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Cobalt is also known as cobalamin, cyanocobalamin, and hydroxyocobalamin.
Cobalt, in elemental form, is a hard gray metal. Cobalt is part of the Vitamin B-12 molecule as cobalamin, and there is little evidence of other roles of Cobalt in human nutrition. The Cobalt atom in B-12 is surrounded and attached to a methyl group, a deoxyadenosyl group and a hydroxyl group or a cyano group. Cobalt is present in the body only a component of Vitamin B-12, with a well-recognized essential function for producing red blood cells (erthropoiesis) and maintaining the nervous system. Cobalt serves some of the same purposes as Manganese and Zinc. It can replace Manganese in the activation of several enzymes (biochemical reaction activators) and it can replace zinc in some biochemical reactions. Cobalt also participates in the biotin-dependent Krebs-cycle, the process that the body uses to break down sugars into energy.
The human requirement for Cobalt is not the ionic form of the metal, but for a preformed metallovitamin that cannot be synthesized from dietary metal. Therefore it is the Vitamin B-12 content of foods in the diet that is of importance in human nutrition.
COBALT HEALTH BENEFITS, USES & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
The body seems to benefit from only a small amount of cobalt.
Research indicates that cobalt helps maintain the myelin sheath, promotes glucose transport from the blood into body cells, and supports the assimilation of Iron and the building of red blood cells. Cobalt is an important agent of Vitamin B-12; it increases the body's ability to absorb it. Cobalt stimulates many enzymes of the body and maintains the performance of other body cells. Because of its low absorption rate and high excretion rate, Cobalt toxicity is not common, but an excess can lead to enlargement of the thyroid gland. Cobalt is stored in red blood cells with smaller amounts in the kidney, liver, pancreas and spleen.
- The functions and activity of cobalt are essential the same as Vitamin B-12. Therefore, cobalt plays a role in erythropoiesis.
- Cobalt, in the form of CoC12, assists in regulating certain phosphoprotein phosphatases, such as casein and phosvitin phosphatases.
- Along with Manganese (Mn) and Nickel (Ni), cobalt can substitute for Zinc (Zn) in the metalloenzymes, angiotensin-converting enzyme, carboxypeptidase, and carbonic anhydrase.
MEDICALLY VALID USES
Cobalt, as a component of Vitamin B-12, prevents pernicious anemia. Vitamin B-12 is also essential for maintaining the nervous system.
There are currently no beneficial claims based upon Cobalt as a single element.
Vitamin B-12 Deficiency & Hyperhomocysteinemia: It has been suggested that Vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia impact the metabolism of some trace elements, particularly cobalt and nickel. A study found that Vitamin B12-deficient pigs fed an oral supplement of Cobalt (1 mg/kg), had 47-percent lower serum homocysteine concentrations than B-12-deficient pigs fed a lower dose of cobalt (0.13 mg/kg). However, B-12 status of both groups was not affected. Nickel supplementation also improved B-12 status in the liver and serum, and decreased the concentration of serum homocysteine. The results suggested that Cobalt and Nickel influenced response of the pig to Vitamin B-12 deficiency. In addition, the accumulation of homocysteine in the serum, a symptom of B-12 deficiency, can be attenuated by Cobalt and Nickel even though the mode of action of these elements seems to differ.
RELATED HEALTH LINKS
MoonDragon's Womens Health: Pernicious Anemia Information
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamin B-12 Supplement Information
COBALT DIETARY SOURCES
Dietary sources of cobalt are the same as Vitamin B-12, such as foods of animal origin or fermented foods where the bacteria produce the vitamin. Organ meats are the best source of Vitamin B-12 (liver, kidney, heart, and pancreas), followed by clams, oysters, extra-lean beef, seafood, eggs, milk and yogurt, chicken, cheese, and miso (a fermented soybean product).
A deficiency in cobalt is ultimately a deficiency in Vitamin B-12. Increased consumption of Vitamin B-12 via food and/or supplements would alleviate any deficiency symptoms. Since the primary sources of Vitamin B-12 in the diet are animal products, vegetarians have a high risk of developing B-12 deficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to use a supplement in order to prevent the Vitamin B-12 deficiency.
Other conditions that may be associated with an increased risk for Cobalt deficiency include:
- Lack of intrinsic factor.
- Malabsorption. (See Nutrition Basics: Vitamin B-12 Information.)
COBALT DOSAGE INFORMATION
No safe Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake has been set or established for cobalt.
Trace amounts of cobalt are present in most foods. Foods high in vitamin B-12 are the only source of cobalt actively used by the body. When present in nutritional supplements, Cobalt is usually measured in micrograms (mcg or µg). The average adult intake of cobalt is 5 to 8 mcg per day. Cobalt supplements are best taken in the form of vitamin B-12.
A Cobalt deficiency is ultimately also a vitamin B-12 deficiency. Anemia, specifically pernicious anemia, is one of the obvious symptoms of a cobalt deficiency. Numbness, fatigue, tingling in the extremities, and decreased nerve function occur in long-standing pernicious
No health hazards or side effects are known, however caution should be used with pregnancy or nursing. Information on the relationship between substances and disease is provided for general information, in order to convey a balanced review of the scientific literature. In many cases the relationship between a substance and a disease is tentative and additional research is needed to confirm such a relationship.
COBALT SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTION INFORMATION
HIGH DOSAGE TOXICITY & SUPPLEMENT CAUTIONS
In the past, Cobalt was recommended for treating anemia, nephritis and infection in addition to the usual hemopoietic agents. Reports of goiter, myxedema and congestive heart failure have been found in five patients. Industrial exposure to high amounts of cobalt and consumption of beer contaminated with excessive amounts of cobalt produce cardiomyopathy with a high mortality risk.
Cobalt is toxic to the heart muscle and can result in toxic cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease) after excessive exposure. Polycythemia, an increase in red blood cells, may be a symptom of cobalt excess. Untreated polycythemia can result in congestive heart failure. Excessive intake of cobalt may produce a goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland) and reduce the activity of the thyroid. Cobalt may cause hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar). Since cobalt is a key component of vitamin B-12, individuals with Leber's syndrome, a rare eye condition, should not take any nutritional supplements containing vitamin B-12 without first consulting their health care provider. Vitamin B-12 in the form of cyanocobalamin could contribute to vision loss in those with this syndrome. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should consult a health care provider before taking any mineral supplements.
There are no known significant food or drug interactions associated with cobalt.
COBALT SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS
QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS
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COBALT SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS
Amazon: Cobalt Supplement Products
Nutrition Basics: Cobalt Supplement Information
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
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Using Essential Oils
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HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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