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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Herbs
CITRUS

(Grapefruit, Lemons, Limes, Oranges, Pomelos, Tangerines)


"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Health Benefits of Citrus Fruit
  • Citrus Nutrition
  • Prevention Potential of Citrus
  • Citrus Herbal Supplements amp; Products




  • citrus fruits


    HEALTH BENEFITS OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Citrus fruits include oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruits, in addition to tangerines and pomelos. Citrus fruits are not only delicious and refreshing, they earn their definition of an all-star food for their richness in compounds called Flavonoids, which have anticancer properties. Citrus fruit flavonoids have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells and prevent the spread of tumors.

    Citrus Flavonoids are also antioxidants that can neutralize free radicals and may protect against heart disease. Studies show that citrus flavonoids may improve blood flow through coronary arteries, reduce the ability of arteries to form blood clots and prevent the oxidation of LDL ("bad") cholesterol, which is an initial step in the formation of artery plaques.

    Citrus fruits are also high in Vitamin C, and are good sources of Folate and Potassium. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant and protects the body from damaging free radicals. It is also required for the synthesis of collagen, which helps wounds heal and helps hold blood vessels, tendons, ligaments and bone together. The vitamin C in citrus fruit strongly enhances the absorption of Iron in food. Vitamin C binds to iron in the digestive tract and the iron-vitamin C complex is absorbed together. Potassium is a mineral and electrolyte that is essential for the function of nerves, heart contraction, and some enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

    THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF CITRUS FRUIT

    While the orange is a favorite among citrus, there are many other unique varieties of citrus that you may not have heard about. It is good to try new foods and find new favorites.

  • Cara Cara Orange: A type of navel orange that looks like a regular orange on the outside, but is a distinctive pinkish red on the inside. Cara cara oranges are very sweet and have a tangy hint of cranberries.

  • Blood Orange: Smaller than the average orange, the blood orange gets its name from the striking bright red to maroon interior. Blood oranges have an intense orange flavor with a hint of fresh raspberry.

  • Pomelo: The largest citrus fruit, the pomelo closely resembles the grapefruit. Pomelos have a thick yellow to green skin, with an interior that ranges from white to deep pink. Pomelos taste sweeter and less acidic than grapefruit.

  • Minneola Tangelo: A hybrid between the grapefruit and tangerine, this fruit has a refreshing combination of tart and sweet flavors.

  • USEFUL CITRUS TIPS

  • Store citrus fruit at room temperature if you will eat it in a week or so; otherwise, it will keep in the crisper for six to eight weeks.
  • Squirt some lemon juice on fresh cut fruits or fresh guacamole to prevent them from browning quickly.





  • citrus blend fruit drinks


    CITRUS NUTRITION

    Citrus fruits have long been valued as part of a nutritious and tasty diet. The flavors provided by citrus are among the most preferred in the world, and it is increasingly evident that citrus not only tastes good, but is also good for people.

    It is well established that citrus and citrus products are a rich source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides) that are essential for normal growth and development and overall nutritional well-being. However, it is now beginning to be appreciated that these and other biologically active, non-nutrient compounds found in citrus and other plants (phytochemicals) can also help to reduce the risk of many chronic diseases. Where appropriate, dietary guidelines and recommendations that encourage the consumption of citrus fruit and their products can lead to widespread nutritional benefits across the population.

    MORE THAN VITAMIN C: THE NUTRIENT CONTENT AND FUNCTIONS OF CITRUS

    Citrus is most commonly thought of as a good source of vitamin C. However, like most other whole foods, citrus fruits also contain an impressive list of other essential nutrients, including both glycemic and non-glycemic carbohydrate (sugars and fiber), potassium, folate, calcium, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B-6, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, riboflavin, pantothenic acid and a variety of phytochemicals. In addition, citrus contains no fat or sodium and, being a plant food, no cholesterol.

    The average energy value of fresh citrus is also low, which can be very important for consumers concerned about putting on excess body weight. For example a medium orange contains 60 to 80 kcal, a grapefruit 90 kcal and a tablespoon (15 ml) of lemon juice only 4 kcal.

    NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF CERTAIN FRESH CITRUS FOODS
    Nutrient
    Orange
    Grapefruit
    Tangerine
    Weight
    131 g
    236 g
    84 g
    Energy
    62 kcal
    78 kcal
    37 kcal
    Fiber
    3.1 g
    2.5 g
    1.7 g
    Ascorbic Acid
    70 mg
    79 mg
    26 mg
    Folate
    40 mcg
    24 mcg
    17 mcg
    Potassium
    237 mg
    350 mg
    132 mg

    Source: Gutherie & Picciano, 1995.


    WHOLE FOODS VERSUS SINGLE NUTRIENTS

    Scurvy, a serious deficiency of vitamin C that has caused tremendous human suffering throughout history, was first described by ancient Egyptians, and then by the Greeks and Romans. For hundreds of years, scurvy was a scourge of long-distance sailors, soldiers, explorers and the poor in many countries where there was a lack of access to fresh fruits and vegetables. However, it was not recognized that scurvy could be prevented and cured by consuming citrus fruit until the eighteenth century. And it would be another 200 years before vitamin C was isolated and its deficiency identified as the cause of the disease.

