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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Ammonium Carbonate

(Spirits of Ammonia, Ammonia Smelling Salts)

For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.

  • Spirits of Ammonia & Bakers Ammonia Description
  • Ammonium Carbonate Medical & Cooling Uses
  • Ammonium Carbonate Leavening Agent Uses & Recipes
  • Ammonium Carbonate & Spirits of Ammonia Products



    Smelling salts, also known as spirit of hartshorn or sal volatile, are chemical compounds used for arousing consciousness. The usual active compound is ammonium carbonate, a colorless-to-white, crystalline solid ((NH4)2CO3). Because most modern solutions are mixed with water, they should more properly be called "aromatic spirits of ammonia." Modern solutions may also contain other products to perfume or act in conjunction with the ammonia, such as Lavender Oil or Eucalyptus Oil.


    Smelling salts have been used since Roman times and are mentioned in the writings of Pliny as Hammoniacus sal. Evidence exists of use in the 13th century by alchemists as sal ammoniac. In the 17th century, the distillation of an ammonia solution from shavings of harts' (deer) horns and hooves led to the alternative name for smelling salts as spirit or salt of hartshorn. Smelling salts have also been known as 'sal volatile', for their ability to produce ammonia vapor. They were widely used in Victorian Britain to revive fainting women, and in some areas constables would carry a container of them for the purpose. The use of smelling salts was widely recommended during the Second World War, with all workplaces advised by the British Red Cross and St. John Ambulance to keep 'sal volatile' in their first aid boxes. Nowadays, their use and prevalence has dramatically decreased.


    Hartshorn - A source of ammonia used in baking cookies or, as "salt of hartshorn," as smelling salts. Once the word meant literally the ground horn of a hart's (male deer's) antlers, but ammonium carbonate was later used as a substitute, which also went by the name of "salt of hartshorn." This is still available in American pharmacies and used occasionally in baking (making crackers and cookies).

    Ammonium Carbonate, also known as Baker's Ammonia is used as a leavening agent in place of conventional Baking Powder
    In baking, Baker's Ammonia adds an extra crispness and fluffiness of texture during baking, especially good for making homemade crackers, cookies or other baked goods requiring a crispy surface that cannot be obtained using baking powder. Baker’s ammonia (ammonium carbonate) is a classic leavener, called for in your grandmother’s or great-grandmother's recipes. Use in old-fashioned recipes calling for it (or for hartshorn). It does not react with water, but with heat. Substitute equal amounts for baking powder. Do not eat the raw dough. It has a very strong ammonia smell when baking, but it totally dissipates by the time the crackers or cookies are done. Once baked, the crackers or cookies will not taste of it. It is not affected by age, but must be stored in a very tight, sealed container between uses as it will evaporate and you will not have it when you need to do baking.


    Baking ammonia, or ammonium bicarbonate, was used before the advent of baking soda and baking powder. It is a chemical leavening agent originally made from the horns of deer. The chemical formula is NH4HCO3. When heated, baking ammonia breaks down into ammonia (NH3), water and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide makes cakes and cookies rise, the same way that carbon dioxide given off by other chemical leaveners does. Because the word 'hart' is an old term for deer, baking ammonia is also known as hartshorn.

    Because baking ammonia gives off ammonia gas, it can affect the flavor of the finished product. For that reason, it is best used for thin products, such as cookies, where the ammonia gas can escape easily, and drier products. Moist products such as cakes will hold more of the ammonia gas.

    Baking ammonia can be purchased at some drug and specialty food stores. It usually comes as a lump and needs to be ground to a powder before use. It should be kept in a well sealed container.

    Do not confuse baking ammonia with regular, household ammonia used as a cleaner, which is poisonous.



  • SMELLING SALTS & OTHER USES: Ammonium carbonate is the main component of smelling salts, although the commercial scale of their production is small. Buckley's cough syrup from Canada today uses ammonium carbonate as an active ingredient intended to help relieve symptoms of bronchitis. It is also used as an emetic. It is also found in smokeless tobacco products, such as Skoal.

