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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Fennel Seed / Fennel Bulb

(Foeniculum Vulgare)

For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
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  • Fennel Herbal Description
  • Fennel Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Fennel Dosage Information
  • Fennel Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Fennel Supplements & Products

  • fennel


    Fennel is also known as Foeniculum vulgare, Fennel Seed, Finocchio, Carosella, Madhurika, Anethum Foeniculum, Fenkel, Bari-Sanuf, Bitter Fennel, Carosella, Common Fennel, Fennel Oil, Fennel Seed, Finnochio, Florence Fennel, Foeniculi Antheroleum, Foeniculum Officinale, Foeniculum Capillaceum, Garden Fennel, Large Fennel, Sanuf, Shatapuspha, Sweet Fennel, Wild Fennel.

    Fennel comes from the Latin word, "foenum", and meaning, "hay" because it has finely divided leaves like hay. Fennel's licorice-like flavor is most often associated with Italian dishes, but it also has an extended history of non-culinary uses. Indigenous to Mediterranean regionhs, the aromatic herb was thought to suppress the appetite. It was popular with ancient Greeks, who ate it to help lose weight, as well as with poorer classes, who chewed fennel seeds to stave off hunger pangs. Ancient Grecian athletes ate Fennel seed to gain strength, but not weight. In the Middle Ages, the seeds were chewed to ward of hunger during fasting periods. The ancient Chinese used Fennel to cure snakebite, while the Egyptians and Romans ate it after meals to help tone their digestive tracts. Crushed Fennel seeds in tea have been used for centuries to help promote lactation. At one time, Fennel Seed was an official drug in the United Staes that was used for indigestion. It is also believed that Fennel has diuretic, pain relieving, fever-reducing, and anti-microbial actions.


    This perennial-biennial herbal plant is a member of the Apiaceae family. The plant is about three feet tall will grow in full sun to about 5 feet tall with dark green leaves and has stalks with finely divided leaves composed of many linear or awl-shaped segments. The bright golden-yellow flowers are produced on the large, flat, greyish, terminal compound umbels, with from 13 to 20 rays, the seeds (or fruits) is small, oblong, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, 6 to 7 mm long (approximately 1/4 inch), straight or slightly curved, and of greenish-yellow or yellowish-brown color possessing an agreeable, sweet, very spicy aroma and taste suggestive of Anise. Native to southern Europe and Asia Minor, originating in the Mediterranean region where it is still found in the wild. Today, Fennel is cultivated in the United States, Great Britain, and Europe and Asia as a vegetable or seed-bearing plant in the temperate zones.

    The dried, ripe seeds are used for medicinal and other purposes. Fennel is reported to increase milk secretion in women, promote menstruation, increase libido, and expel gas. Fennel is used for gastrointestinal complaints, flatulence (gas) and poor appetite. Fennel water is given to infants to relieve colic. Rinsing daily with a fennel seed mouthwash is a good way to keep the lining of your mouth clean and healthy. This rinse will also inhibit the formation of tooth decay and keep your breath fresh. Used as a food flavoring and its oil is used in cosmetic preparations.

    Fennel is a flavorful herb with many medicinal and culinary uses. Both a herb and a spice, fennel seeds can be found in recipes, medicines, and liquor. Fennel seeds are known for their mouth freshening properties.

    The Roman historian Pliny recorded that when snakes shed their skins, they ate fennel to restore their sight (although he did not record how he made this observation). Pliny's observation led to the popular use in Europe of a cooled tea of fennel seed which was used as a wash for eyestrain and eye irritations. Chinese and Hindus employed fennel seed as a treatment for snakebite and Medieval Europeans used fennel seed as a treatment for obesity. Several liquors are flavored with fennel, including aquavit, gin, absinthe and fennouillete. All the above-ground parts of the fennel plant are edible. Fennel seeds are actually whole fruits, the most aromatic seeds found in the center of the seed head. In seed, a bright green color indicates quality. The herb should be stored in a tightly closed container in a cool, dry place.


    Fennel was well known to the Ancients and was cultivated by the ancient Romans for its aromatic fruits and succulent, edible shoots. Pliny had much faith in its medicinal properties, according no less than twenty-two remedies to it, observing also that serpents eat it "when they cast their old skins, and they sharpen their sight with the juice by rubbing against the plant." Many of the older herbalists uphold this theory of the peculiarly strengthening effect of this herb on the sight.

    In medieval times, Fennel was employed, together with St. John's Wort and other herbs, as a preventative of witchcraft and other evil influences, being hung over doors on Midsummer's Eve to warn off evil spirits. It was likewise eaten as a condiment to the salt fish so much consumed by our forefathers during Lent. Like several other umbelliferae, it is carminative.