    The lesson from this is still important today; people do not need to understand everything about individual nutrients in order to consume nutritionally adequate and well-balanced diets. Even though the current understanding of nutrition, health and disease has advanced well beyond nutrient deficiencies, there is still much that is not known, and probably never will be known, about the relationships between diet and health. Fortunately, however, with a bit of common sense, people can still be well nourished even though the understanding of nutritional science may be incomplete.

    For example, research efforts exploring the possible protective effects of phytochemicals against various forms of chronic diseases have often shown an association with the consumption of various foods rich in these compounds, but not with specific phytochemicals themselves. There are several possible explanations for this, including: the specific phytochemicals being investigated may not be the ones that have an effect; the effects of individual phytochemicals may be additive; and it may be the interaction of two or more phytochemicals and nutrients that produces an effect.

    Since the understanding of nutrition science and the complex functions and interactions of the many vitamins, minerals, macronutrients and phytochemicals contained in food is still so incomplete, it is important that a rational and time-tested approach be taken to the promotion of good nutrition. It is also important to continue emphasizing the benefits of nutrient-dense foods, such as citrus fruits, and to recognize that the consumption of whole foods and natural juices is preferred over the consumption of individual nutrients that have been isolated from food and then consumed as dietary supplements. Focusing on single nutrients, instead of foods and the total diet, does not constitute a healthful approach to good nutrition.

    CARBOHYDRATE

    The main energy-yielding nutrient in citrus is carbohydrate. Citrus contains the simple carbohydrates (sugars) fructose, glucose and sucrose, as well as citric acid which can also provide a small amount of energy. Citrus fruits also contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), commonly known as dietary fibre, which is a complex carbohydrate with important health benefits. The predominant type of fiber in citrus is pectin, making up 65 to 70 percent of the total fiber. The remaining fiber is in the form of cellulose, hemicellulose and trace amounts of gums. Citrus also contains lignin, a fiber-like component. In the body, NSP holds water-soluble nutrients in a gel matrix which delays gastric emptying and slows digestion and absorption. This tends to promote satiety, and may reduce the rate of glucose uptake following consumption of glycemic (available) carbohydrate, thus helping to prevent a surge in blood glucose levels. Improper regulation of blood glucose results in either hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) or hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). NSP can also interfere with the reabsorption of bile acids which may help in lowering plasma cholesterol levels. A reasonable goal for dietary NSP/Fibere intake is 25 to 30 grams per day, but in many developed countries the actual average intake is closer to 15 grams. With one medium orange containing approximately 3.0 grams of NSP, citrus fruit can make a valuable contribution to meeting the daily fiber goal.

    VITAMIN C

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) is an essential water-soluble vitamin that plays a key role in the formation of collagen, a primary component of much of the connective tissue in the body. Adequate collagen synthesis is essential for strong ligaments, tendons, dentin, skin, blood vessels and bones, and for wound healing and tissue repair. The weakening of these tissues is a symptom of vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C is an important aid in the absorption of inorganic iron; it has also been shown to aid in the treatment of anemia and stress. Contrary to popular belief, vitamin C does not seem to prevent the onset of the common cold, but in some studies it has been reported to reduce the length and severity of the symptoms.

    Contemporary interest in vitamin C centers on its ability to perform antioxidant functions. As an antioxidant, it can help prevent the cell damage done by free radical molecules as they oxidize protein, fatty acids and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the body. Free radical damage has been implicated in the progression of several diverse and important disease states including cancer, cardiovascular disease and cataract formation. Being a good source of antioxidants, if regularly consumed, citrus can be an important part of a diet aimed at reducing the risk of such chronic disease.

    Only 10 mg of vitamin C per day are required to prevent vitamin C deficiency and the devastating disease scurvy. However, for good health and sufficient body storage of vitamin C, 30 to 100 mg/day is generally recommended, although some recent studies have provided evidence that more than 200 mg/day may be optimal for the prevention of chronic disease. Too much vitamin C (above 500 mg), generally seen with very high levels of supplementation, may be dangerous, especially for those at risk of iron overload. Consuming five servings of fruits and vegetables each day can result in an intake of about 200 mg of vitamin C. Citrus fruits are a particularly good source of vitamin C, with one medium orange or grapefruit providing approximately 70 mg and 56 mg, respectively. A 225 ml glass of orange juice contains approximately 125 mg of vitamin C.

    FOLATE

    Folate (Folic Acid) is a water-soluble vitamin essential for new cell production and growth. It helps in the production of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) and mature red blood cells, which ultimately prevent anemia. In the United States, the recommended daily intake of folate is 180 mcg for females and 200 mcg for males. Over the past decade, however, it has become clear that higher levels of folic acid, 400 mcg, are associated with the prevention of neural tube defects, a severe birth defect. A 225 ml glass of orange juice provides 75 mcg of folic acid.

    POTASSIUM

    Potassium is an essential mineral that works to maintain the body's water and acid balance. As an important electrolyte, it plays a role in transmitting nerve impulses to muscles, in muscle contraction and in the maintenance of normal blood pressure. The daily requirement of potassium is approximately 2,000 mg and, while deficiency of potassium is rare, there is some concern that a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio may be a risk factor for chronic disease. Increased consumption of citrus fruits and juices is a good means of increasing potassium intake. One medium orange and one 225 ml glass of orange juice provide approximately 235 mg and 500 mg of potassium, respectively.

