in your recipes.
AMMONIUM CARBONATE HISTORY & CHEMISTRY
Ammonium Carbonate or "Hirschhornsalz" was made in the Middle Ages by burning (or dry distillation of) keratin-containing materials (keratin is a structural protein found in the animal kingdom). They did this by heating shredded horns, hooves, antlers, skin (and even decomposed primate urine) in lime kilns (Kalköfen), which were ovens built for heating limestone (calcium carbonate), a manufacturing process which goes back to Greek and Roman times to make quicklime, a building material. The residue was collected after the ovens cooled off. Since wood ash was often boiled in water and used as a leavening agent, it is possible that these ashes were used in the same way. Ammonium Carbonate or "Hartshorn" was used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, fevers and many different types of bites. More recently, it was a common smelling salt for Victorian ladies.
The name, Hirschhornsalz, was of particular importance in the Middle Ages, when people believed that the salt collected from burning particular parts of the animal had special, medicinal value. (Dr. Karl A. Hofmann. Lehrbuch der anorganischen Chemie. 2nd ed. Braunschweig Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn. 1919)
Today, the white powder is chemically produced by heating ammonium chloride or ammonium sulfate with chalk (source). Ammonium Carbonate (Hirschhornsalz is a mixture of three molecules:
- Ammonium Carbonate (NH4)2CO3 → 2NH3 + CO2 + H2 O
- Ammonium Bicarbonate NH4 HCO3 → NH3 + CO2 + H2 O
- Ammonium Carbonate (Second Form) NH4 NH2 CO2 → 2NH3 + CO2
These molecules break down into the gases ammonia, carbon dioxide and (water) steam when heated to 60°C or higher (140°F). The gases lift the dough or batter (which has air bubbles in it through creaming) before the batter is set as they rise towards the surface of the cookie. As the dough sets up, the bubbles remain but the ammonia, carbon dioxide and steam are dispersed (throughout the air in the kitchen).
Ammonium Carbonate can spontaneously decompose into ammonium bicarbonate and ammonia: (NH4)2CO3 → NH4HCO3 + NH3
Baker's ammonia can react with certain sugars and amino acids in the dough to make small amounts of acrylamide, a carcinogen. Also, in 2008, melamine was found in ammonium carbonate shipped out of China, which started a recall movement in Germany (source).
A CLASSIC LEAVENER
Baker’s Ammonia (Ammonium Carbonate) is a classic leavener. It is often called for in your grandmother’s or great-grandmother's old fashioned recipes. Old fashioned recipes will often call it Hartshorn or Bakers Ammonia and is used to make extra crisp cookies or crackers. It has a very strong smell when baking, but do not worry. it totally dissipates by the time the cookies are done. Be sure to sift the dry ingredients well to be sure the baker's ammonia is thoroughly mixed and not present in lumps or you may decide to make cookie recipes that use baking powder or baking soda and avoiding those that use baker's ammonia.
AMMONIUM CARBONATE USES
Ammonium Carbonate was used in the Baking Industry Prior to the mid-19th century. The only leavening system used in baked goods was the old fermentation process. About the same time in England, a revolutionary method of producing ammonium carbonate, by the distillation of deer horns was developed and became commonly known as "Hartshorn". Eventually, this form of ammonium carbonate became more readily known as "Bakers Ammonia", which it is still referred to in today's baking industry. "Bakers Ammonia", or Ammonium Carbonate, is a uniform high purity leavening agent, produced by a chemical reaction of ammonia, carbon dioxide and water. Ammonium Carbonate is a product of exceptionally high quality and should not be confused with ammonium bicarbonate, which has a lower ammonia content. Ammonium Carbonate is a white crystalline powder which yields a strong ammoniacal odor. It decomposes into ammonia, carbon dioxide and water at elevated temperatures. This unique property of complete decomposition into gaseous products at temperatures above 59°C is one of the most important features of this product. Decomposition occurs slowly when Ammonium Carbonate is opened to the atmosphere, but increases significantly when exposed to higher temperatures normally used in the baking process. Ammonium Carbonate can be dissolved in water at room temperature, which is a convenient way to add to dough for even distribution.
