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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

MOLYBDENUM
Mineral Supplements


"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
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  • Molybdenum Description & Overview
  • Molybdenum Uses & Scientific Evidence
  • Molybdenum Dietary Sources
  • Molybdenum Dosage Information
  • Molybdenum Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Molybdenum Supplement Products




  • Molybdenum Element - Image Courtesy of Periodictable.com


    MOLYBDENUM DESCRIPTION

    OVERVIEW

    Molybdenum is a chemical element that is a silvery metal, with an atomic number of 42, that forms hard, stable carbides and is used in the production of steel alloys, such as stainless steel. It has a high melting point and is an essential element for almost all life forms.

    Biologically, molybdenum is expressed as the metal heteroatom and is needed for the proper functioning of several key enzymes in human metabolism. It is found at the binding sites on certain enzymes. Molybdenum is naturally found in the human body, primarily in the liver, kidneys and tooth enamel.

    Consuming too much molybdenum, either through excessive supplementation or a very large intake of meat products containing the element, can cause some side effects. Consult with your health care provider before using a supplement containing molybdenum.

    Molybdenum in the body functions in its biological form, which is an organic molecule called a molybdenum cofactor. The molybdenum cofactor is used in biological processes for three enzymes: For the enzyme sulfite oxidase, the molybdenum cofactor is needed to metabolize amino acids that have sulfur. For xanthine oxidase enzyme, the element is key for the breakdown of nucleotides to form uric acid. For the enzyme aldehyde oxidase, it is needed for hydroxylation reactions. The mineral molybdenum assists biological processes that metabolize iron. There are some uncertainties with how molybdenum is used in some body processes, but it may be used in the development of the nervous system, the processing of waste in the kidneys and the production of energy in cells. Molybdenum is used in the treatment of rare metabolic diseases, such as Wilson's disease.





    MOLYBDENUM HEALTH BENEFITS, USES & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    HEALTH BENEFITS

    Molybdenum is a little-known, though essential, trace mineral that is actually considered as good for the body. As a trace element, this mineral is considered as a micronutrient in adults older than 18. Molybdenum is important because it serves as a cofactgor for a number of enzymes that are created by the body. This element plays a role in a number of biological processes, including the proper function of the kidneys in waste processing. Molybdenum helps produce energy in cells, as well as helps in the healthy developement of the body's nervous system.

    In disease treatment, molybdenum is used for treating Wilsonís disease, a rare genetic metabolic condition. In Wilsonís disease, the body is unable to process copper. Studies are still being conducted regarding this elementís effectiveness in treating or preventing other types of diseases such as cancer. However, there have been some positive results on animal studies. These animal studies have shown that molybdenum lowers the harmful side effects of some cancer drugs on the lungs and heart.

    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Wilson's Disease
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Copper Deficiency
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Copper Toxicity

    Although there has been no solid proof as to its efficacy, supporters of this element claim that molybdenum can be considered an antioxidant. Supporters also say that this element prevents gout, sexual impotence, anemia and dental cavities.

    Molybdenum is vital in regulating the pH balance in the body, which in turn, increases the oxygen level and nitrogen metabolism, thereby denhancing the bodyís ability to burn fat. Molybdenum is found in the liver, bones, and kidneys. This mineral supports bone growth and strengthening of the teeth. It helps protect against tooth decay by preventing cavities, and is essential for proper metabolism of nucleic acids (RNA & DNA), fats, carbohydrates and iron.

    ENZYMES

    Several enzymes require a substance that contains Molybdenum in order to function. These compounds are known as cofactors, and the most important molybdenum-containing cofactor works with sulfite oxidase. This enzyme allows sulfites to be converted into sulfates, which is needed for the synthesis of amino acids that contain sulfur. These amino acids include Cysteine and Methionine.

    Molybdenum is necessary for the functioning of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, that is involved in iron metabolism and also in the production of uric acid, which is a waste product found in the blood and urine. It is also needed for normal sexual functioning in the male. Molybdenum helps detoxify the body of excess copper, and preliminary studies show it is also helpful in reducing the risk of asthma attacks.

    This essential mineral is required in extremely small amounts for nitrogen metabolism. There may be evidence of antioxidant properties of this nutrient. It assists the body by fighting the nitrosamines, which are associated with cancer, and may help prevent anemia. It aids in the final stages of the conversion of purines to uric acid. It promotes normal cell function, and is a component of the metabolic enzymes xanthine oxidase, sulfite oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase.

    Molybdenum is part of sulfite oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down sulfite toxin buildups in the body, in which your body may with an allergic reaction. Sulfites are found in protein food as well as chemical preservatives in certain foods and drugs. Xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase are both involved in the body's production of genetic material and proteins. Xanthine oxidase also helps the body to oxidase purines and pyrimidines, and produce uric acid, an important waste product.