    PHYTOCHEMICALS

    These naturally occurring compounds found in plants have a wide range of physiological effects and may help to protect against various chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease. The wide variety and number of known phytochemicals continue to grow, as does understanding of their role and importance in the diet. Several classes of phytochemicals, including monoterpenes, limonoids (triterpenes), flavanoids, carotenoids and hydroxycinnamic acid, have been isolated from citrus.

    Plants are sources of phytochemicals which provide significant health benefits and are generally available only from the diet. Citrus fruits provide these phytochemicals:
    • Monoterpenes
    • Limonoids (triterpenes)
    • Flavonoids
    • Carotenoids
    • Hydroxycinnamic acid

    The possible anticarcinogenic mechanisms of phytochemicals include their antioxidant capabilities, their effects on cell differentiation, an increased activity of the enzymes that detoxify carcinogens, an altered colonic milieu, and the blocking of nitrosamines. The regular intake of a varied mix of phytochemicals is only possible through the consumption of plant-based foods, such as citrus, as part of the normal diet.

    THE NUTRITIONAL & HEALTH BENEFITS OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Public health workers and nutritionists generally encourage the consumption of citrus fruits and juices. The nutrient and non-nutrient factors in citrus promote health and may provide protection against a number of illnesses. Citrus fruits contain carbohydrate, fibre, vitamin C, potassium, folate, calcium, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B-6, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, riboflavin, pantothenic acid and a variety of phytochemicals. In this article, the history of knowledge about citrus fruit is reviewed and current research is described. There is scientific evidence that citrus consumption may help to reduce the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, anaemia, birth defects and cataracts. Citrus fruits are equally valuable among populations who need to overcome and prevent micronutrient deficiencies as well as those concerned with problems of overnutrition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. Surveys in many countries show that citrus intakes are often low. Food preferences, learning history, cultural values, perceptions, attitudes and societal factors, such as the media and advertising, as well as availability and variety, all play a role in determining food choice. Among the barriers to consumption of citrus are high cost, fear of harmful pesticides and quick spoilage. The elderly, the poor and the critically ill may have inadequate access to fresh food and often consume very little citrus fruit and juices. In the past 20 years, greater health-consciousness, the desire for convenience foods, and rising incomes have increased the demand for citrus. The potential for citrus consumption to increase as part of the overall recommended increase in fruit and vegetable consumption is considerable.

    TYPE OF CITRUS FRUITS
    Amanatsu
    Citrus natsudaidai
    Balady (Israel) Citron
    Citrus medica
    Bergamot Orange
    Citrus bergamia
    Bitter Orange
    Citrus x aurantium
    Blood Orange
    Citrus x sinensis
    Calamondin
    X Citrofortunella mitis
    Cam Sanh
    Citrus reticulata x maxima
    Citron
    Citrus medica
    Clementine
    Citrus reticulata
    Desert Lime
    Citrus glauca
    Etrog
    Citrus medica
    Finger Lime
    Citrus australasica
    Grapefruit
    Citrus x paradisi
    Hyuganatsu
    Citrus tamurana
    Iyokan
    Citrus x iyo
    Kabosu
    Citrus sphaerocarpa
    Kaffir Lime
    Citrus hystrix
    Key Lime
    Citrus aurantifolia
    Kinnow
    Citrus nobilis x deliciosa
    Kiyomi
    Citrus unshiu x sinensis
    Kumquat
    Citrus japonica
    Lemon
    Citrus limon
    Lime
    Citrus x latifolia
    Mandarin Orange
    Citrus reticulata
    Meyer Lemon
    Citrus x meyeri
    MyrtleLeaf Orange
    Citrus myrtifolia
    Orange (Sweet)
    Citrus x sinensis
    Pomelo
    Citrus maxima/grandis
    Ponderosa Lemon
    Citrus limon x medica
    Rangpur
    Citrus x limonia
    Satsuma
    Citrus unshiu
    Shangjuan
    Citrus ichangensis x maxima
    Sudachi
    Citrus sudachi
    Sweet Limetta
    Citrus limetta
    Taiwan Tangerine
    Citrus x depressa
    Tangelo
    Citrus reticulata x maxima x paradisi
    Tangerine
    Citrus tangerine
    Tangor
    Citrus riticulata x sinensis
    Ugli Fruit
    Citrus reticulata x paradisi


    All citrus fruit is acid fruit. The acid fruits are the most detoxifying fruits and excellent foods. They should be avoided when you have the flu because the body could overreact detoxifying and make you even more sick. Some people may have problems with these fruits because of their acid content. The acid though is a healthy and organic nutritional element. For instance, Ascorbic Acid is Vitamin C, found especially in fruits and vegetables. Other people have one type of fruit that irritates the body or that they do not like. This can be caused by an allergic reaction caused by drinking milk. There is a good chance that after staying away from dairy this reaction disappears. Stories are known of people who have had stomach irritation for freshly squeezed orange juice disappeared after cutting down strongly on cowmilk products. According to the dental profession, the acids in citrus foods can damage the enamel on teeth. If you are concerned about this problem, try drinking a glass of water following citrus fruit and swishing it around the teeth before swallowing it. Brushing your teeth following an acidic fruit is also another recommendation.