    Though the Romans valued the young shoots as a vegetable, it is not certain whether it was cultivated in northern Europe at that time, but it is frequently mentioned in Anglo-Saxon cookery and medical recipes prior to the Norman Conquest. Fennel shoots, Fennel water and Fennel seed are all mentioned in an ancient record of Spanish agriculture dating A.D. 961. The diffusion of the plant in Central Europe was stimulated by Charlemagne, who enjoined its cultivation on the imperial farms.

    fennel leaf



    Today Fennel seeds are used as a flavoring agent in many herbal medicines. This herb is used to eliminate flatulence. The seeds, and roots, help open obstructions of the liver, gall bladder and spleen, and to ease painful swellings. Fennel is also used to treat yellow jaundice, the gout and occasional cramps. This herb may help with angina and can lower high blood pressure. It also helps fight body odor. Fennel is also helpful when used after chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments for cancer, and the powder can also be used as a flea repellant.


  • GI Tract & Indigestion: It is a common practice in many Indian families to chew fennel seeds after meals. Fennel contains anethole, a volatile oil, which stimulates secretion of digestive and gastric juices, reduces inflammation of stomach and intestines and facilitates proper absorption of nutrients from the food. It is extensively used in antacid preparations, is an appetizer and prevents bad breath.

  • Flatulence (Gas Trouble): Fennel contains aspartic acid, which acts as an antiflatulent. Thus, fennel extract can be used in infants to geriatrics to relieve the stomach of excess gases.

  • Constipation: Fennel seeds are good laxative agents as they contain fiber. The roughage helps in clearance of bowels whereas the stimulating effect helps maintain the proper peristaltic motion of the intestines, thereby helping proper excretion.

  • Diarrhea: Fennel has disinfectant and anti-bacterial properties. It contains amino acids such as histidine that aid digestion and proper functioning of digestive system, curing diarrhoea due to indigestion.

  • Colic (Severe Stomach Ache): Polymeric and heavy molecules present in fennel are useful in the treatment of renal colic. Volatile oil of fennel contains anethole, which is a phytoestrogen, thus making it a polymer which is helpful in treating colic.

  • Cholerectic (Increase Bile Production): The seed, or roots, help to open obstructions of the liver, spleen and gall, and ease painful and windy swellings and helps in curing yellow jaundice.

  • Respiratory Tract: Cineole and anethole present in fennel seeds act as expectorants and help to clear congestion in the respiratory tract. Thus, it is considered to be beneficial in conditions like asthma or bronchitis. Eating fennel seeds with figs is also a good medicine for cough, bronchitis and lung abscesses.

  • Anemia: Histidine, found in fennel seeds, is an essential amino acid that helps in the formation of hemoglobin and other blood components. Thus, it helps prevent anemia.

  • Women's Health: Emenagogue (foods that regulate menses). Fennel has mild estrogenic properties. Fennel water when taken during periods can help ease menstrual pain. It also helps to regulate the menstrual cycle.

  • Lactation: Galactogogue (foods that help in milk secretion and production). Fennel increases milk production and secretion in lactating mothers. The milk produced will contain some properties of fennel; thus acting as an anti-flatulent for the infant.

  • Coolant: With summer round the corner, fennel water with a dash of lime, sugar and black salt is an ideal coolant for the body. The juice of fennel leaves and the plant can be externally applied on the eyes to reduce irritation and fatigue. It gives a cool and soothing effect.

  • Other Benefits: Recent studies have found fennel water to possess diuretic, pain-reducing and fever-reducing properties. Fennel oil helps to relieve muscular and rheumatic pains. Fennel bulb is a good source of vitamin C, which is a powerful antioxidant. Fiber, folate and potassium present in adequate amounts in fennel helps to improve cardiovascular and colon health.

  • fennel flowers


    Fennel is a member of the Apiaceae (parsley family) and is related to carrots, caraway, anise, cumin, dill, etc. Scientific name: Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum. The delicate, sweet-flavored fennel bulb is one of the regularly featuring ingredients in the Mediterranean cuisine. Its succulent enlarged bulb imparts special Anise-like sweet flavor to the recipes. Bulb fennel is cultivated as a vegetable for its beautiful, squatted stems in many regions in the southern Europe, especially in Italy. It is also known as Florence fennel, finocchio, sweet fennel, etc. Bulb fennel is a cool season perennial herb but grown as annual vegetable crop. Unlike seed fennel, the vegetable fennel is a small plant, growing up to only 2 feet in height. As the plant grows, its thickened lower leaves overlap one above the other to form a swollen, bulblike structure just above the ground. At maturity, its bulb measures about 3 to 5 inches wide and about 3 inches in length. As the plant grows, oftentimes, surrounding soil is pulled around the stem base to create a mound to obtain long blanched fronds.
  • Heart Health: A 1-cup, 87-gram serving of raw fennel root slices contains 10.4 milligrams of vitamin C and 2.7 grams of dietary fiber. These amounts fulfill 11-percent of the Food and Nutrition Board's recommended daily allowance of vitamin C for a man and nearly 14-percent of a woman's requirement, as well as approximately 8.5-percent of a healthy adult's RDA of fiber. As an antioxidant, vitamin C can help prevent heart disease by inhibiting the ability of free radicals to damage DNA and cardiovascular tissue. A high intake of fiber-rich foods like raw fennel is linked to a lower risk of heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure.

