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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics


(Rubus Idaeus)

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  • Red Raspberry Herbal Description
  • Red Raspberry Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Red Raspberry Dosage Information
  • Red Raspberry Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Red Raspberry Herbal Supplements & Products

  • red raspberry plant


    Red Raspberry is also known as Rubus idaeus, Raspberry, European Raspberry, Hindberry, Wild Red Raspberry, Reapberry, and Wild Raspberry.

    Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is known occasionally as European Raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberries. It is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions. A closely related plant in North America, sometimes regarded as the variety Rubus idaeus var. strigosus, is more commonly treated as a distinct species, Rubus strigosus (American Red Raspberry). Red-fruited cultivated raspberries, even in North America, are generally Rubus idaeus or horticultural derivatives of hybrids of R. idaeus and R. strigosus.

    Plants of Rubus idaeus are generally perennials which bear biennial stems ("canes") from a perennial root system. In its first year, a new, unbranched stem ("primocane") grows vigorously to its full height of 1.5 to 2.5 meters, bearing large pinnately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets, but usually no flowers. In its second year (as a "floricane"), a stem does not grow taller, but produces several side shoots, which bear smaller leaves with three or five leaflets.

    The flowers are produced in late spring on short racemes on the tips of these side shoots, each flower about 1 cm diameter with five white petals.

    The fruit is red, edible, and sweet but tart-flavored, produced in summer or early autumn; in botanical terminology, it is not a berry at all, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets around a central core. In raspberries (various species of Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), the drupelets separate from the core when picked, leaving a hollow fruit, whereas in blackberries and most other species of Rubus, the drupelets stay attached to the core.

    As a wild plant, R. idaeus typically grows in forests, forming open stands under a tree canopy, and denser stands in clearings. In the south of its range (southern Europe and central Asia), it only occurs at high altitudes in mountains. The species name idaeus refers to its occurrence on Mount Ida near Troy in northwest Turkey, where the ancient Greeks were most familiar with it.

    red raspberry fruit


    Rubus idaeus is grown primarily for its fruits, but occasionally for its leaves, roots, or other parts. The fruit of R. idaeus is an important food crop, though most modern commercial raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. The fruits of wild plants have a sweet taste and are very aromatic. Raspberry fruit may protect the liver. Red raspberries contains 31 µg/100 g of folate. Red Raspberries have antioxidant effects that play a minor role in the killing of stomach and colon cancer cells.


    Young roots of Rubus idaeus prevented kidney stone formation in a mouse model of hyperoxaluria.[11] Tiliroside from raspberry is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor and might be used as a skin-whitening agent and pigmentation medicine.[12]


    Raspberry leaves are among the most pleasant-tasting of all the herbal remedies, with a taste much like black tea, without the caffeine. Raspberries were said to have been discovered by the Olympian gods themselves while searching for berries on Mount Ida. Raspberries are indigenous to Asia Minor and North America, with the first real records of domestication coming from the writings of Palladius, a Roman agriculturist. By Medieval times it had a great many uses, including the juices which were used in paintings and illuminated manuscripts. King Edward the 1st (1272 to 1307) was said to be the first to call for mass cultivation of raspberries, whose popularity spread quickly throughout Europe.

    Teas of raspberry leaves were given to women of the Cherokee, Iroquois, and Mohawk nations in North America, and have earned approval of the authoritative British Herbal Compendium. Red Raspberry has long been established as a female herb. The leaf tea is used by pregnant women to help prevent complications and make delivery easier. It has also been known to reduce menstrual bleeding and relieve symptoms of diarrhea.

    red raspberry flowers



    The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems. Red Raspberry fruit season is typically June 15 through July 20th. The fruit is medium sized red berry with a small seed and a hollow core.

    Raspberries are grown for the fresh fruit market and for commercial processing into individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or as dried fruit used in a variety of grocery products. Traditionally, raspberries were a midsummer crop, but with new technology, cultivars, and transportation, they can now be obtained year-round. Raspberries need ample sun and water for optimal development. Raspberries thrive in well-drained soil with a pH between 6 and 7 with ample organic matter to assist in retaining water. While moisture is essential, wet and heavy soils or excess irrigation can bring on Phytophthora root rot, which is one of the most serious pest problems facing the red raspberry. As a cultivated plant in moist, temperate regions, it is easy to grow and has a tendency to spread unless pruned. Escaped raspberries frequently appear as garden weeds, spread by seeds found in bird droppings.