    NUTRIENTS IN VARIOUS TYPES OF FRUITS
    Food
    energy
    water
    fiber
    fat
    protein
    sugar
    vit.A
    vit.C
    vit.B1
    vit.B2
    vit.B6
    vit.E
     substance= 100 g.
    kJ/Kcal
     %
    g
    g
    g
    g
    ug
    mg
    mg
    mg
    mg
    mg
    Apple
    207/49 
    84
    2.3
    0
    0.4
    11.8
    2
    15
    0.02
    0.01
    0.05
    0.5
    Apricot
    153/36 
    87
    2.1
    0
    1.0
    8.0
    420
    5
    0.06
    0.05
    0.06
    0.5
    Avocado
    523/126 
    81
    0.2
    10
    2.0
    7.0
    20
    17
    0.06
    0.12
    0.36
    3.2
    Blueberry
    204/48 
    80
    8.4
    0
    1.0
    11.0
    0
    10
    0.02
    0.03
    0.05
    1.9
    Blackberry
    170/40 
    85
    8.7
    0
    2.0
    8.0
    30
    150
    0.08
    0.04
    0.07
    1.0
    Banana
    375/88 
    76
    2.7
    0
    1.2
    20.4
    3
    10
    0.04
    0.03
    0.36
    0.3
    Carrots
    48 /11 
    92
    3.3
    0
    0.6
    2.2
    312
    2
    0.03
    0.04
    0.08
    0.2
    Cranberry
    68 /16 
    89
    4.2
    0
    0.0
    4.0
    0
    15
    0.00
    0.01
    0.07
    0
    Cherry
    221/52 
    86
    1.2
    0
    0.0
    13.0
    40
    10
    0.02
    0.02
    0.04
    0.1
    Date
    1275/300
    20
    7.5
    0
    2.0
    73.0
    0
    0
    0.05
    0.10
    >0.10
    0.7
    Fig
    340/80 
    80
    2.0
    0
    1.0
    19.0
    10
    3
    0.06
    0.05
    0.11
    -
    Grapefruit,Red
    128/30 
    90
    1.4
    0
    >0.9
    6.6
    0
    40
    0.07
    0.02
    0.03
    0.5
    Grapes
    274/64 
    83
    2.2
    0
    0.6
    15.5
    0
    3
    0.03
    0.01
    0.08
    0.6
    Guava
     306/72 
    81
    5.3
     0
    1.0 
    17.0 
    30
    218 
    0.04 
    0.04 
    0.14 
    Gooseberry
    170/40 
    88
    3.2
    0
    1.0
    9.0
    0
    30
    0.02
    0.01
    0.08
    0.4
    Food
    energy
    water
    fiber
    fat
    protein
    sugar
    vit.A
    vit.C
    vit.B1
    vit.B2
    vit.B6
    vit.E
     substance= 100 g.
    kJ/Kcal
     %
    g
    g
    g
    g
    ug
    mg
    mg
    mg
    mg
    mg
    Kiwi Fruit
    168/40 
    84
    2.1
    0
    1.1
    8.8
    5
    70
    0.01
    0.02
    0.12
    1.9
    Kumquat
    289/68 
    82
    1.5
    0
    1.0
    16.0
    160
    55
    0.14
    0.06
    -
    -
    Lemon
    51/12 
    96
    1.8
    0
    0.0
    3.0
    0
    40
    0.06
    0.02
    0.04
    0.8
    Lime
     156/37 
    91 
    0.3
    0.0
    7.0
    0
    40
    0.03
    0.02
    0.08
    -
    Lychee
    323/76 
    82
    1.5
    0
    1.0
    18.0
    0
    39
    0.05
    0.05
    -
    -
    Mandarin/ Tangerine
    177/42 
    88
    1.9
    0
    0.9
    9.5
    12
    30
    0.08
    0.03
    0.084
    0.4
    Mango
    255/60 
    84
    1.0
    0
    0.0
    15.0
    210
    53
    0.05
    0.06
    0.13
    1.0
    Melon, Red Water
    153/36 
    93
    0.6
    0
    1.0
    8.0
    30
    6
    0.04
    0.05
    0.07
    -
    Melon, Cantaloupe
    122/29 
    89
    0.6
    0
    0.9
    6.3
    7
    32
    0.05
    0.02
    0.10
    0.2
    Olive
    586/142
    75
    4.4
    14
    1.0
    3.0
    50
    0
    0.03
    0.08
    0.00
    2.0
    Orange
    198/47 
    87
    1.8
    0
    1.0
    10.6
    2
    49
    0.07
    0.03
    0.06
    0.1
    Papaya
    136/32 
    91
    0.6
    0
    0.0
    8.0
    40
    46
    0.03
    0.04
    0.04
    -
    PassionFruit
    158/37 
    88
    3.3
    0.4
    2.6
    5.8
    125
    23
    0.03
    0.12
    -
    0.5
    Peach
    151/36 
    89
    1.4
    0
    1.0
    7.9
    15
    7
    0.01
    0.02
    0.02
    0.0
    Pear
    201/47 
    86
    2.1
    0
    0.3
    11.5
    0.0
    4
    0.01
    0.01
    0.02
    0.1
    Red Bell Pepper
    119/28 
    91
    2.2
    0
    1.0
    6.0
    172
    80
    0.04
    0.14
    0.43
    6.4
    Persimmon
    325/76
    81
    0.5
    0
    0.5
    18.6
    260
    16
    0.02
    0.03
    >-
    -
    Pineapple
    211/50 
    84
    1.2
    0
    0.4
    12.0
    20
    25
    0.07
    0.02
    0.09
    0.1
    Pomegranate
    343/81 
    82
    3.4
    0
    1.0
    17.0
    10
    7
    0.05
    0.02
    0.31
    -
    Plum
    177/42 
    84
    2.2
    0
    0.8
    9.6
    18
    5
    0.02
    0.03
    0.10
    0.7
    Strawberry
    99/23
    91
    2.2
    0
    0.7
    5.1
    10
    60
    0.02
    0.03
    0.06
    0.4
    Tomato
    48/11 
    97
    1.4
    0
    0.9
    1.9
    140
    15
    0.05
    0.02
    0.08
    0.7
    Food
    energy
    water
    fiber
    fat
    protein
    sugar
    vit.A
    vit.C
    vit.B1
    vit.B2
    vit.B6
    vit.E
     substance= 100 g.
    kJ/Kcal
     %
    g
    g
    g
    g
    ug
    mg
    mg
    mg
    mg
    mg