  • Bone Health: According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, the vitamin C in foods like raw fennel root is necessary for the growth, development and maintenance of bones. Fennel also contains two other nutrients that play a role in bone health: potassium and manganese. Each 1-cup serving of raw fennel has 360 milligrams of potassium, or 7.6-percent of an adult's daily requirement. Additionally, a cup of fennel provides 0.16 milligrams of manganese, which is 7-percent of a man's RDA and 9 percent of a woman's. A high intake of these three nutrients may help prevent osteoporosis.

  • Digestive Health: Plant-based foods like fennel root contain two types of dietary fiber: soluble fiber and insoluble fiber. Insoluble fiber consists of the indigestible compounds that make up a plant cell's rigid walls, including lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. This fiber adds bulk to your stool and can help regulate your bowel movements. A diet rich in insoluble fiber may also decrease your risk of digestive disorders like duodenal ulcers, hemorrhoids, diverticular disease, colon cancer and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  • Neurological Health: Fennel root contains 23 micrograms of folate in every cup of raw slices. For healthy adults over 19 years old, this supplies almost 6 percent of the recommended daily intake. Also known as folic acid or vitamin B-9, folate is required to support the health and function of the nervous system. It is especially important for pregnant women to consume enough folate, at least 600 micrograms each day, since inadequate folate intake is linked to a significantly increased risk of neural tube defects in newborn babies. The Linus Pauling Institute reports that people who do not get enough folate regularly may be more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease and cognitive problems like dementia.

    fennel root bulb


    Fennel leaves, the stem, the bulb and seeds are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. Fennel is commonly used in Italian and French recipes. It is used as a flavor enhancer in mayonnaise, fish dressings and also in bakery products such as breads, cakes and confectionary. The Fennel root is also known as Fennel Bulb. It is rich in dietary fiber, vitamin C, potassium, and manganese. Raw Fennel Root has a crisp texture and a licorice-like flavor that makes it an unique addition to salads or vegetable trays.


    Fennel is an excellent source of vitamin C and A, especially the leaves. It is also a good source of minerals like phosphorus, magnesium, copper, potassium and calcium. It contains trace minerals like molybdenum, manganese and foliate that meets the recommended daily allowance. Filling, yet low in calories and high in fiber, it is an ideal snack for people who are trying to lose weight.

    (Foeniculum vulgare),
    Nutrition Value per 1 Tablespoon (6 Grams) / 100 Grams

    (Source: USDA National Nutrient Data Base)
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
    19.8 / 345 Calories
    (82.9 / 1444 kJ)
    1% / 17%
    3.0 g / 52.3 g
    1% / 17%
    0.9 g / 15.8 g
    2% / 32%
         Total Fat
    0.9 g / 14.9 g
    1% / 23%
    0 mg
         Dietary Fiber
    2.3 g / 39.8 g
    9% / 159%
    0.3 mg / 6.1 mg
    2% / 27%
         Pantothenic Acid
         Pyridoxine (B-6)
    0.0 mg / 0.5 mg
    1% / 23%
    0.0 mg / 0.4 mg
    1% / 21%
    0.0 mg / 0.4 mg
    2% / 27%
         Vitamin A
    7.8 IU / 135 IU
    0% / 3%
         Vitamin C
    1.2 mg / 21.0 mg
    2% / 35%
    5.1 mg / 88.0 mg
    0% / 4%
    97.4 mg / 1694 mg
    3% / 48%
    68.8 mg / 1196 mg
    7% / 120%
    0.1 mg / 1.1 mg
    3% / 53%
    1.1 mg / 18.5 mg
    6% / 103%
    22.1 mg / 385 mg
    6% / 96%
    0.4 mg / 6.5 mg
    19% / 327%
    28.0 mg / 487 mg
    3% / 25%
    0.20 mg / 3.7 mg
    1% / 53%

    Percent Daily Values (%DV) are for adults based on a 2,000 calorie reference diet.