  • Smelling salts are often used on athletes (such as boxers) when they are knocked unconscious or semi-conscious to arouse consciousness and restore mental alertness. They are also used in competitions (such as powerlifting, strong man and ice hockey) to "wake up" competitors to perform better. Famous athletes such as Brett Favre, Peyton Manning, Carlos Boozer, Samuel Eto'o, and Tom Brady have been seen using smelling salts on the sidelines. They are also still used for people feeling faint, or who have fainted, either administered by others, or self-administered, with some at-risk groups, such as pregnant women, sometimes advised to keep them close to hand.

    Physiological Action: Smelling salts release ammonia (NH3) gas, which triggers an inhalation reflex (that is, cause the muscles that control breathing to work faster) by irritating the mucous membranes of the nose and lungs. Additionally, the irritant elevates the heart rate, blood pressure, and brain activity by activating the sympathetic nervous system. Fainting can be caused by excessive parasympathetic and vagal activity that dilates blood vessels, slows the heart, and decreases perfusion of the brain. The sympathetic irritant effect is exploited to counteract these vagal parasympathetic effects and thereby reverse the faint.

    Risks: Ammonia gas is toxic in large concentrations for prolonged periods and can be fatal. Since smelling salts produce only a small amount of ammonia gas, no adverse health problems from their use have been reported. However, a high concentration of inhaled ammonia might burn the nasal or oral mucosa. The use of ammonia smelling salts to revive people injured during sport is not recommended because it may inhibit or delay a proper and thorough neurological assessment by a healthcare professional, and some governing bodies recommend specifically against it. The irritant nature of smelling salts means that they can exacerbate any pre-existing cervical spine injury by causing reflex withdrawal from them.


    Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia is a combination of ammonium carbonate and ammonia, as a 10-percent solution of ammonium hydroxide, mixed with water, alcohol and the essential oils of Lemon, Nutmeg and Lavender. After diluting with the water and alcohol, the free ammonia concentration is around 1-percent. Once mixed in an 8-ounce drink it is very dilute, around 0.02-percent. Just enough to be noticeable.

    It was often used as an antacid, for America's communal case of dyspepsia in the 1800s. The mixture has a basic pH, so it neutralized stomach acid very effectively. Besides the stomach soothing application, it was used for a variety of other conditions like nervousness, hysteria, mild drunkenness and hangovers. In the 1800s it was used to help people who got a bit tipsy at the saloon and needed a little clarity to get home. Most of the documents state that it did nothing for truly intoxicated persons, but those who were just a bit buzzed it offered benefits. It was also helpful to remove the hangover mind fog and invigorate the senses.

    For the nervous and easily overwhelmed, Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia was the Xanax of the Victorian era. If a person was hysterical or had fainted, a dose of aromatics was given. If you were taking your first trip in a dirigible, a splash in some sweetened soda water might steel the nerves and obviate nausea. The whole class of ammonia compounds were thought to ease anxiety. Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia was also used as a mild, short term, energizer. If you were feeling pooped and a little in the dumps, a full dose would help get your groove back.

    As for the energizing properties, drinking an Ammonia Coke may be effective. It you are feeling a bit tired and lack energy with a feeling to vegetate on the sofa while stuffing your face with junk food, this may be a remedy to increase energy and productivity. However, it is not recommended to start playing with chemicals and start drinking them, so do not do this at home without doing research and feel comfortable with the resulting product. It is recommended to buy Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia at the pharmacy or on the Internet for this purpose.


      6 ounces Coca-Cola
      1 teaspoon Spirits of Ammonia

    Instructions: Add 1 teaspoon of Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia to a chilled glass of Coca-Cola.