    CHOOSING & COMBINING FRUITS WITH CITRUS FOR OPTIMAL NUTRITION

    When choosing fruits, not only for flavor profiles and how well they taste together, you should also look for how much energy can be extracted out of the fruit by your body. This will help to keep you going throughout the day and quickly recharge your body when it slows down and needs a boost. As the energy fruit contains consists of natural sugars, the fruit is easily digested in about 30 minutes. This chemical process has no toxic waste products that are difficult to remove from the body and it even stimulates the removal of toxic elements.

    In comparison, animal products energy consists of fat and proteins. Because the high amount of proteins, it is digested in 6 to 8 hours. This chemical process does produce toxic waste products that have to be removed from your body.

    Another remarkable difference is that fruit contains a substantial amount of fibers while animal based products do not contain any. Fibers are very important for maintaining digestive health of your intestinal tract including your colon. The water percentage of fruit (80-percent) is higher than that of meat (15-percent) and comes more near the water percentage of the human body (80-percent).

    Favorite fruits used to blend with citrus fruits are bananas, strawberries, watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew, blueberries, raspberries, papaya, kiwi, and guava. Guava appears to be at the top of the list, according to research, as one of the most nutritious fruits. Use ripe and ready to eat fruits at their peak of nutritious potential. Some favorite fruit recipes are included below for blending and juicing, making quick and delicious quick energy drinks.



    HEALTHY FRUITY DRINK RECIPES

    Buy a juicer or blender and create colorful and healthy drinks, everyone in the family will love you for it!

    Helpful Tips

  • Squeeze at least one fruit drink a day. In this way you eat about 3 to 4 fruits so you can fulfill your daily fruit requirements.
  • Put some ice cubes in the blender with your juice. This cools your fruit drink quickly in summer.
  • Put a little bit of banana in your juice mix and blend it like a milk-shake. This gives your fruit drink a certain softness and body and reduces the bitterness (caused by grapefruits for example).
  • Take sweet fruits to blend. Use citrus fruits (oranges, red-grapefruits) as a basis and mix it in the blender with the sweet fruits of your choice. You can squeeze a jar of orange juice that you keep in the fridge and blend it with the fruit of your choice when you want to.
  • Squeeze five to nine pieces of fruit a day for optimal health benefits.





  • WATERMELON JUICE

    2 cups chopped seeded watermelon
    1 cup crushed ice
    2 teaspoons honey
    1/4 teaspoon black pepper
    fresh mint (optional garnish)

    Directions: Combine watermelon, ice, honey, and black pepper in a blender. Blend until smooth. Garnish with mint. Serve chilled. Stir well before serving. Serves one.




    PINK ICE

    1 cup sliced banana
    3/4 cup frozen strawberries
    1/2 cup ruby red grapefruit juice
    1/2 cup orange juice
    1/2 cup crushed ice

    Combine all ingredients in blender until smooth.




    PINK PERFECTION JUICE

    2 cups hulled strawberries
    1 cup chopped watermelon
    2 freshly squeezed oranges, juiced
    1 freshly squeezed lime, juiced

    Combine all of the ingredients in a blender or food processor until smooth. Cover and chill. Before serving, shake or stir then pour into chilled glasses.

    MIXED TROPICAL FRUIT EXPLOSION

    1 large banana, peeled and cut into 1-inch pieces
    2 kiwi fruits, peeled and quartered
    1/2 cup peeled and diced mango
    1/2 cup peeled and diced papaya
    1 cup freshly squeezed orange juice
    3 ice cubes

    Combine all ingredients in blender and whip until smooth.