  • Fennel bulb is a versatile vegetable, used since ancient times for its nutritional and medicinal properties. This winter season has some noteworthy essential oils, flavonoid anti-oxidants, minerals, and vitamins that have known to offer health benefits.
  • Bulb fennel is one of very low calorie vegetables. 100 grams bulb carries just 31 calories. Further, it contains generous amounts of fiber (3.1 grams/100 grams or 8-percent of RDI), very little fat, and zero cholesterol.
  • Fresh bulbs give sweet anise-like flavor. Much of this comes from high concentration of aromatic essential oils like anethole, estragole, and fenchone (fenchyl acetate) in the bulb. Anethole has been found to have anti-fungal, and anti-bacterial properties.
  • The bulbs have moderate amounts of minerals and vitamins that are essential for optimum health. Their juicy fronds indeed contain several vital vitamins such as pantothenic acid, pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin in small but healthy proportions. 100 grams fresh bulbs provide 27 µg of folates. Folic acid is essential for DNA synthesis and cell division. Adequate folate levels in the diet during pregnancy can help prevent neural tube defects in the newborn babies.
  • In addition, fennel bulb contains moderate levels of water-soluble vitamin, vitamin-C. 100 grams of fresh bulbs provide 12 mg or 20-percent of vitamin C. Vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals. Further, it has small amounts of vitamin A.
  • The bulbs have very good levels of heart-friendly electrolyte, potassium. 100 grams provides 414 mg or 9-percent of daily-recommended levels. Potassium is an important electrolyte inside the cell. It helps reduce blood pressure and rate of heartbeats by countering effects of sodium. Fennel also contains small amounts of minerals such as copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and selenium.

    (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum),
    Nutrition Value per 100 Grams

    (Source: USDA National Nutrient Data Base)
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
    31 Kcal
    7.29 g
    1.24 g
         Total Fat
    0.2 g
    0 mg
         Dietary Fiber
    3.1 g
    27 µg
    0.640 mg
         Pantothenic Acid
    0.232 mg
    0.047 mg
    0.032 mg
    0.010 mg
         Vitamin A
    134 IU
         Vitamin C
    12 mg
    52 mg
    414 mg
    49 mg
    0.066 mg
    0.73 mg
    17 mg
    0.191 mg
    50 mg
    0.7 µg
    0.20 mg

    Percent Daily Values (%DV) are for adults based on a 2,000 calorie reference diet.


    Fresh bulb-fennels can be readily available in the local farmer markets in early autumn or spring seasons. However, they can be sold most of the year round, especially in the supermarkets. In the United States, the bulbs are labeled as "anise"e; in the markets, because of their anise like flavor. To harvest, gently pull the whole plant off the ground firmly holding at the bulb base. Trim the roots and cut off the top green leafy stems as they rob nutrients from the fennel fronds. In the stores, choose fresh pearly white fennel bulbs that are compact, heavy in hand, and attractive anise like sweet flavor. Buy medium-sized bulbs each weighing about 5 to 10 ounces. Very large and over-mature bulbs are quite stringy and have a less intense flavor. Avoid dried out, shriveled bulbs and those with yellow discoloration, spots, splits, and bruise. At home, place them in a zip pouch plastic bag and store inside the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator as you do in case of leeks. They stay fresh for up to five days, however, prolong storage would make them lose nutrients and some flavor.


    Fennel bulb is used as a vegetable to add flavors to various dishes, particularly in salads, stews, and soups. Its blanched bulb has a unique aroma and a light, sweet, subtle licorice taste. The bulbs are one of the favorite winter season vegetables in the whole of France and Italy. To prepare, trim off the base as you do in onions. Cut away top leafy stalks just above the bulb. Remove tough outer one to two layers, as they are stringy and unappetizing or use them to prepare vegetable stock. Then the clear white bulb may be cut into cubes, sticks, or slices as you may desire to add in recipes.

    Here are some serving tips:
    • Fennel-orange-watercress salad.
    • Crab risotto, fennel and herb dish.
    • Thinly sliced raw finochhio is eaten alone, served with dip, or added to vegetable salads (fenoci in salata).
    • It can be steamed, braised, or sauteed, and added in variety of dishes.
    • Fenecchijdde, is a popular Christmas-Eve soup in Apulia region of southern Italy.
    • Fennel bulb can be added to flavor meat, fish, pork, and poultry recipes.


    The herb, as well as the oil extracted from its crushed seeds, is still very highly valued for its diverse medicinal benefits. Today Fennel seeds are used as a flavoring agent in many herbal medicines. The pale yellow essential oil can help prevent the buildup of toxins in the body, relieve digestive problems and fight infection. Fennel oil eases gas, hiccups and nausea. This herb is used to eliminate flatulence. Fennel is also used to treat yellow jaundice, the gout and occasional cramps. Fennel oil may also regulate menstrual cycles, minimize symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and decrease fluid retention, In addition, it is effective for treating coughs, colds and bronchitis, and has a mildly toning and firming effect on the muscles and skin. This herb may help with angina and can help lower high blood pressure. It helps to fight body order. Fennel is also helpful when used after chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments for cancer, and the powder can also be used as a flea repellant.