    Adding things to Coca-Cola is a time honored tradition, two that immediately come to mind are cocaine and rum. Another is Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia. Now this is not kitchen cleaner ammonia, which would be a really big mistake. This is a pharmaceutical preparation that has been used for over a century, even before Coke was invented. For druggists, this preparation was an over-the-counter medicine used to treat a variety of conditions. Unlike other patent medicines (snake oil), Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia survived and can still be bought at some pharmacies today. It makes for an interesting taste combination with Coca-Cola.

    According to those who have tried it, the tast of Ammonia Coke is fairly decent. You can try a partial dose of 20 drops (1 ml) to test it out first. The full dose is 3 scruples; 3.75ml; or about 3/4 teaspoon, in a glass of Coke. The neutralizing properties are evident as the acidity of the Coca-Cola is reduced, not in a bad way though. The ammonia is perceptible, and might be a little more obvious when using a larger measure. There is potential for wider use, but more experimentation is needed. The most important part is that it does knock out the acidity of drinks.


  • It can be used to make "Florida Water" for sports events or just being out in the heat while doing yard work or golf, etc. Mix it with lemon juice and ice and water and you have got a great mix for cooling off and freshening up.
  • Super Cold Water Cold Packs: These packs work great for hot summer days. Add 1 bottle to about a half gallon of water and ice in a small cooler and add some wash cloths. Use as cold packs or cold compresses.
  • A Summer Refresher: People working out in the hot sun during grueling summer months can take a devastating toll on a person. Workers have found that by mixing a bottle of Ammonia Aromatic Spirits in a small ice chest with a gallon of ice water does wonders for refreshing you in 100-plus humid, weather. Keep a cold towel soaking in the mixture, wring the water out and put it over you head for a few seconds in extremely hot weather to totally invigorates yourself. The mixture has a pleasant citrus smell and can be used throughout a 5 or 6 hour day if kept cold. Instant super cold water that is refreshing in the hot sun.
  • Spirits Ammonia Lotion: Use it with glyceren to make a very good healing lotion for hands and feet.
  • Instant relief from insect bites: Keep this product on hand for use when stung by insects. Just dab a little on the sting. Even works for scorpion stings.
  • Cooling Lemonade: This is a great product with ice water and a little lemon juice to keep you cool on a hot summer day.



  • Ammonium Carbonate may be used as a leavening agent in traditional recipes, particularly those from northern Europe and Scandinavia (e.g. Speculoos, Tunnbrod or Lebkuchen). It also serves as an acidity regulator and has the E number E503. It can be substituted with baking powder, but this may effect both the taste and texture of the finished product. Its use as a leavening agent, with associated controversy, goes back centuries. The bread forms a vesicular appearance by the addition to the dough some ammoniacal salt, (usually the sub-carbonate,) which becomes wholly converted into a gaseous substance during the process of baking, causing the dough to swell out into little air vessels, which finally bursting, allow the gas to escape, and leave the bread exceedingly porous. The bakers would never adopt it but from necessity - when good yeast cannot be procured, it forms an admirable and perfectly harmless substitute; costing the baker more, it diminishes his profit, while the consumer is benefited by the bread retaining the solid matter, which by the process of fermentation is dissipated in the form of alcohol and carbonic acid gas.


    Ammonium Carbonate was used in the Baking Industry Prior to the mid-19th century. The only leavening system used in baked goods was the old fermentation process. About the same time in England, a revolutionary method of producing ammonium carbonate, by the distillation of deer horns was developed and became commonly known as "Hartshorn". Eventually, this form of ammonium carbonate became more readily known as "Bakers Ammonia", which it is still referred to in today's baking industry. "Bakers Ammonia", or Ammonium Carbonate, is a uniform high purity leavening agent, produced by a chemical reaction of ammonia, carbon dioxide and water. Ammonium Carbonate is a product of exceptionally high quality and should not be confused with ammonium bicarbonate, which has a lower ammonia content. Ammonium Carbonate is a white crystalline powder which yields a strong ammoniacal odor. It decomposes into ammonia, carbon dioxide and water at elevated temperatures. This unique property of complete decomposition into gaseous products at temperatures above 59°C is one of the most important features of this product. Decomposition occurs slowly when Ammonium Carbonate is opened to the atmosphere, but increases significantly when exposed to higher temperatures normally used in the baking process. Ammonium Carbonate can be dissolved in water at room temperature, which is a convenient way to add to dough for even distribution.