    CITRUS FRUIT SMOOTHIE

    5 cups grapefruit juice
    3 cups orange juice
    1 cup water
    4 medium firm bananas, cut up and frozen
    12 frozen unsweetened strawberries

    In a blender, place half of each ingredient. Cover and process until smooth. Pour into a pitcher. Repeat. Serve immediately.




    POWER SMOOTHIE

    1 large banana
    5 strawberries, frozen or fresh
    1/2 cup blueberries, frozen or fresh
    1/4 cup frozen orange juice concentrate, or 1/2 cup orange juice
    1 -1 1/2 cup soymilk or 1 -1 1/2 cup rice milk
    almonds or cashews or nut butter
    flax seed (optional)
    wheat germ (optional)
    peach, slices (optional)
    nectarine, slices (optional)
    mango (optional)
    guava (optional)
    pineapple (optional)

    Toss all ingredients in blender and frappe. You could also add ice fr a thicken, colder drink.




    HAPPY DRINK

    1 scoop vanilla ice cream
    1 kiwi, quartered and peeled
    1/2 banana, peeled
    1 cup orange juice

    Put it all in a blender and blend. You now have your breakfast drink to start the day.




    TROPICAL FRUIT SMOOTHIE

    1/2 small papaya
    1/2 pear
    1/2 nectarine or 1/2 peach
    1/2 banana
    1 (6-ounce) container yogurt (pineapple flavor works well)

    Directions: Blend everything together and enjoy. If the mixture is thick, you can always add a little milk or juice, or add an orange to the combo to lighten it up a bit.




    BANANA NOG

    1 cup milk (can use 1.5 cups)
    1 banana
    1 tablespoon sugar
    1/4 teaspoon vanilla
    5 to 7 ice cubes

    Directions: Combine all ingredients in blender. Blend at slow speed to break up ice. Blend at highest speed for 1 minute.




    MARTIAN BOOGIE POWER SMOOTHIE

    3/4 cup pineapple juice
    1 banana, peeled >br? 1 carambola, ends trimmed,any seeds removed (star fruit)
    1/2 cup pineapple chunks
    1 kiwi fruit, peeled
    1 teaspoon spirulina powder
    8 to 10 ice cubes

    Process all ingredients in a blender until smooth. Pour into glasses and serve.




    STRAWBERRY SMOOTHIE

    6 ounces vanilla-flavored soymilk
    2 pints frozen strawberries
    1 teaspoon artificial sweetener or stevia sugar substitute

    Blend all ingredients together until smooth. Serve.




    NON ALCOHOLIC SUMMER COOLER

    1 (40 ounce) bottle cranberry juice cocktail, chilled
    1/2 cup fresh orange juice
    1 lemon, juiced
    1 lime, juiced
    1 whole orange, sliced thin
    1 lemon, sliced thin
    1 lime, sliced thin
    1 cup fresh strawberries, cleaned & halved
    2 fresh peaches, peeled,pitted and thinly sliced 1 small apple, peeled,cored and thinly sliced
    2 tablespoons sugar or 2 tablespoons Splenda or Stevia sugar substitute
    1 (26 ounce) bottle club soda
    ice cubes

    Directions: Combine all the ingredients except the club soda. Stir until the sugar has dissolved. Refrigerate for a couple of hours. Just before serving add the club soda and pour over ice cubes (Or put a splash of soda in a glass and fill up with ice cubes and the sangria).




    REFRESHING WATERMELON-LIME FROZEN SLUSHY

    1/2 cup sugar
    1/2 cup water
    3 cups cubed watermelon (without seeds) or 3 cups other melon
    1 1/2 cups ice cubes
    1/2 lemon, juice of, plus grated rind
    1 cup cooled strong-brewed tea, from a cherry or almond tea bag (you can try other flavors, too)

    Heat the sugar and water, stirring constantly, until the sugar melts. Set aside to cool. Put all the remaining ingredients, including the dissolved sugar syrup, in a blender and blend just long enough to achieve that icy-mush quality. Serve immediately, in tall frosty glasses.





    PREVENTION POTENTIAL OF CITRUS

    There is considerable evidence that citrus foods may help reduce the risk, or retard the progression, of several serious diseases and disorders.

    The prevention potential of citrus foods include:
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Heart disease
    • Hypertension
    • Stroke
    • Cancer
    • Neural tube defects: spina bifida and anencephaly
    • Anemia

    CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    It is well accepted that a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol and rich in fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of heart disease. Epidemiological studies have also shown a significant association between vitamin C intake and protection against cardiovascular mortality, but the precise mechanism of protection is still unclear. One major culprit in the development of heart disease appears to be a high level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the so-called bad cholesterol. Significantly, a recent study has shown that high intakes of vitamin C (500 mg/day) obtained from the juice of freshly squeezed oranges, prevented a rise in the levels of oxidized LDL, even in the presence of a high-saturated fat diet.

    A low dietary intake of folate contributes to the decrease of plasma folate and the raising of plasma homocysteine levels. Homocysteine is a toxic agent for the vascular wall and, when plasma levels rise above normal, there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. An inverse dose-response relationship has been identified for fruit and vegetable intake and plasma homocysteine levels. Frequent consumption of folate-rich foods, such as oranges and orange juice, tends to increase plasma folate levels and, thus, lower homocysteine levels.