LEAVENING AGENT: Ammonium carbonate may be used as a leavening agent in traditional recipes, particularly those from northern Europe and Scandinavia (e.g. Speculoos, Tunnbrod or Lebkuchen). It also serves as an acidity regulator and has the E number E503. It can be substituted with baking powder, but this may effect both the taste and texture of the finished product. Its use as a leavening agent, with associated controversy, goes back centuries. The bread forms a vesicular appearance by the addition to the dough some ammoniacal salt, (usually the sub-carbonate,) which becomes wholly converted into a gaseous substance during the process of baking, causing the dough to swell out into little air vessels, which finally bursting, allow the gas to escape, and leave the bread exceedingly porous. The bakers would never adopt it but from necessity - when good yeast cannot be procured, it forms an admirable and perfectly harmless substitute; costing the baker more, it diminishes his profit, while the consumer is benefited by the bread retaining the solid matter, which by the process of fermentation is dissipated in the form of alcohol and carbonic acid gas.
SMELLING SALTS & OTHER USES: Ammonium carbonate is the main component of smelling salts, although the commercial scale of their production is small. Buckley's cough syrup from Canada today uses ammonium carbonate as an active ingredient intended to help relieve symptoms of bronchitis. It is also used as an emetic. It is also found in smokeless tobacco products, such as Skoal.
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Information: Spirits of Ammonia (Smelling Salts) & Ammonium Carbonate
VERMONT CHEESE CRACKERS RECIPE
Crisp and wonderfully "cheesy," these crackers are delicious with soup, and a great snack all on their own.
1.5 cups Italian-Style or Unbleached All-Purpose Flour
1/2 cup Vermont Cheese Powder
1 teaspoon Instant Yeast
1/4 teaspoon Salt
1/2 teaspoon Baking Powder or 1/4 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia
1/4 cup Vegetable Shortening
7 to 8 tablespoons Ice Water, enough to make a cohesive dough
Baking Tips: Italian-Style Flour rolls out very easily. It is a good choice for crackers, where you need to roll the dough thinly. It also makes a nice, crisp cracker. If you use all-purpose flour, you may need to increase the water by a teaspoon or so; and you may not be able to roll the dough as thinly. This is a great recipe for baker's ammonia, which makes light, ultra-crisp cookies and crackers. Note that using baker's ammonia may shorten the baking time just a bit, so be attentive while the crackers are baking. Cheese powder is recommended for a crisp result. If you want a crispy cracker do not substitute freshly grated soft cheese or freshly grated Parmesan in place of cheese powder.
1) Whisk together the flour, cheese powder, yeast, salt, and baking powder. If you are using baker's ammonia in place of baking powder, set it aside.
2) Add the shortening, working it in to make an unevenly crumbly mixture.
3) If you are using baker's ammonia, dissolve it in a tablespoon of the ice water, and sprinkle it over the dry mixture before adding the remaining ice water. Whether you are using baking powder or baker's ammonia, stir and toss in enough of the ice water to make a cohesive (but not sticky) dough.
4) Divide the dough in half, and shape each half into a small rectangular slab.
5) Cover with plastic wrap, and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes, up to a couple of hours. Do not chill longer than that. Preheat the oven to 400°F.
6) Very lightly flour a piece of parchment, your rolling pin, and the top of the dough. Working with one piece at a time, roll the dough about 1/16-inch thick, or slightly thicker. If you do not have parchment, roll on a lightly floured work surface or silicone rolling mat. The dough will have ragged, uneven edges - that is okay. Just try to make it as even as possible.
7) If you have used parchment, gently slide the parchment and crackers onto a baking sheet. Cut the dough into 1.25-inch squares; a rolling pizza wheel works well here. Do not separate the squares. If you have not used parchment, gently fold the rolled dough in half, pick it up, and place it on a lightly greased cookie sheet, THEN cut it.
8) Prick each square with the tines of a fork.
9) Bake the crackers for about 8 minutes until the ones on the outside are starting to brown around the edges. Remove them from the oven, and transfer the browned crackers to a cooling rack or piece of parchment. Quickly and carefully pull the remaining crackers apart to separate them. Return to the oven.
10) Bake for an additional 3 minutes or so, or until the remaining crackers are a very light golden brown. You will need to watch these closely at the end. Do not walk away from the oven. They go from golden to dark brown very quickly.
11) Remove them from the oven, and cool right on the pan. When completely cool, store in an airtight container.
Preparation Time: 20 to 30 minutes.
Baking Time: 11 to 12 minutes.
Yield: About 100 crackers
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DARK CHOCOLATE DREAM COOKIES RECIPE
If you love deep, dark chocolate cookies, these are crisp and good.