    MEDICINAL USES

    Molybdenum is a trace mineral that functions as a cofactor for a number of enzymes and is essential for human health. Molybdenum is thought to be involved in various important bodily processes involving the nervous system, kidneys, and energy production in the cells. It is found in the human diet, but its exact role in treating various medical conditions is not well defined. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), preliminary scientific information exists indicating that a deficiency of molybdenum may cause some health problems. However, human studies supporting the efficacy of molybdenum for any health condition are lacking. First consult with your health care provider if you are considering taking molybdenum for medicinal reasons.

    Proponents claim Molybdenum is an antioxidant that protects cells from free radical damage that can lead to cancer. Molybdenum is used for treating a wide range of conditions including liver problems, yeast infections, human immunodeficiency virus and Lyme disease. Other uses include allergies, asthma, gout, eczema, sleep problems, acne, anemia, gout, multiple sclerosis, and lupus. It is also used for managing Wilson's disease, which is a condition that prevents the body from using copper. Molybdenum supplementation is effective for treating molybdenum deficiency, although this is considered to rarely occur. There is not enough scientific information to rate the effectiveness of molybdenum for any medicinal use.


    MOLYBDENUM & EXERCISE

    Molybdenum, a trace element that plays an essential role in overall good health, is needed to properly metabolize sulfur-containing amino acids. No cases of molybdenum deficiency have ever been recorded in healthy individuals. As part of a healthy lifestyle, molybdenum and exercise can improve overall health. The average American diet contains levels of molybdenum that are higher than the recommended daily allowance, or RDA. Men consume an average of 109 mcg daily, whereas women average 76 mcg. RDA amounts range from 2 mcg for infants to 50 mcg for breastfeeding or pregnant women. Consuming excessive amounts of molybdenum has no adverse effect upon healthy individuals, and overconsumption appears to occur relatively infrequently.

    Molybdenum content in food varies greatly, depending upon the element's soil presence. A variety of foods contain molybdenum; some supply larger amounts than others. Eating a variety of legumes, such as kidney beans, soybeans, lentils, lima beans, navy beans and peas, will give you the largest amounts of molybdenum. Good sources of the nutrient include nuts and whole-grain foods containing oats, wheat, spelt, barley, oat bran, wheat bran, quinoa, pasta, breads, cereals and crackers. Fruits, animal products and vegetables usually contain low amounts of molybdenum. If you are concerned about a molybdenum deficiency, check with your health care provider first before considering any supplementation.

    IRON: Molybdenum is needed to metabolize iron throughout your body. Maintaining proper amounts of iron helps prevent the development of anemia. Because it stifles the production of hemoglobin, anemia can rob your body of energy and leave you too exhausted to exercise or perform everyday activities. Iron-deficiency anemia can also cause shortness of breath, another factor that can hinder your exercise program.

    ENERGY: Your body requires Molybdenum dosages exceeding more than 15 mg may be toxic and excess molybdenum in the body can interfere with the metabolism of copper in the body, can give symptoms of or may lead to the development of gout, and may cause diarrhea, anemia and slow growth. for energy metabolism. This involves extracting needed nutrients from dietary sources, converting them into energy in the form of calories and supplying your body with needed fuel to operate efficiently. Energy metabolism can be defined as the way your body processes energy. Increased energy levels can make exercising and performing everyday tasks less tiring while increasing overall productivity levels.

    DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: If molybdenum-rich foods are not to your liking, consider consuming the nutrient in various supplement forms. Purchase Molybdenum dosages exceeding more than 15 mg may be toxic and excess molybdenum in the body can interfere with the metabolism of copper in the body, can give symptoms of or may lead to the development of gout, and may cause diarrhea, anemia and slow growth. as a single component or as an ingredient in multivitamin or multimineral compounds, in capsule or liquid form. Drinking an energy or nutritional drink fortified with molybdenum after exercise offers another alternative. If you prefer chewing, consume nutrition bars fortified with added micronutrients, such as molybdenum, after your exercise program.


    MOLYBDENUM DEFICIENCY

    Dietary deficiency of Molybdenum is not known to occur in healthy people. The single known case was in a patient receiving intravenous nutrition that didn't contain molybdenum. This patient experienced rapid breathing and heart rate, along with headaches and eventually entered a comatose state. These signs resolved once the nutritive solution was supplemented with Molybdenum.

    Beans, beef liver, cereal grains, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and peas are all good sources of Molybdenum.

    Because the body requires very little molybdenum, deficiency for this micronutrient is a rarity. There are very rare cases where a person would suffer from having very little molybdenum in the body. One example for a possible molybdenum deficiency is if a person has been fed mostly through his veins. Another example would be if a person has a genetic disorder and therefore cannot absorb the molybdenum that is present in foods.