    An individual raspberry weighs 3 to 5 grams (0.11 to 0.18 ounce), and is made up of around 100 drupelets,each of which consists of a juicy pulp and a single central seed. A raspberry bush can yield several hundred berries a year. Unlike blackberries and dewberries, a raspberry has a hollow core once it is removed from the receptacle.

    The aggregate fruit structure contributes to raspberry's nutritional value, as it increases the proportion of dietary fiber, which is among the highest known in whole foods, up to 6-percent fiber per total weight. Raspberries are a rich source of vitamin C, with 26 mg per 100 g serving (32-percent Daily Value), manganese (32-percent Daily Value) and dietary fiber (26-percent Daily Value). Raspberries also have a moderate amount of Vitamin K (7-percent Daily Value) and are a low-glycemic index food, with total sugar content of only 4-percent and no starch.

    Raspberries contain anthocyanin pigments, ellagic acid (from ellagotannins), quercetin, gallic acid, cyanidins, pelargonidins, catechins, kaempferol and salicylic acid. Yellow raspberries and others with pale-colored fruits are lower in anthocyanins. Both yellow and red raspberries contain carotenoids, mostly lutein esters, but these are masked by anthocyans in the red fruits. Animal research indicates antioxidant and antiproliferative (chemopreventive) effects may be associated with phenolics and flavonoids in raspberries.


    Curative aspects of the red raspberry have been of botanical interest since somewhere around 4 A.D. The leaves were made into teas and various parts of the plant were used for throat gargles, morning sickness remedies, digestive cures and the like. Today, new research suggests that eating red raspberries may prevent cancer by inhibiting the abnormal division of cells and promoting the normal death of healthy cells. Tests conducted at the Hollings Cancer Center at the Medical University of South Carolina have revealed that the human body readily absorbs the ellagic acid from red raspberries. This ellagic acid has been clinically shown to cause apoptosis (cell death) in certain cancer cells.

    Among several significant phytochemicals, red raspberries contain ellagic acid, a phenolic compound that has exhibited anti-carcinogenic effects against a wide range of carcinogens in several tissues. Ellagic acid contributes to significant inhibition of colon, esophageal, liver, lung, tongue, and skin cancers in studies with rats and mice, both in vitro and in vivo. By the same token, quercetin, one of the flavanols found in raspberries, has been found to be an effective anticarcinogen against skin, colon, and mammary cancers in rodents. Anthocyanins are also prevalent in red raspberries, working as antioxidants that protect against heart disease and age-related mental decline. What is interesting to note is the superior efficacy of eating red raspberries as opposed to taking the individual phytochemicals in the form of dietary supplements. Though we do not yet fully comprehend why this is so, it is clear the nutraceutical whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

    Rubus Idaeus, Raw

    Nutrition Value Per 100 Grams (3.5 Ounces)
    (Source: USDA National Nutrient Data Base)
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Energy      53 Kcal (220 kJ)      
         Carbohydrates      11.94 g      
         Protein      1.2 g      
         Total Fat      0.65 g      
         Sugars      4.42 g      
         Dietary Fiber      6.5 g      
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Folates (B-9)      21 µg      5%
         Vitamin B-6      0.055 mg      4%
         Pantothenic Acid (B-5)      0.329 mg      7%
         Niacin (B-3)      0.598 mg      4%
         Riboflavin (B-2)      0.038 mg      3%
         Thiamin (B-1)      0.032 mg      3%
         Vitamin C      26.2 mg      32%
         Vitamin E      0.87 mg      6%
         Vitamin K      7.8 µg      7%
         Choline      12.3 mg      3%
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Potassium      151 mg      3%
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Calcium      25 mg      3%
         Iron      0.69 mg      5%
         Magnesium      22 mg      6%
         Manganese      0.67 mg      32%
         Phosphorus      29 mg      4%
         Zinc      0.42 mg      4%
    µg = Micrograms
    mg = Milligrams
    IU = International Units

    Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
    Source: USDA Nutrient Database