    CANCER

    After numerous studies of fruit and vegetable intake and cancer development, there is a consensus that consuming these foods has a protective effect. However, it is unlikely that one anticarcinogenic substance in particular is responsible for the benefit. There is reasonable scientific support for vitamin C's protective role in cancer. Many of the animal, cell culture and human studies have suggested it has a positive effect. However, epidemiological studies provide good evidence that protective effects are more closely associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables rather than with the enormous levels of vitamin C often used in cell culture and animal studies.

    NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS

    During the first stage of pregnancy, adequate folate intake is critical for reducing the risk of severe birth defects, namely spina bifida and anencephaly. Public health recommendations in the United States include the consumption of 400 mcg of folate per day for women of child-bearing age. Regular consumption of citrus foods can help supply adequate folate and thus reduce the risk of these birth defects.

    ANEMIA

    Vitamin C can increase the absorption of non-heme iron (the inorganic iron form found in plant foods) two- to fourfold. The bioavailability of non-heme iron is much lower than that of heme iron, which is found in foods of animal origin. Vegetarians and individuals who consume little meat and animal products are at an increased risk of iron-deficiency, which can progress to anemia over time. Worldwide, anemia is one of the most serious nutrient-related public health problems, resulting in poor growth, impaired psychomotor development, reduced physical performance and decreased cognitive function. Consuming citrus fruits rich in vitamin C can help prevent anemia and its devastating consequences.

    CATARACTS

    Oxidation of the eye's lens plays a central role in the formation of age-related cataracts. The role of dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in the etiology of cataracts has been a recent focus of research. Lower cataract risk has been shown in individuals with high blood concentrations or intakes of vitamin C and carotenoids. There is now evidence to show that a high level of vitamin C intake over the long term decreases the risk of cataract development. Although epidemiological studies that measure past nutrient intake and status suggest a protective effect from citrus, further studies are needed to examine the long-term benefits of citrus fruit consumption and cataract protection.

    RESEARCH

    BONE METABOOLISM & OSTEOPOROSIS

    The influence of nutrient intake on bone density is an area of current research with many unanswered questions. Long-term intake of various foods may be important to bone health, possibly because of their beneficial effect on the acid base balance. Vitamin C intake has been associated with bone mineral density, but more work in this area is necessary to understand the mechanism of interaction.

    KIDNEY STONE DISEASE

    A kidney stone is a crystal structure formed by excessive salts in the urine. The most common type of stone is the calcium stone. A stone will increase in size until it is not passable and becomes lodged in the ureter. Stone symptoms include severe back pain, blood in the urine and fever. Stones strike men three to four times more often than women. Some people prone to stones have been found with insufficient levels of citrate in their urine and it has been suggested that eating citrus fruits and drinking orange juice may help prevent kidney stones by increasing urinary citrate. More research is needed in this area, but increasing fruit consumption is a nutritionally sound recommendation that may prove to be very beneficial for individuals at risk of certain kinds of kidney stones.

    COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with cognitive dysfunction in the elderly. Older subjects with greater intakes of fruits and vegetables, and the corresponding nutrients vitamin C and folate, have been shown to perform better on cognitive tests. The consumption of a satisfactory diet, containing nutrient-dense foods, appears to be associated with better cognitive function in the elderly. More research is needed to determine the effect of long-term citrus consumption on cognition.

    ASTHMA

    Some studies suggest that a diet low in vitamin C is a risk factor for asthma. Vitamin C is the major antioxidant substance present in the airway surface liquid of the lungs, where it could be important in protecting against oxidants. More research is needed to understand whether vitamin C and citrus consumption is protective in the causation and progression of asthma.





    FACTORS AFFECTING CITRUS CONSUMPTION

    In many populations, even among people who know that citrus is nutritious, the consumption of citrus is often very low. The reasons for this are varied, but it indicates that knowledge of a nutritional benefit is just one of the many factors that influence food choices.

    The factors that greatly influence what foods people consume are:
    • Nutritional knowledge and education about food choices.
    • An individual's food preferences and previous experience with a given food.
    • Cultural values, perceptions, attitudes and societal influences including the media and advertising.
    • The availability, taste and price of food items.

    For these reasons, it is difficult to bring about widespread behavioral change. Clearly, strategies are more likely to modify behavior and improve health if they are directed towards the relevant influences and barriers. Some of the barriers to purchasing and consuming citrus are high cost, fear of harmful pesticides and quick spoilage.


    citrus consumers


    Elderly and disabled individuals surviving on low, fixed incomes faced with rising food costs (along with rising medical and medication expenses and service cuts, rising housing, utility and transportation costs) are among those with the greatest risk of nutritional deficiencies and related health concerns. Unlike low income families with children that qualify for various food-supplemental programs and are often able to get extra help from various agencies, many of our elderly and disabled do not qualify for food assistance help and do not have any financial resources left after paying their monthly expenses to afford enough quality food to maintain good health. Many receive benefits that are right at the poverty borderline of whether or not they qualify for certain medical aide programs such as medicaid to supplement their medicare coverage. A cost of living increase can push them over the edge (by a dollar or two) where previous assistance is then discontinued and all future medical coverage expenses are then deducted from their benefits, sending them into further financial stress. Many have to choose between food and medicine. During the winter months, it may be a choice between food, medicine and heat. Many single person households simply do not qualify for food stamp programs because the income limit qualification requirements are set so far below actual monthly expense reality, it makes one wonder who actually sets these income levels for these programs. Personally, I would love to see our governmental officials who set up these income limits for medical, fuel & heating, and food assistance try to live on the average monthly social security benefits given to an elderly or disabled person. I would love to see them actually try to shop at a supermarket and only spend what an elderly person has to survive on for the month and maintain a healthy diet. Chances are very good that they would not be able to do this.