    Crisp and wonderfully "cheesy," these crackers are delicious with soup, and a great snack all on their own.

    1.5 cups Italian-Style or Unbleached All-Purpose Flour
    1/2 cup Vermont Cheese Powder
    1 teaspoon Instant Yeast
    1/4 teaspoon Salt
    1/2 teaspoon Baking Powder or 1/4 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia
    1/4 cup Vegetable Shortening
    7 to 8 tablespoons Ice Water, enough to make a cohesive dough

    Baking Tips: Italian-Style Flour rolls out very easily. It is a good choice for crackers, where you need to roll the dough thinly. It also makes a nice, crisp cracker. If you use all-purpose flour, you may need to increase the water by a teaspoon or so; and you may not be able to roll the dough as thinly. This is a great recipe for baker's ammonia, which makes light, ultra-crisp cookies and crackers. Note that using baker's ammonia may shorten the baking time just a bit, so be attentive while the crackers are baking. Cheese powder is recommended for a crisp result. If you want a crispy cracker do not substitute freshly grated soft cheese or freshly grated Parmesan in place of cheese powder.


    1) Whisk together the flour, cheese powder, yeast, salt, and baking powder. If you are using baker's ammonia in place of baking powder, set it aside.
    2) Add the shortening, working it in to make an unevenly crumbly mixture.
    3) If you are using baker's ammonia, dissolve it in a tablespoon of the ice water, and sprinkle it over the dry mixture before adding the remaining ice water. Whether you are using baking powder or baker's ammonia, stir and toss in enough of the ice water to make a cohesive (but not sticky) dough.
    4) Divide the dough in half, and shape each half into a small rectangular slab.
    5) Cover with plastic wrap, and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes, up to a couple of hours. Do not chill longer than that. Preheat the oven to 400°F.
    6) Very lightly flour a piece of parchment, your rolling pin, and the top of the dough. Working with one piece at a time, roll the dough about 1/16-inch thick, or slightly thicker. If you do not have parchment, roll on a lightly floured work surface or silicone rolling mat. The dough will have ragged, uneven edges - that is okay. Just try to make it as even as possible.
    7) If you have used parchment, gently slide the parchment and crackers onto a baking sheet. Cut the dough into 1.25-inch squares; a rolling pizza wheel works well here. Do not separate the squares. If you have not used parchment, gently fold the rolled dough in half, pick it up, and place it on a lightly greased cookie sheet, THEN cut it.
    8) Prick each square with the tines of a fork.
    9) Bake the crackers for about 8 minutes until the ones on the outside are starting to brown around the edges. Remove them from the oven, and transfer the browned crackers to a cooling rack or piece of parchment. Quickly and carefully pull the remaining crackers apart to separate them. Return to the oven.
    10) Bake for an additional 3 minutes or so, or until the remaining crackers are a very light golden brown. You will need to watch these closely at the end. Do not walk away from the oven. They go from golden to dark brown very quickly.
    11) Remove them from the oven, and cool right on the pan. When completely cool, store in an airtight container.

    Preparation Time: 20 to 30 minutes.
    Baking Time: 11 to 12 minutes.
    Yield: About 100 crackers

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    If you love deep, dark chocolate cookies, these are crisp and good.