    Red Raspberries contain strong antioxidants such as Vitamin C, quercetin and gallic acid that fight against cancer, heart and circulatory disease and age-related decline. They are high in ellagic acid, a known chemopreventative, and have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Red raspberry ketones are currently being used in Japan as a weight loss supplement. Red raspberry seed oil is creating market interest in the cosmeceutical industry because it is rich in Vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acid and has a sun protection factor (SPF) of 24 to 50.
    • High in polyphenolic compounds known for their anti-cancer properties.
    • Contain strong antioxidants such as Vitamin C, quercetin and gallic acid.
    • Have a high ORAC level. ORAC is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a substance. Red raspberries with an ORAC of 24 µmole/TE/g are similar to blueberries, well known for their antioxidant values.
    • Raspberries have been shown to inhibit the production of COX-I and COX-II enzymes. Anti inflammatory products like ibuprofen and aspirin, inhibit COX-I and COX-II resulting in the reduction of pain associated with arthritis, gout and other inflammatory conditions.
    • Eating whole berries has been shown in scientific studies to be more beneficial than taking the individual phytochemicals in the form of dietary supplements.
    • Red Raspberry oil is creating interest in the cosmeceutical market (skin care products which provide health benefits). The oil from raspberry seeds is rich in Vitamin E, Omega-3 fatty acids and has a sun protection factor (SPF) of 25 to 50.
    • Red Raspberry ketones are currently being used in Japan as a weight loss supplement in a pill form and as an external patch.

    1 cup Fresh
    1 cup Canned, Heavy Syrup Packed
    1 cup Unthawed, Sweetened Frozen
    123 grams
    256 grams
    250 grams
    1.48 grams
    2.12 grams
    1.75 grams
    Lipid (Fat)
    0.80 grams
    0.31 grams
    0.40 grams
    Carbohydrate, By Difference
    14.69 grams
    59.80 grams
    65.40 grams
    Fiber, Total Dietary
    8.0 grams
    8.4 grams
    11.0 grams
    Sugars, Total
    5.44 grams
    51.35 grams
    54.40 grams
    0.25 grams
    Glucose (Dextrose)
    2.29 grams
    2.89 grams
    31 mg
    28 mg
    38 mg
    0.85 mg
    1.08 mg
    1.62 mg
    27 mg
    31 mg
    32 mg
    36 mg
    23 mg
    42 mg
    186 mg
    241 mg
    285 mg
    1 mg
    8 mg
    2 mg
    0.52 mg
    0.41 mg
    0.46 mg
    0.111 mg
    0.146 mg
    0.263 mg
    0.824 mg
    0.596 mg
    1.625 mg
    0.2 mcg
    0.3 mcg
    0.8 mcg
    Vitamin C, Total Ascorbic Acid
    32.2 mg
    22.3 mg
    41.2 mg
    0.039 mg
    0.051 mg
    0.048 mg
    0.047 mg
    0.079 mg
    0.113 mg
    0.736 mg
    1.134 mg
    0.575 mg
    Pantothenic Acid
    0.405 mg
    0.627 mg
    0.375 mg
    Vitamin B-6
    0.068 mg
    0.108 mg
    0.085 mg
    Folate, Total
    26 mcg
    28 mcg
    65 mcg
    Folate, Food
    26 mcg
    28 mcg
    65 mcg
    Folate, DFE♥
    26 mcg DFE♥
    28 mcg DFE♥
    65 mcg DFE♥
    Vitamin A, IU
    41 IU
    84 IU
    150 IU
    Vitamin A, RAE♠
    2 mcg RAE♠
    6 mcg RAE♠
    8 mcg RAE♠
    Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol)
    1.07 mg
    1.51 mg
    1.80 mg
    Tocopherol, Beta
    0.07 mg
    Tocopherol, Gamma
    1.75 mg
    Tocopherol, Delta
    1.28 mg
    Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)
    9.6 mcg
    13.3 mcg
    16. 3 mcg

    ♠RAE (Retinol Activity Equivalent): RDAs for vitamin A are given as mcg of retinol activity equivalents (RAE) to account for the different bioactivities of retinol and provitamin A carotenoids. Because the body converts all dietary sources of vitamin A into retinol, 1 mcg of physiologically available retinol is equivalent to the following amounts from dietary sources: 1 mcg of retinol, 12 mcg of beta-carotene, and 24 mcg of alpha-carotene or beta-cryptoxanthin. From dietary supplements, the body converts 2 mcg of beta-carotene to 1 mcg of retinol.

    ♥DFE (Dietary Folate Equivalent): The Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) developed DFEs to reflect the higher bioavailability of folic acid than that of food folate. At least 85% of folic acid is estimated be be bioavailable when taken with food, whereas only about 50% of folate naturally present in food is bioavailable. Based on these values, the FNB defined DFE as: 1 mcg DFE is equivalent to 1 mcg food folate. 1 mcg DFE is equivalent to 0.6 mcg folic acid from fortified foods or dietary supplements consumed with foods. 1 mcg DFE is equivalent to 0.5 mcg folic acid from dietary supplements taken on an empty stomach.