    A low intake of molybdenum is associated with mouth and gum disorders and cancer. A molybdenum deficiency may cause impotence in older males. Those whose diets are high in refined and processed foods are at risk for deficiency. If you are eating a well balanced, nutritious diet, it is unlikely you will suffer from molybdenum deficiency unless your diet is dependent on food grown in areas whose soil is low in molybdenum. Molybdenum deficiency symptoms include irritability and irregular heartbeat.

    Deficiencies of molybdenum are identified by the absence of the three molybdenum enzymes. The deficiency of this element and the metabolic disorders are accompanied by abnormal excretion of sulfur metabolites, low uric acid concentrations, and elevated hypoxanthine and xanthine excretion.

    The absences of sulfite oxidase in metabolic disorder can lead to death at an early age. High rates of esophageal cancer have been reported in regions where the soil levels of molybdenum are low as well as vitamin C intake - although this does not clinically prove that molybdenum might be involved with prevention of certain cancers.





    molybdenum foods


    MOLYBDENUM DIETARY SOURCES

    Molybdenum is required by the body to maintain good health and metabolize essential enzymes. For the majority of people, food is the main source of the mineral. As with all trace minerals, the amount of molybdenum found in specific foods can vary depending on how much was in the soil (soil richness) where the food was grown, in the case of grown foods. Medical names for molybdenum-containing compounds include sodium molybdate and ammonium molybdate.

    FOOD SOURCES

    The main food sources for the trace mineral Molybdenum include beef liver, tomatoes, carrots, meats, seeds, nuts, milk and cheese, cereal grains, legumes, peas, dark green leafy vegetables, free range eggs, wheat germ, and dried beans (for example, lima, kidney, navy and black beans). Examples of nuts with molybdenum include cashews, almonds, peanuts and chestnuts. Green soybeans and cottage cheese are also food sources of molybdenum.

    NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

    If someone is unable to obtain Molybdenum from food, it can also be taken through dietary supplements. Ammonium Molybdate or sodium molybdate supplements are sold commercially. Molybdenum containing compounds usually come together with other nutritients. Since a deficiency of this trace mineral is very rare, supplements of Molybdenum are also not recommended unleass absolutely required. Taking in too much of this element can result in symptoms such as tiredness, rashes, anemia, dizziness, low white blood cell count and gout.





    MOLYBDENUM DOSAGE INFORMATION

    The essential trace mineral Molybdenum is involved in various functions in the body, including processing waste in the kidneys, developing the nervous system and producing energy.

    Except for certain areas of China, a deficiency of this nutrient appears rare, and it is unlikely you would require supplementation for this purpose.

    Many manufacturers of Molybdenum recommend it for an eclectic mix of issues ranging from acne to multiple sclerosis. The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center notes a lack of scientific evidence for any of these purported uses.

    The American Cancer Society reports some small studies have found this mineral might offer benefits for cancer treatment, but not all of them produced positive results. This link requires much more research, with larger groups of people. If you believe supplementing with molybdenum would address a particular health concern, talk to your health care provider about the appropriateness of this supplement and a suggested dosage.

    According to the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine, there is little evidence that a high intake of molybdenum is associated with significant adverse health outcomes in healthy individuals. The FNB states that in young children, the upper intake level, or UL, for molybdenum is 300 to 600 mcg per day. For adolescents and teenagers, the UL is between 1.1 and 1.7 mg per day; and for adults, the UL is 2 mg per day. Various foods such as milk, cheese, nuts, leafy green vegetables and organ meats contain molybdenum. It is also found in water. The recommended dietary allowance for adults is 45 micrograms. The average daily intake of molybdenum is about 109 mcg per day in men and about 76 mcg per day in women. The foods that are highest in molybdenum are legumes, such as beans, peas and lentils. The typical U.S. adult diet provides 120 to 210 micrograms of molybdenum per day.

    RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE (RDA)

    There is no standard recommended dosage, but it is believed that Molybdenum is relatively safe to take less than 15 mg (1500 mcg) per day. Most Molybdenum dietary supplements range from 25 mcg to 500 mcg dosages. For best results, read and follow product label directions, and/or consult with your health care provider regarding your dietary needs.

    There is a lack of research regarding therapeutic uses of Molybdenum, other than treating a demonstrated deficiency. For this reason, no dosage guidelines exist. It notes "safe and adequate" levels have been determined and taking it in this amount would likely pose little risk. Whether it would exert any therapeutic benefit is another matter. The suggested intake for anyone 11 and older is between 75 mcg and 250 mcg daily.