1 cup Butter
1.5 cups Sugar
1 teaspoon Vanilla
1/2 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia, for best texture; or 1.5 teaspoons Baking Powder
1 teaspoon Salt
2 cups Unbleached All-Purpose Flour
1/2 cup Dutch-Process Cocoa
1) Preheat the oven to 300°F. Lightly grease (or line with parchment) two baking sheets.
2) In a large mixer bowl, cream the butter and sugar for 1 minute, just to bring them together.
3) Combine the vanilla, baker's ammonia, and salt in a very small bowl. Stir to dissolve the ammonia; the salt will not fully dissolve. Combine the vanilla mixture with the butter and sugar, and beat until smooth.
4) Sift together the flour and cocoa. Add to the butter mixture and mix on low speed. The mixture will seem dry at first, but continue to mix for 3 to 5 minutes, until the dough comes together.
5) Break off pieces of dough about the size of a large gumball; a teaspoon cookie scoop works well here. Roll the pieces into balls. Space them on the prepared baking sheets, leaving 1.5-inches between them.
6) Use the bottom of a glass, dipped in sugar if necessary to prevent sticking, to flatten the balls to about 3/8-inch thick. Try using other kitchen items, such as a slotted spoon or a potato masher, to give different imprints.
7) Bake the cookies for 18 to 20 minutes, until the fragrance of chocolate begins to fill the kitchen. Transfer the cookies to a rack to cool. They will continue to crisp up as they cool. Store completely cooled cookies airtight for up to 5 days.
Makes about 4 dozen 2-inch cookies.
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EGGNOG COOKIES RECIPE
Eggnog Yule Holiday Cookies should be thin, light and crisp, sturdy enough to decorate, yet tender rather than hard. The eggnog flavor is wonderful.
1 cup Unsalted Butter
2 cups Confectioners' Sugar or Glazing Sugar
2 tablespoons Light Corn Syrup
3/8 teaspoon Eggnog Flavor
1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon ground Nutmeg, optional
3/4 teaspoon Salt
1 large Egg, lightly beaten with 2 tablespoons Water
1 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia or 2 teaspoons Baking Powder
3.5 cups Unbleached All-Purpose Flour
Baking Tips: Adding the optional nutmeg will give the cookies a lightly speckled surface. If this bothers you, leave it out.
1) Cream together the butter, confectioners' sugar, and corn syrup until light and fluffy.
2) Beat in the eggnog flavor, nutmeg, and salt.
3) Add the baker's ammonia or baking powder to the egg and water, and stir to dissolve.
4) Add this mixture, along with the flour, to the ingredients in the bowl, and beat until smooth.
5) Divide the dough in three pieces, wrap them in plastic wrap, and refrigerate for 1 hour, or overnight.
6) If the dough has been in the fridge for 1 hour, give it about 20 to 25 minutes to warm up a bit. If it has been refrigerated overnight, let it rest at room temperature, covered, for about an hour and 15 minutes. While the dough is resting, preheat your oven to 350°F.
7) Roll the dough 1/8-inch thick on a lightly floured work surface (a silicone rolling mat works well here).
8) Cut out shapes, and transfer to ungreased or parchment-lined cookie sheets.
9) If desired, whisk 1 egg white with 1 tablespoon water, paint the cookies with this egg wash, and sprinkle with colored sugar.
10) Bake the cookies just until they are slightly brown on the edges, or until they feel firm, about 8 to 10 minutes.
11) Let the cookies cool on the baking sheet for several minutes, or until they are set. Transfer them to a rack to cool completely. Cookies may be frosted after baking, if desired.
Makes about 6 dozen 2.5-inch cookies.
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NORWEGIAN BUTTER COOKIES (SERINAKAKER) RECIPE
Serinakaker, while a classic type of Norwegian Yule cookie, are so easy to make that it is a pity not to enjoy them more than once a year. While the cookies will have a finer texture if you are able to use baker's ammonia, baking powder can be substituted for equally delectable results.
2 cups All-Purpose Flour
2 teaspoons Baker's Ammonia or 2 teaspoons Baking Powder
1 cup cold Butter, diced into small cubes
1 Egg, lightly beaten
1 cup Sugar
2 teaspoons Vanilla Sugar (or substitute 1/4 teaspoon Vanilla)
1 Egg White
1/4 cup finely chopped Almonds
1/4 cup Pearl Sugar
Directions: Whisk together flour and baker's ammonia (or baking powder). Using a pastry blender or two knives, cut the butter into the flour mixture until it resembles small crumbs. Mix in beaten egg to form a soft dough; stir in sugar and vanilla sugar (or vanilla extract) until incorporated. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate 2 to 3 hours.