    Used to treat digestive problems, bladder problems, hiccups, nausea, edema, poor skin and muscle tone, menopausal symptoms and anxiety. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory Fennel oil is used for effectively cleansing and detoxification of the body, especially after overindulging in food and alcohol. It also reduces edema, fights urinary tract infections (UTIs), promotes good digestion, regulates menstrual cycles and may even help to tone the skin. Inhalations of Fennel oil can alleviate respiratory illnesses, as well.

    Fennel, Sweet - Confident Expression

    Latin name: Foeniculum vulgare. Family name: Umbelliferae. It is distilled from the fruit and is imported from France. It has a earthy-peppery aroma. In times past, fennel was used to ward off evil spirits. Some traditional uses: for neuro-muscular spasms, rheumatism and arthritis; bronchitis, whooping cough, as a nerve tonic in relieving stress and nervous tension. Use in moderation and avoid if you are pregnant or have epilepsy. Emotional profile: to aid with mental and emotional blocks, resisting change, fear of failure, creativity blocks. Blends with: geranium, lavender, rose and sandalwood.

    fennel flowers


    The warm, sweet fragrance of Fennel oil helps reduce stress and nervousness while also providing a sense of strength and courage.
    Combine the above oils in an aromatherapy lamp.

  • Fennel Essential Oil Products
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  • fennel seed


    European health care practitioners have used Fennel oil externally to treat gout, as it helps flush waste products from the body.
    Add the Fennel oil to your warm bathwater before you get into the tub.

  • Fennel Essential Oil Products


    Inhalations with Fennel essential oil alleviates coughing and loosens phlegm. The oil's expectorant effect also clears respiratory passages, making breathing easier.
    Add the Fennel oil to a bowl of hot water, mix well and inhale the vapors.

  • Fennel Essential Oil Products


    A conditioning oil containing a few drops of Fennel oil can prevent acne and help heal minor skin inflammations. It also has a mild firming effect on the skin that may restore muscle tone.
    Blend essential oil with carrier oil and apply to affected areas.

  • Fennel Essential Oil Products
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    Fennel oil is one of the most effective aromatherapy oils for reducing bloating.
    Blend essential oil in carrier oil. Gently rub your abdomen with the oil to ease swelling from gas.

  • Fennel Essential Oil Products
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    Women with chapped, sore breasts from nursing can use Fennel oil for the pain.
    Blend oils well. Rub into your skin after nursing. Wash off before nursing again.

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    Fennel oil can help to mask bad breath and alleviate inflamed gums.
    Mix the Fennel oil in baking soda, adding several drops of water, if necessary, to form a paste. Use it to brush your teeth and gums, being careful not to swallow any.

  • Fennel Essential Oil Products
  • Baking Soda & Powder Products

  • A natural source Sodium Bicarbonate that complements body care recipes by adding a smooth texture to creams and lotions. Also acts as a wonderful pH stabilizer and subdues viscosity thus making your products easier to handle. The line of Baking Soda offered by Mountain Rose Herbs is OMRI listed for organic food use and is manufactured to USP and NSF standards. Choose from 2 different sizes.


    Massages with diluted Fennel oil can help to relax and relieve abdominal pain and nervous stomach problems.
    Mix the essential oil and carrier oil well. Massage the oil blend onto your abdomen, using gentle strokes to rub it into your skin. Afterward, if you desire, wrap a soft towel around a hot water bottle and hold it against your abdomen to enhance the cramp-relieving effect.

  • Fennel Essential Oil Products
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    Fennel oil can help ease menstrual pain and cramping.
    Add the Fennel oil to the honey and add the mixture to a tub full of warm bathwater to ease menstrual pain. After bathing, dry yourself off thoroughly, dress warmly and rest for about one hour in a quiet room.

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    There are many formulations and products that contain Fennel seed and Fennel essential oil.


    Fennel seeds (the fruit) are most often used whole or ground in natural remedies, but the leaves and roots also have medicinal value. Seeds that are collected in late summer are particularly rich in active constituents. Roots that are dug up in spring before the leaves have come out also offer greater medicinal power.

    Drinking a tea infused from fennel seeds may help relieve mild digestive problems while the fresh root can be used as a diuretic.

    Used in cooking whole or ground as an excellent spice, also used to make herbal teas and in laxative preparations. Combined with chamomile and/or melissa in teas for colic. Combined with licorice, thyme, and/or poplar buds to treat colds, coughs, and congestion. Combined with chamomile, saffron, anise, fennel, caraway, licorice, and cardamom to treat asthma. For convenience, or if you do not like the flavor, it may be taken as an extract or capsule.

    The essential oil in fennel seeds contains anethol (50 to 80-percent), which relieves cramps, limonene (5-percent), and frenchone (5-percent), which stimulates the appetite, estragole (methyl-chavicol), safrole, a-pinene (0.5-percent), camphene, b-pinene, b-myrcene and p-cymene. The seed also contains fiber and complex carbohydrates.