    1 cup Butter
    1.5 cups Sugar
    1 teaspoon Vanilla
    1/2 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia, for best texture; or 1.5 teaspoons Baking Powder
    1 teaspoon Salt
    2 cups Unbleached All-Purpose Flour
    1/2 cup Dutch-Process Cocoa


    1) Preheat the oven to 300°F. Lightly grease (or line with parchment) two baking sheets.
    2) In a large mixer bowl, cream the butter and sugar for 1 minute, just to bring them together.
    3) Combine the vanilla, baker's ammonia, and salt in a very small bowl. Stir to dissolve the ammonia; the salt will not fully dissolve. Combine the vanilla mixture with the butter and sugar, and beat until smooth.
    4) Sift together the flour and cocoa. Add to the butter mixture and mix on low speed. The mixture will seem dry at first, but continue to mix for 3 to 5 minutes, until the dough comes together.
    5) Break off pieces of dough about the size of a large gumball; a teaspoon cookie scoop works well here. Roll the pieces into balls. Space them on the prepared baking sheets, leaving 1.5-inches between them.
    6) Use the bottom of a glass, dipped in sugar if necessary to prevent sticking, to flatten the balls to about 3/8-inch thick. Try using other kitchen items, such as a slotted spoon or a potato masher, to give different imprints.
    7) Bake the cookies for 18 to 20 minutes, until the fragrance of chocolate begins to fill the kitchen. Transfer the cookies to a rack to cool. They will continue to crisp up as they cool. Store completely cooled cookies airtight for up to 5 days.

    Makes about 4 dozen 2-inch cookies.

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    Eggnog Yule Holiday Cookies should be thin, light and crisp, sturdy enough to decorate, yet tender rather than hard. The eggnog flavor is wonderful.

    1 cup Unsalted Butter
    2 cups Confectioners' Sugar or Glazing Sugar
    2 tablespoons Light Corn Syrup
    3/8 teaspoon Eggnog Flavor
    1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon ground Nutmeg, optional
    3/4 teaspoon Salt
    1 large Egg, lightly beaten with 2 tablespoons Water
    1 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia or 2 teaspoons Baking Powder
    3.5 cups Unbleached All-Purpose Flour

    Baking Tips: Adding the optional nutmeg will give the cookies a lightly speckled surface. If this bothers you, leave it out.


    1) Cream together the butter, confectioners' sugar, and corn syrup until light and fluffy.
    2) Beat in the eggnog flavor, nutmeg, and salt.
    3) Add the baker's ammonia or baking powder to the egg and water, and stir to dissolve.
    4) Add this mixture, along with the flour, to the ingredients in the bowl, and beat until smooth.
    5) Divide the dough in three pieces, wrap them in plastic wrap, and refrigerate for 1 hour, or overnight.
    6) If the dough has been in the fridge for 1 hour, give it about 20 to 25 minutes to warm up a bit. If it has been refrigerated overnight, let it rest at room temperature, covered, for about an hour and 15 minutes. While the dough is resting, preheat your oven to 350°F.
    7) Roll the dough 1/8-inch thick on a lightly floured work surface (a silicone rolling mat works well here).
    8) Cut out shapes, and transfer to ungreased or parchment-lined cookie sheets.
    9) If desired, whisk 1 egg white with 1 tablespoon water, paint the cookies with this egg wash, and sprinkle with colored sugar.
    10) Bake the cookies just until they are slightly brown on the edges, or until they feel firm, about 8 to 10 minutes.
    11) Let the cookies cool on the baking sheet for several minutes, or until they are set. Transfer them to a rack to cool completely. Cookies may be frosted after baking, if desired.
    Makes about 6 dozen 2.5-inch cookies.

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    Serinakaker, while a classic type of Norwegian Yule cookie, are so easy to make that it is a pity not to enjoy them more than once a year. While the cookies will have a finer texture if you are able to use baker's ammonia, baking powder can be substituted for equally delectable results.