    Brewed as a tea or as an infusion, Red Raspberry leaf is the best known, most widely used, and safest of all uterine and pregnancy tonic herbs. It contains fragrine, an alkaloid which gives tone to the muscles of the pelvic region, including the uterus itself.

    Most of the benefits ascribed to regular use of Red Raspberry tea through pregnancy are traced to the nourishing source of vitamins and minerals found in this plant and to the strengthening power of fragrine - an alkaloid which gives tone to the muscles of the pelvic region, including the uterus itself. Of special note are the rich concentration of vitamin C, the presence of vitamin E and the easily assimilated calcium and iron. Raspberry leaves also contain vitamins A and B complex and many minerals, including phosphorous and potassium.

    The benefits of drinking a raspberry leaf brew before and throughout pregnancy include:
    • Increasing fertility in both men and women. Raspberry leaf is an excellent fertility herb when combined with Red Clover.
    • Preventing miscarriage and hemorrhage. Raspberry leaf tones the uterus and helps prevent miscarriage and postpartum hemorrhage from a relaxed or atonic uterus.
    • Easing of morning sickness. Many attest to raspberry leaves' gentle relief of nausea and stomach distress throughout pregnancy.
    • Reducing pain during labor and after birth. By toning the muscles used during labor and delivery, Raspberry leaf eliminates many of the reasons for a painful delivery and prolonged recovery. It does not, however, counter the pain of pelvic dilation.
    • Assisting in the production of plentiful breast milk. The high mineral content of Raspberry leaf assist in milk production, but its astringency may counter that for some women.
    • Providing a safe and speedy pariuntion. Raspberry leaf works to encourage the uterus to let go and function without tension. It does not strengthen contractions, but does allow the contracting uterus to work more effectively and so may make the birth easier and faster.

    In addition to preventing complications in pregnancy, reducing menstrual bleeding, and diarrhea, Red Raspberry is used to relax uterine and intestinal spasms. It is known to strengthen uterine walls, and promote healthy nails, bones, teeth and skin. Red Raspberry can diminish the effects of morning sickness, false labor pains, hot flashes, and menstrual cramps.

    Using Red Raspberry after childbirth helps decrease uterine swelling and reduces postpartum bleeding. Small children can drink Red Raspberry tea for vomiting, dysentery, and diarrhea. The warm tea also soothes sore throats, mouth ulcers, bleeding gums, and canker sores.

    red raspberry leaf



    Constituents include flavonoids, tannins, and elagic acid. The parts used include the dried leaf. Raspberry leaves gathered in the spring before the plant flowers have the have the highest antioxidant content.

    Typical preparations includes Red Raspberry Leaf tea or capsules.

    To make tea, pour one cup of boiling water over 1 or 2 teaspoons of dried Red Raspberry leaf, cover the teapot and steep for 10 minutes, and then sweeten to taste. Drink 2 to 3 cups daily while pregnant. Drink warm.

    Many herbal teas include raspberry to "stabilize" the other ingredients. May also be taken as a capsule, though rare.



    The successful use of Red Raspberry is based on tradition more than science and even though it is widely available.

    Safe dosages for children under the age of 6 or those with severe liver or kidney disease is unknown and have not been established.


  • Red Raspberry Herbal Products



    Raspberry Leaf tea has been used for centuries as a folk medicine to treat canker sores, cold sores, and gingivitis in persons of all ages and anemia, leg cramps, diarrhea, and morning sickness in pregnant women, and as a uterine relaxant. Commentators frequently state that recent scientific research found no benefit in raspberry tea for expectant mothers, but this is not correct. The study published in the Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health in 2001 found that women who drank raspberry leaf tea had shorter labor, and fewer of their babies were delivered by forceps. The other study, published in the Australian College of Midwives Journal, cited in The Natural Pharmacist as saying there was & quot;no" benefit to the herb for pregnant women, actually stated: "The findings also suggest ingestion of the drug might decrease the likelihood of pre and post-term gestation. An unexpected finding in this study seems to indicate that women who ingest raspberry leaf might be less likely to receive an artificial rupture of their membranes, or require a caesarean section, forceps or vacuum birth than the women in the control group." In other words, scientific studies show that drinking raspberry tea actually is beneficial during pregnancy.