Preheat oven to 375°F. Pinch off dough into balls the size of a walnut; place on ungreased or silpat-lined baking sheet. Use a fork to make a criss-cross pattern on the top of each ball, flattening them slightly. Brush with egg white and sprinkle with chopped almonds and pearl sugar.
Bake on center rack of oven for 10 to 12 minutes (Note: If using hornsalt, you will notice an ammonia smell as the cookies bake. No worries – this quickly dissipates, leaving the cookies with a delicate texture without affecting their flavor).
Yield: 3.5 Dozen Serinakaker Butter Cookies.
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POLISH AMMONIA COOKIES RECIPE
This recipe for Polish Ammonia Cookies (Amoniaczki) may sound a little disconcerting but many Old World recipes call for Baker's Ammonia, a common leavener before baking soda and baking powder appeared on the scene in the 1850s. Do not worry, you can substitute an equal amount of Baking Powder or Baking Soda (or half and half) in recipes calling for Baker's Ammonia. Just do not substitute the Bakers Ammonia in recipes calling for Baking Soda or Powder. The results will not be the same. These rolled cookies bake up crisp and store well. Sprinkle with colored sugar, if desired, or leave plain.
4 ounces (1 stick) softened Butter
2 tablespoons Vanilla Sugar
1/2 cup Confectioners' Sugar
2 large beaten Eggs
2 tablespoons Sour Cream
1 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia dissolved in 2 tablespoons water or 1 teaspoon Baking Powder
2 cups All-Purpose Flour
Coarse White or Colored Sanding Sugar
1. In a large bowl, cream butter, vanilla sugar and confectioners' sugar until light and fluffy. Add eggs, sour cream and dissolved baker's ammonia and mix again. Note: If using baking powder, combine it with the flour in the next step.
2. Add flour and mix thoroughly. Wrap in plastic and refrigerate until manageable, about 2 hours.
3.Heat oven to 350°F. Dust a work surface or parchment-lined pan with equal parts confectioners' sugar and granulated sugar. Roll out dough between 1/8- to 1/4-inch thickness and cut with cookie shapes of choice. Remove scraps and repeat with remaining dough. Brush cookies with beaten egg white and sprinkle with sugar, if desired.
4.Bake 10 to 15 minutes or until just beginning to brown around the edges. You want these cookies to be blonde in color. Cool on pan for a few minutes then transfer to a wire rack. When completely cool, store tightly covered.
Makes 3 dozen cookies.
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SWISS-GERMAN STYLE GINGERBREAD YULE COOKIES (BASLER LAECKERLI) RECIPE
Basler Läckerli is 300 year old cookie with a secret recipe. Dry and filled with nuts and "Orangeat", this cookie keeps well for weeks. If you cannot get a hold of real Basler Läckerli from Basel, Switzerland, this recipe yields good results and is delicious, too.
3/4 cup raw Almonds
3/4 to 1 cup raw Walnuts
3/4 cup raw Hazelnuts
1 cup Honey
1 3/4 cups Sugar
4 5/8 cups Flour
Zest from 1 Lemon
3/4 to 1 cup candied Lemon Peel
3/4 to 1 cup candied Orange Peel
6 tablespoons Cinnamon
2 teaspoons Cloves
1/2 teaspoon Nutmeg
2 teaspoons Potassium Carbonate (Food Grade Potash)
2 teaspoons Ammonium Carbonate (Baker's Ammonia or Hirschhornsalz)
3 to 4 tablespoons Kirschwasser, other liqueur or water
1/2 cups Sugar
1/4 cups Water
1. Blanch almonds and hazelnuts and remove the skins. Let dry.
2/ Finely chop all nuts (you may pulse in a food processor several times) and set aside.