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for molybdenum is established for people of all ages. It generally increases with age and is the same for both genders, except that it is slightly more for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

    DOSAGE, INTAKE, RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE (RDA)
    Infants: Birth to 6 Months
    2 mcg
    Infants: 7 to 12 Months
    3 mcg
    Children: 1 to 3 Years
    17 mcg
    Children: 4 to 8 Years
    22 mcg
    Children: 9 to 13 Years
    34 mcg
    Adults: 19 Years & Older
    45 mcg
    Pregnant Females
    50 mcg
    Breastfeeding Females
    50 mcg


    MOLYBDENUM DOSAGE CONSIDERATIONS

  • Taking Molybdenum in larger amounts could lead to a Copper deficiency. You might need a Copper supplement to compensate for this effect. Again, talk to your health care provider about this and a suggested dosage.

  • When taken in normal recommended amounts, Molybdenum does not appear to negatively impact pregnant or breastfeeding women. This mineral exists in many foods, however, and the combination of molybdenum from your diet and from a supplement will likely exceed this suggested intake. Always talk to your health care provider or midwife before using any supplement in these instances. Other potentially contraindicated uses include kidney disease and biliary obstruction.

  • Besides a potential to cause copper deficiency, Molybdenum supplements might cause other side effects, including anemia, low white blood cell counts, gout, fatigue, dizziness and rashes. The Beth Istael Deaconess Medical Center (February 2011) notes one case report in which molybdenum supplementation induced symptoms of psychosis.

  • The upper safe limit of molybdenum in humans has been estimated with animal studies. This research studied the level at which high molybdenum dosages began to interfere with the reproductive rate in rats and extrapolated the data to humans. The data shows a daily upper level (UL) for molybdenum of 300 mcg for children from 1 to 3 years of age, 600 mcg for children from 4 to 8 years of age and 1,100 mcg for children from 9 to 13 years of age. The UL for molybdenum is 2,000 mcg in adults. Molybdenum is rated as likely safe when ingested in amounts not exceeding 2 mg per day. High amounts of molybdenum can cause side effects such as fatigue, lightheadedness, rash and anemia. Elevated dietary intake of molybdenum, such as 10 to 15 mg per day, can cause or worsen gout.





  • MOLYBDENUM SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    TOXICITY

    The toxicity of molybdenum appears to be low in humans. Excessive exposure to molybdenum during the manufacturing process of metals may increase serum levels of uric acid. Individuals who have consumed more than eight times the UL of molybdenum may experience gout-like symptoms, such as joint pain and swelling. In rare cases, extremely large doses of molybdenum may cause psychosis, seizures, hallucinations and other neurological symptoms. Molybdenum dosages exceeding more than 15 mg may be toxic and excess molybdenum in the body can interfere with the metabolism of copper in the body, can give symptoms of or may lead to the development of gout, and may cause diarrhea, anemia and slow growth.

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Very large doses of molybdenum, upward of eight to 10 times the UL per day, may have adverse interactions with acetaminophen. Acetaminophen is the active ingredient of many over-the-counter pain medications, such as Tylenol. Molybdenum may increase the risk of developing side effects associated with acetaminophen overdose, such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, sweating, extreme tiredness, unusual bleeding or bruising, stomach pain, yellowing of the skin or eyes and flu-like symptoms.

    OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

    According to the American Cancer Society, large amounts of molybdenum intake may produce similar symptoms of a copper deficiency. These symptoms may include tiredness, dizziness, the appearance of rashes or hives, low-white blood cell counts and anemia. Molybdenum powder that is released into the air during the manufacturing of metals at the workplace can be inhaled and cause irritation of your nose and throat, and it may cause coughing, weakness, headache, poor appetite, and muscle and joint pain.

    DEFICIENCY PREVENTION

    To keep from becoming deficient in molybdenum, avoid fad diets, regular fasting, single food diets, yo-yo dieting or weight loss pills. If you do these types of diets, you may already be deficient in necessary vitamins and minerals and this may be why you find it difficult to lose weight or sustain weight loss in the long term. An excess of copper, tungsten and sulfates can deplete molybdenum. Heat and moisture can change the action of supplemental molybdenum.

    Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known.





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    MOLYBDENUM SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Molybdenum is a trace mineral and a cofactor for enzymes that are part of amino acid metabolism, antioxidant health, and overall well-being. Molybdenum is involved in several enzyme functions including uric acid formation, the detoxification of sulfites, alcohol and some chemicals, as well as the metabolism of sulfur. Sulfite sensitivity may indicate a potential need for molybdenum supplementation. Molybdenum is instrumental in regulating pH balance in the body. For each pH point increase (e.g., 6.1 to 6.2), the oxygen level is increased ten times, thus increasing the metabolism and enhancing the body's ability to burn fat. Also promotes general well being, aids in carbohydrate metabolism, has proven itself useful in MSG (or other chemical) sensitivity, increases libido, and may enhance the effect of fluorine in tooth decay prevention (dental enamel is rich in molybdenum). It also induces sleep.

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    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




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