    Mountain Rose Herbs: Red Raspberry Leaf (Rubus Idaeus), Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Red Raspberry Extract (Rubus Idaeus), Certified Organic, Single Herbal Extracts & Tinctures


    Starwest Botanicals: Red Raspberry Leaf, Cut & Sifted, Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Red Raspberry Leaf Powder, Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Red Raspberry Leaf, Cut & Sifted, Wildcrafted, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Red Raspberry Leaf Powder, Wildcrafted, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Red Raspberry Leaf, Organic, 520 mg, 100 Caps
    Starwest Botanicals: Red Raspberry Leaf, Organic, 520 mg, 500 Caps
    Starwest Botanicals: Woman's Red Raspberry Leaf Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Tea Bags


    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Leaf, Organic, Cut & Sifted, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb. (71327)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry Leaf Tea, Organic, Traditional Medicinals, 16 Bags (19376)
    HerbsPro: Woman's Mother To Be Tea With Raspberry Leaf, Yogi Teas, 16 Bags (38940)
    HerbsPro: Woman's Raspberry Leaf Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Bags (38942)
    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Leaf Tea, Alvita Teas, 24 Bags (13573)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry Tea With Stevia, Jason Winters, 30 Tea Bags (70407)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry Leaf (Rubus Idaeus), Eclectic Institute Inc, 300 mg, 45 Caps (32090)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry Leaf (Rubus Idaeus), Eclectic Institute Inc, 300 mg, 50 Caps (32091)
    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Leaf (Rubus Idaeus), Organic, Eclectic Institute Inc, 300 mg, 90 Caps (980)
    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Leaf, Dr. Christophers Formulas, 450 mg, 100 VCaps (70739)
    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Leaf, Natures Way, 480 mg, 100 Caps (18055)
    HerbsPro: Female Complex With Red Raspberry Leaf, Natures Answer, 800 mg, 90 VCaps (35249)
    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Leaf, Natures Answer, 950 mg, 90 Caps (35323)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry & Squawvine Extract, Alcohol Free, Eclectic Institute Inc, 1 fl. oz. (2666)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry Extract (Rubus Idaeus), Alcohol Free, Eclectic Institute Inc, 1 fl. oz. (32092)
    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Leaf Extract, Organic, Natures Answer, 1 fl. oz. (17306)
    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Leaf Extract, Organic, Alcohol Free, Natures Answer, 1 fl. oz. (17305)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry Extract (Rubus Idaeus), Eclectic Institute Inc, 1 fl. oz. (76149)
    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Extract, Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz. (31329)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry & Squawvine Extract, Alcohol Free, Eclectic Institute Inc, 1 fl. oz. (2666)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry Extract (Rubus Idaeus), Alcohol Free, Eclectic Institute Inc, 2 fl. oz. (76205)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry Extract (Rubus Idaeus), Eclectic Institute Inc, 2 fl. oz. (76154)
    HerbsPro: Raspberry & Squawvine Extract, Alcohol Free, Eclectic Institute Inc, 2 fl. oz. (32101)
    HerbsPro: Red Raspberry Extract, Herb Pharm, 4 fl. oz. (32331)


    Kalyx: Red Raspberry Leaf, Cut & Sifted, Certified Organic, Frontier Herbs, 1 lb. (K)
    Kalyx: Red Raspberry Leaf Powder, Certified Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb. (C)
    Kalyx: Red Raspberry Leaf Tea, Traditional Medicinals, 16 Tea Bags (K)
    Kalyx: Pregnancy Tea, Traditional Medicinals, 16 Tea Bags (K)
    Pregnancy Tea supports healthy pregnancy by combining herbs used for thousands of years by women in Europe and North America to tone uterine muscles, provide nourishment and prepare the womb for childbirth. Pregnancy Tea is based on a synergistic combination of raspberry leaf, strawberry leaf and nettle leaf to be taken throughout pregnancy in preparation for labor and also for a few weeks postpartum.* Women of the Cherokee nation traditionally drank raspberry leaf tea to ease labor and today the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (1996) indicates its action as a partus preparator. Strawberry and nettle are both traditionally considered to be blood building tonic herbs and they provide essential micro nutrients beneficial to uterine health.


    Amazon: Red Raspberry Fruit Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: Red Raspberry Leaf Herbal Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: Red Raspberry Leaf Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Red Raspberry Herbal Information

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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
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  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index

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