3. Heat sugar and honey until boiling and sugar is dissolved. Remove from heat and let cool slightly.
4. Finely chop candied lemon and orange peel.
5. While sugar and honey are heating, mix all dry ingredients with the candied peel and nuts.
6. Carefully pour hot syrup into dry ingredients and mix until a sticky, thick dough comes together in a ball.
7. Form the dough into a loaf shape, wrap in plastic and let the dough sit at room temperature for 1 to 3 days.
8. On a lightly floured board, roll out dough to fit a cookie sheet, about 1 centimeter (less than 1/2 inch) thick.
9. Place the dough on a greased cookie sheet.
10. Bake at 350°F for 25 minutes, or until cookies are browned and hardening on the edges.
11. Remove from oven and cool slightly.
12. While cookies are cooling, boil together sugar and water until sugar dissolves to make the glaze.
13. Brush glaze over warm cookies. Score the cookies with a knife and let cool completely.
14. Cut into squares when cool. Store in a dry container.
15. If glaze is still a bit sticky, you may dust cookies with powdered sugar before packing them together.
16. Cookies will keep for several weeks if you can keep from eating them. These cookies may be shipped successfully.
Makes 3 dozen cookies.
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GERMAN SPICE COOKIES (SPEKULATIUS) RECIPE
Spekulatius cookies are traditional Christmas spice cookies in Germany, although in the Netherlands and the US they are available all year long as Dutch Windmill Cookies. Spekulatius is related to the Latin word "speculum", meaning mirror. Since the cookies are formed in a bas relief carved wooden mold, a mirror image of the mold becomes the cookie. These Gewürzspekulatius have typical spices in them. Let the dough sit overnight for best flavor. If you feel the flavor of the finished cookie is too bland, increase spices and vanilla to your taste.
1 1/4 cup Sugar
1 tablespoon Vanilla Sugar
14 tablespoons Butter
4 1/4 cups Flour
1/2 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia or 1.5 teaspoons Baking Powder
1/4 teaspoon Salt
1 1/2 teaspoon Cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon Cloves
1/4 teaspoon Cardamom
Cream sugars and butter well. Beat in eggs, one at a time. Sift or mix flour with baking powder, salt and spices. Stir into creamed mixture until stiff dough forms. Form dough into a ball, wrap it in plastic wrap and refrigerate for two or more hours (overnight is great). Oil and flour a Spekulatius mold. Tap out all excess flour. Roll a golf ball size piece of dough between your lightly floured hands into an egg shape. Press the dough into the mold, filling all crevices. Use a sharp knife or piece of kitchen twine to cut off excess dough, so dough is flush with mold. Tap the mold on the counter to release the cookie, or use a sharp knife to start the release of cookie. Carefully place the cookie on a cookie sheet and repeat with the rest of the dough. If this process becomes to onerous, or you do not own any cookie molds, roll the dough to 1/8-inch thick and cut out cookies using your favorite cookie cutters. Bake in a preheated oven at 350°F for 10 to 12 minutes, or until cookies brown slightly around the edges. These cookies can be decorated like conventional sugar cookies, but the old-fashioned mold imprints should not be overshadowed, nor the delicate flavor of the dough.
Makes about 8 dozen, 2-inch cookies.
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AMMONIUM CARBONATE (BAKER'S AMMONIA) PRODUCTS
QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS
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AMMONIA & SPIRIT OF AMMONIA PRODUCTS
A nearly colorless liquid containing ammonia, ammonium carbonate, alcohol, and aromatic oils, used orally as an antacid and carminative and, by inhalation, as s stimulant in the treatment of faintness.
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Nutrition Basics: Ammonia & Spirits of Ammonia Information
CHEESE POWDER & OTHER DAIRY FOOD PRODUCTS
Kalyx: Cheese Powder - White Cheddar, Organic, Frontier, 1 lb. (K)
Kalyx: Cheese Powder - Mild Cheddar, Frontier, 1 lb. (K)
Kalyx: Cheese Powder - Cheddar Cheez, Dutch Valley, 10 lbs. (GR)
Kalyx: Cheese Powder, White Cheddar, Organic, Frontier, 25 lbs. (K)
AMAZON PRODUCTS - CHEESE POWDER
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AMAZON PRODUCTS - SOUR CREAM POWDER
Amazon: Sour Cream Powder Products
AMAZON PRODUCTS - BUTTER POWDER
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AMAZON PRODUCTS - EGG POWDER
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AMAZON PRODUCTS - BUTTERMILK POWDER
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AMAZON PRODUCTS - WHEY POWDER
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AMAZON PRODUCTS - MILK POWDER
Amazon: Milk Powder Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
Nutrition Basics: Cheese Powder Information Nutrition Basics: Buttermilk Information Nutrition Basics: Goats Milk Information
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY
A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.