    2 cups All-Purpose Flour
    2 teaspoons Baker's Ammonia or 2 teaspoons Baking Powder
    1 cup cold Butter, diced into small cubes
    1 Egg, lightly beaten
    1 cup Sugar
    2 teaspoons Vanilla Sugar (or substitute 1/4 teaspoon Vanilla)
    1 Egg White
    1/4 cup finely chopped Almonds
    1/4 cup Pearl Sugar

    Directions: Whisk together flour and baker's ammonia (or baking powder). Using a pastry blender or two knives, cut the butter into the flour mixture until it resembles small crumbs. Mix in beaten egg to form a soft dough; stir in sugar and vanilla sugar (or vanilla extract) until incorporated. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate 2 to 3 hours.

    Preheat oven to 375°F. Pinch off dough into balls the size of a walnut; place on ungreased or silpat-lined baking sheet. Use a fork to make a criss-cross pattern on the top of each ball, flattening them slightly. Brush with egg white and sprinkle with chopped almonds and pearl sugar.

    Bake on center rack of oven for 10 to 12 minutes (Note: If using hornsalt, you will notice an ammonia smell as the cookies bake. No worries – this quickly dissipates, leaving the cookies with a delicate texture without affecting their flavor).

    Yield: 3.5 Dozen Serinakaker Butter Cookies.

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    This recipe for Polish Ammonia Cookies (Amoniaczki) may sound a little disconcerting but many Old World recipes call for Baker's Ammonia, a common leavener before baking soda and baking powder appeared on the scene in the 1850s. Do not worry, you can substitute an equal amount of Baking Powder or Baking Soda (or half and half) in recipes calling for Baker's Ammonia. Just do not substitute the Bakers Ammonia in recipes calling for Baking Soda or Powder. The results will not be the same. These rolled cookies bake up crisp and store well. Sprinkle with colored sugar, if desired, or leave plain.

    4 ounces (1 stick) softened Butter
    2 tablespoons Vanilla Sugar
    1/2 cup Confectioners' Sugar
    2 large beaten Eggs
    2 tablespoons Sour Cream
    1 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia dissolved in 2 tablespoons water or 1 teaspoon Baking Powder
    2 cups All-Purpose Flour
    Coarse White or Colored Sanding Sugar


    1. In a large bowl, cream butter, vanilla sugar and confectioners' sugar until light and fluffy. Add eggs, sour cream and dissolved baker's ammonia and mix again. Note: If using baking powder, combine it with the flour in the next step.
    2. Add flour and mix thoroughly. Wrap in plastic and refrigerate until manageable, about 2 hours.
    3.Heat oven to 350°F. Dust a work surface or parchment-lined pan with equal parts confectioners' sugar and granulated sugar. Roll out dough between 1/8- to 1/4-inch thickness and cut with cookie shapes of choice. Remove scraps and repeat with remaining dough. Brush cookies with beaten egg white and sprinkle with sugar, if desired.
    4.Bake 10 to 15 minutes or until just beginning to brown around the edges. You want these cookies to be blonde in color. Cool on pan for a few minutes then transfer to a wire rack. When completely cool, store tightly covered.

    Makes 3 dozen cookies.

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    Basler Läckerli is 300 year old cookie with a secret recipe. Dry and filled with nuts and "Orangeat", this cookie keeps well for weeks. If you cannot get a hold of real Basler Läckerli from Basel, Switzerland, this recipe yields good results and is delicious, too.

    3/4 cup raw Almonds
    3/4 to 1 cup raw Walnuts
    3/4 cup raw Hazelnuts
    1 cup Honey
    1 3/4 cups Sugar
    4 5/8 cups Flour
    Zest from 1 Lemon
    3/4 to 1 cup candied Lemon Peel
    3/4 to 1 cup candied Orange Peel
    6 tablespoons Cinnamon
    2 teaspoons Cloves
    1/2 teaspoon Nutmeg
    2 teaspoons Potassium Carbonate (Food Grade Potash)
    2 teaspoons Ammonium Carbonate (Baker's Ammonia or Hirschhornsalz)
    3 to 4 tablespoons Kirschwasser, other liqueur or water