    Fennel seed is antiseptic and secretolytic, that is, encouraging secretion of saliva and gastric juices. It also stops stomach cramps, often added to laxatives to ensure gentle action. Fennel seed teas break up congestion caused by colds and allergies. There are preliminary studies that suggest that regular consumption of fennel (as well as regular consumption of green beans, mushrooms, oranges, prunes, and celeriac) might slow the progression of osteoporosis. Fennel seed powder has almost exactly the same taste and medicinal effect as whole fennel seed, except it tends to lose anethole. Powdering makes fennel a less estrogenic herb, that is, less likely to stimulate the production of estrogen in women, a characteristic that may be desirable or undesirable depending on the user.

    Fluid extract, 5 to 30 drops.
    Oil, 1 to 5 drops.
    Water, B.P. and U.S.P., 4 drams (drachms).

    Tea or Infusions
    Infuse 1 teaspoon of Fennel seeds in 1 cup of boiling water and steep for 10 minutes. Uncrushed seeds will yield a sweet-tasting tea infusion. Crushed seeds will taste stronger and more bitter.
    Briefly boil 1 tablespoon of Fennel seeds in 1 cup of water. Add 1 teaspoon of Eyebright and 1/4 teaspoon of salt. Steep for 10 minutes. Strain the mixture through a linen cloth, taking care to filter well. Use the mixture of herbs remaining in the cloth as a eye compress and the strained liquid to rinse the eyes. Always prepare only enough eye rinse to be used at a single time. Storing unused eyewash for later use is not recommended.
    Pour boiling water over a handful of Fennel leaves and seeds. Allow to steep overnight. Put the plant parts in a linen cloth and place on any painful area.
    Labeled Products
    Commercially, look for fennel syrup, honey, teas, tinctures, and candies. Fennel is also available in many combination products on the market.

    The German Commission E recommends 1 to 1.5 teaspoons (5 to 7 grams) of seeds per day. To take as a tea, boil 1/2 teaspoon (2 to 3 grams) of crushed Fennel seeds per 1 cup (250 ml) of water. Drink 3 cups (750 ml) per day.

    To use in tincture form, take 1 to 2 teaspoons (5 to 10 ml) under the tongue 3 times per day between meals.


    Botanical Name: Foeniculum vulgare
    Common Method Of Extraction: Steam distilled
    Parts Used: Seeds
    Note Classification: Middle
    Aroma: Very sweet, anise-like, slightly earthy-peppery
    Largest Producing Countries: Italy, France, and Greece

    Traditional Use: In pharmaceutical products it is used in cough drops, lozenges, carminative and laxative preparations. In the food industry it is utilized in all of the major food categories, as well as soft drinks and alcoholic drinks. The cosmetic industry adds fennel to soaps, toiletries and perfumes, and room sprays.

    Properties: Antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aperitif, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, estrogen-like, expectorant, galactagogue, laxative, orexigenic, regenerative, splenic, stimulant (circulatory), stomachic, tonic, and vermifuge.

    Benefits: Abdominal pains or cramps, amenorrhea, anorexia, antidote for poisonous mushrooms, asthma, bronchitis, bruises, calms, cellulitis, child birthing (inhaled), colic, constipation, coughs, digestive problems, dull complexion, dyspepsia, edema, fertility, flatulence, fluid retention, hiccough, improves memory, insufficient milk (nursing mothers), liver problems, mature skin, menopausal problems, nausea, obesity, oily skin, PMS, pyorrhea, rheumatism, and sore throats.

    Blends Well With: Bergamot, Black Pepper, Cardamom, Cypress, Dill, Fir Needle, Geranium, Ginger, Grapefruit, Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Mandarin, Marjoram, Niaouli, Orange, Pine Needle, Rose, Rosemary, Sandalwood, Tangerine, and Ylang Ylang.

    Of Interest: The ancient Greeks thought it conveyed long life, courage, and strength. Their name for fennel was marathrion from maraino, meaning "to grow thin". Fennel's ability to stave off hunger was employed during fasting days in Europe. It was consumed in large quantities in the household of Edward I of England in 1300 with 8.5 pounds being sufficient for only one month's supply.

    Safety Data: A mild skin irritant, but relatively non-toxic. It has narcotic properties in large doses. It should not be used on epileptics, during pregnancy, those with endometriosis, or estrogen-dependent cancer. Use only in moderation.



    Fennel seed is generally regarded as safe when taken in the recommended dosages; however, if you are pregnant, it should be avoided. Safety in young children, nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known.

    Fennel seeds, when quantities are used medicinally or for other preparations, are virtually innocuous. Fennel seed teas are helpful for colicky infants, but fennel seed oil should never be given to infants or young children because of the danger of spasms of the throat.