    1/2 cups Sugar
    1/4 cups Water


    1. Blanch almonds and hazelnuts and remove the skins. Let dry.
    2/ Finely chop all nuts (you may pulse in a food processor several times) and set aside.
    3. Heat sugar and honey until boiling and sugar is dissolved. Remove from heat and let cool slightly.
    4. Finely chop candied lemon and orange peel.
    5. While sugar and honey are heating, mix all dry ingredients with the candied peel and nuts.
    6. Carefully pour hot syrup into dry ingredients and mix until a sticky, thick dough comes together in a ball.
    7. Form the dough into a loaf shape, wrap in plastic and let the dough sit at room temperature for 1 to 3 days.
    8. On a lightly floured board, roll out dough to fit a cookie sheet, about 1 centimeter (less than 1/2 inch) thick.
    9. Place the dough on a greased cookie sheet.
    10. Bake at 350°F for 25 minutes, or until cookies are browned and hardening on the edges.
    11. Remove from oven and cool slightly.
    12. While cookies are cooling, boil together sugar and water until sugar dissolves to make the glaze.
    13. Brush glaze over warm cookies. Score the cookies with a knife and let cool completely.
    14. Cut into squares when cool. Store in a dry container.
    15. If glaze is still a bit sticky, you may dust cookies with powdered sugar before packing them together.
    16. Cookies will keep for several weeks if you can keep from eating them. These cookies may be shipped successfully.

    Makes 3 dozen cookies.

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    Spekulatius cookies are traditional Christmas spice cookies in Germany, although in the Netherlands and the US they are available all year long as Dutch Windmill Cookies. Spekulatius is related to the Latin word "speculum", meaning mirror. Since the cookies are formed in a bas relief carved wooden mold, a mirror image of the mold becomes the cookie. These Gewürzspekulatius have typical spices in them. Let the dough sit overnight for best flavor. If you feel the flavor of the finished cookie is too bland, increase spices and vanilla to your taste.

    1 1/4 cup Sugar
    1 tablespoon Vanilla Sugar
    14 tablespoons Butter
    2 Eggs
    4 1/4 cups Flour
    1/2 teaspoon Baker's Ammonia or 1.5 teaspoons Baking Powder
    1/4 teaspoon Salt
    1 1/2 teaspoon Cinnamon
    1/4 teaspoon Cloves
    1/4 teaspoon Cardamom


    Cream sugars and butter well. Beat in eggs, one at a time. Sift or mix flour with baking powder, salt and spices. Stir into creamed mixture until stiff dough forms. Form dough into a ball, wrap it in plastic wrap and refrigerate for two or more hours (overnight is great). Oil and flour a Spekulatius mold. Tap out all excess flour. Roll a golf ball size piece of dough between your lightly floured hands into an egg shape. Press the dough into the mold, filling all crevices. Use a sharp knife or piece of kitchen twine to cut off excess dough, so dough is flush with mold. Tap the mold on the counter to release the cookie, or use a sharp knife to start the release of cookie. Carefully place the cookie on a cookie sheet and repeat with the rest of the dough. If this process becomes to onerous, or you do not own any cookie molds, roll the dough to 1/8-inch thick and cut out cookies using your favorite cookie cutters. Bake in a preheated oven at 350°F for 10 to 12 minutes, or until cookies brown slightly around the edges. These cookies can be decorated like conventional sugar cookies, but the old-fashioned mold imprints should not be overshadowed, nor the delicate flavor of the dough.

    Makes about 8 dozen, 2-inch cookies.

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    A nearly colorless liquid containing ammonia, ammonium carbonate, alcohol, and aromatic oils, used orally as an antacid and carminative and, by inhalation, as s stimulant in the treatment of faintness.


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  • Nutrition Basics: Goats Milk Information

  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

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    Health & Wellness Index


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index

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