    Fennel oil can cause skin irritation, vomiting, seizures, and serious respiratory problems. Self-medication should be restricted to appropriate use of seeds; the volatile oil should not be used.

    Fennel oil should be used only in very small doses, since it may cause skin sensitivities and other allergic reactions. Never take Fennel, or any other essential oil, internally. Pregnant women and children under 10 years of age should never use Fennel essential oil in any form. Epileptics, too, should avoid it, as it may trigger seizures.

    Extra Tip - When you are buying Fennel oil, look for Sweet Fennel oil, or Foeniculum vulgare dulce; other kinds of the oil can be harmful to your health because of their high ketone content.


  • Fennel Herbal Products

  • Fennel Essential Oil Products


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    Mountain Rose Herbs: Fennel Seed (Foeniculum Vulgare), Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Fennel Seed Powder (Foeniculum Vulgare), Certified Organic, Bulk Organic Herbs & Spices
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Fennel Essential Oil (Foeniculum Vulgare), Certified Organic, Organic Aromatherapy Essential Oils
    Mountain Rose Herbs: Fennel Seed Extract (Foeniculum Vulgare), Certified Organic, Single Herbal Extracts & Tinctures


    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Seed Whole, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Seed, Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Seed Powder, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Seed Powder, Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Seed, Organic, 2.09 oz. Jar
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Seed Powder, Organic, 2.56 oz. Jar
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Seed, Organic, 2.00 oz. Pouch
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Seed Powder, Organic, 2.00 oz. Pouch
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Sweet Essential Oil, 1/3 fl. oz.
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Sweet Essential Oil, 4 fl. oz.
    Starwest Botanicals: Stomach Ease Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Tea Bags
    Stomach Ease is made with organic Fennel, organic Licorice, organic Peppermint, organic Cardamom, organic Coriander, organic Ginger and organic Black Pepper.
    Starwest Botanicals: Calming Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Tea Bags
    This formula contains organic Chamomile, organic Lemongrass, Gotu Kola, organic Hibiscus and Fennel.
    Starwest Botanicals: Healthy Fasting Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Tea Bags
    Fasting tea is made with organic Red Clover, organic Garcinia Fruit, Fennel Seed, organic Cinnamon Bark, organic Black pepper, Red Clover, organic Alfalfa Leaf, Indian Gotu Kola and organic English Hawthorn Berry.
    Starwest Botanicals: Women's Nursing Support Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Tea Bags
    Organic Woman's Nursing Mom tea is delicious and organic. The formula includes organic Fennel Seed, organic Fenugreek, organic Anise, organic Chamomile Flower and organic Lavender.
    Starwest Botanicals: Echinacea Immune Support Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Tea Bags
    This tea is a superior blend of several species of organic Echinacea Root. This blend is also complimented with Astragalus, Elder Berry, organic Peppermint, organic Lemongrass, organic Cinnamon, organic Fennel, organic Spearmint and organic Rosehips.


    HerbsPro: Fennel Seed, Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb
    HerbsPro: Fennel Spice & Green Tea Infusion, Decaffeinated, Numi Tea, 12 Bags
    HerbsPro: Fennel Tea, Organic, Traditional Medicinals, 16 Tea Bags (108874)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Seed Organic Herbal Tea, Alvita Teas, 24 Tea Bags
    HerbsPro: Organic Fennel Essential Oil, Simplers Botanicals, 5 ml
    HerbsPro: Fennel Sweet Essential Oil, Natures Alchemy, 0.5 fl. oz. (35149)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Extract, Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz. (1999)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Extract, Eclectic Institute, 1 fl. oz. (76249)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Seed Extract, Natures Answer, 1 fl. oz. (17176)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Extract, Eclectic Institute, 2 fl. oz. (31940)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Extract, Herb Pharm, 4 fl. oz. (32247)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Seed, Natures Way, 480 mg, 100 Caps (17871)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Propolis & Myrrh Fluoride Free Toothpaste, Toms of Maine, 5.5 oz. (89385)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Antiplaque & Whitening Fluoride Free Natural Toothpaste, Toms of Maine, 5.5 oz. (86786)


    Kalyx: Three Fennel Organic Tea, Pukka Herbs, 20 Teabags: K
    Fennel tea as it should be; deliciously sweet, aromatic and soothing. Three varieties of fennel have been used to create an abundance of flavour that also helps calm and support your digestion. Fennel has been used to support health for thousands of years and we have created a unique blend to harness this incredible potential. Naturally caffeine free, 100% organically grown and ethically sourced, we hope this is the best fennel tea you will ever taste. Sweet fennel seed (50%), wild fennel (bitter fennel) seed (45%), fennel leaf (5%).
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Extract, Nature's Answer, 1 fl oz: HF
    Kalyx: Fennel Herbal Extract, Herb Pharm, 1 fl oz: HF
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Extract (Foeniculum vulgare), Health & Herbs, 2 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Non-Alcoholic Extract (Foeniculum vulgare), Health & Herbs, 2 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Extract (Foeniculum vulgare), Health & Herbs, 8 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Non-Alcoholic Extract (Foeniculum vulgare), Health & Herbs, 8 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Extract (Foeniculum vulgare), Health & Herbs, 16 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Extract (Foeniculum vulgare), Health & Herbs, 32 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Whole (Foeniculum vulgare), Frontier, 1.28 oz: K
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Powder, Certified Organic (Foeniculum vulgare), Frontier, 1.6 oz: K
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Spice, Charleston Nut Company, 16 oz: GN
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed, Whole, Certified Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Powder (Foeniculum vulgare), Frontier, 1 lb: K
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Powder (Foeniculum vulgare), Kalyx, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): RF
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Powder, Kalyx, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed (Whole), Mincing Overseas Spice Co, 5 lbs: GR
    Fennel seeds are actually the dried fruit of the fennel plant, an herb that has been used for hundreds of years. Fennell seed is often used in pasta sauces and is typically used whole and toasted for an extra burst of flavor. Indian and Asian dishes also use both whole and ground fennel. Though it has many similarities to anise, fennel seeds are not quite as pungent and also can be used to aid in digestive health. Each case consists of five pounds.
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed (Ground), Van De Vries Spice, 5 lbs: GR
    Fennel has an anise-like flavor but is more aromatic, sweeter and less pungent and comes from a dried fruit of a plant in the parsley family. Fennel is used in Italian sausages and some curry powder mixes and goes well with fish. Each case consists of five pounds.
    Kalyx: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Seed Powder, Kalyx, 10 kg (22 lbs): RF
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed, Van De Vries Spice, 25 lbs: GR
    Fennel seed has an anise-like flavor but is more aromatic, sweeter and less pungent and comes from the dried fruit of a plant in the parsley family. Fennel is used in Italian sausages and some curry powder mixes and goes well with fish. Each case consists of twenty five pounds.
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed (Ground), Spiceco, 50 lbs: GR
    Fennel "seeds" are actually the dried fruit of the fennel plant, an herb that has been used for hundreds of years. Ground Fennel seed is often used in pasta sauces for an extra burst of flavor. Asian and Indian dishes also use both whole and ground fennel. Fennel is similar to anise, but ground fennel isn't quite as pungent and also can be used to aid in digestive health. Each case consists of fifty pounds.
    Kalyx: Fennel Seed, Nature's Way, 480 mg, 100 Capsules: HF


    Amazon: Fennel Herb Grocery & Gourmet Products
    Amazon: Fennel Herbal Health & Personal Care Supplement Pooducts
    Amazon: Fennel Essential Oil Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Fennel Herbal Information
  • Aromatherapy: Fennel Essential Oil Information



    Mountain Rose Herbs: Fennel Essential Oil (Foeniculum Vulgare), Certified Organic, Organic Aromatherapy Essential Oils


    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Sweet Essential Oil, 1/3 fl. oz.
    Starwest Botanicals: Fennel Sweet Essential Oil, 4 fl. oz.


    HerbsPro: Fennel Sweet Essential Oil, Natures Alchemy, 0.5 fl. oz. (35149)
    HerbsPro: Fennel Essential Oil, Aura Cacia, 0.5 fl. oz.


    Kalyx: Fennel Seed Essential Oil, Starwest Botanicals, 1/3 fl oz: C
    Kalyx: Sweet Fennel Essential Oil, Starwest Botanicals, 4 fl oz: C
    Sweet, warm, spicy, anise-like oil. Traditionally used as an antiseptic, aphrodisiac, soothing agent, muscle relaxant. Fennel oil's great benefit lays in its easing of the digestive system, helping with obesity and toning the skin. In vapor therapy Fennel oil can be used for: appetite stimulant in cases of anorexia. Fennel oil can be used as a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath for: a bloated abdomen, wind, colic, constipation, other digestive problems, diuretic and loss of appetite. Uses in a base cream or lotion, Fennel oil can be helpful for general skin care and specially for bruises, dull, oily and mature skins and for cellulite, rheumatism and edema.
    Kalyx: Sweet Fennel Essential Oil, Starwest Botanicals, 16 fl oz: C
    Kalyx: Sweet Fennel Essential Oil, Starwest Botanicals, 1 Gallon: C


    Amazon: Fennel Herb Grocery & Gourmet Products
    Amazon: Fennel Herbal Health & Personal Care Supplement Pooducts
    Amazon: Fennel Essential Oil Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Fennel Herbal Information
  • Aromatherapy: Fennel Essential Oil Information

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