    Over the past two decades, rising incomes and the shift in consumer preferences towards healthier, more convenient products have contributed to a growth in demand for citrus. Income levels also influence the variety and form of citrus consumed; in developed countries more processed citrus is consumed than in developing countries where people consume more fresh citrus. Further increases in citrus consumption are possible, but will require an integrated approach to improving consumer awareness and bringing about behavioral change.


    fruit consumption in the united states 1970 to 1996


    The health benefits associated with citrus consumption are clear. Citrus fruits are nutrient-dense foods that can be good sources of carbohydrates, including dietary fiber, and many vitamins and minerals. Citrus fruits are equally valuable among populations who need to overcome and prevent micronutrient deficiencies as well as those concerned with problems of overnutrition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. For example, citrus is an ideal component of low-fat, sodium-restricted diets.

    Vulnerable groups most likely to benefit from high citrus consumption:
    • Smokers
    • Alcoholics
    • Patients with severe burns, fracture, fever, tuberculosis, and post-surgery.
    • Critically ill patients
    • Immuno-compromised individuals
    • Children
    • The elderly

    As nutritionists and public health specialists learn more about the relationship between diet and health, the importance of balanced and varied dietary intakes becomes ever more evident. Accordingly, there is an increasing emphasis on promoting high levels of fruit and vegetable intakes among most population groups. Citrus consumption has a considerable potential to expand as part of this overall recommended increase in fruit and vegetable consumption.

    While the supply of citrus is a problem in some areas, a greater obstacle is often the lack of effective demand for citrus. Addressing both supply and demand problems, as appropriate, will require that a range of issues, such as agriculture and trade policies, food and nutrition policies, dietary guidance and nutrition education, and marketing, are addressed effectively and in a comprehensive manner. In many countries, a multifaceted approach that brings together, as appropriate, representatives of producers, processors, importers, retailers and consumers with nutritionists and public health specialists can have a significant impact on citrus consumption. Given that increasing the consumption of citrus benefits both producers and consumers, building effective partnerships to that end should not be difficult and would be an invaluable investment in the nutritional well-being and health of the population.


    REFERENCES

  • Bandura, A. 1986. Social foundation of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, Prentice-Hall.
  • Block, G., Patterson, B. & Subat, A. 1992. Fruit, vegetable, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutrition and cancer, 18(1): 1-29.
  • Bloom, H. 1998. Determinants of plasma homocysteine. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67: 188-189.
  • Carpenter, K. 1986. The history of scurvy and vitamin C. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1992. Recommendations for the use of folic acid to reduce the number of cases of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 41(RR-14): 1-7 (Review).
  • Cleveland, L., Goldman, J. & Borrud, L. 1996. Results from USDA's 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 1994 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey, p. 1-68. Riverdale, Md., USA, USDA.
  • Contento, I. 1995. The effectiveness of nutrition education and implications for nutrition education, policy, programs, and research: a review of research. J. Nutr. Educ., 27: 277-418.
  • Fleming, D., Jacques, P., Dallal, G., Tucker, K., Wilson, P. & Wood, R. 1998. Dietary determinants of iron stores in a free living elderly population: The Framingham Heart Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67: 722-733.
  • FMI. 1998. Trends in the United States. Washington, DC, Food Marketing Institute.
  • Gershoff, S. 1993. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): new roles, new requirements? Nutrition Reviews, 51(11): 313-326.
  • Gutherie, H. & Picciano, M. 1995. Human nutrition. St Louis, MO, USA, Mosby.
  • Harats, D., Chevion, S., Nahir, M., Norman, Y., Sagee, O. & Berry, B. 1998. Citrus fruit supplementation reduces lipoprotein oxidation in young men ingesting a diet high in saturated fat: presumptive evidence for an interaction between vitamins C and E in vivo. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67: 240-245.
  • Hatch, G. 1995. Asthma, inhaled oxidants, and dietary antioxidants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(suppl): 625S-630S.
  • Jacques, P., Taylor, A., Hankinson, S., Willet, W., Mahnken, B., Lee, Y., Vaid, K. & Lahav, M. 1997. Long-term vitamin C supplement use and prevalence of early age-related lens opacities. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66: 911-916.
  • Nestle, M. et al., 1998. Behavioral and social influences on food choice. Nutrition Reviews, 56(5, Part II): S50-S74.
  • New, S., Bolton-Smith, C., Grubb, D. & Reid, D. 1997. Nutritional influences on bone mineral density; a cross-sectional study in premenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65: 1831-1839.
  • Ortega, R., Requejo, A., Andres, P., Lopez-Sobaler, A., Quintas, M., Redondo, R., Navia, B. & Rivas, T. 1997. Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of elderly people. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66: 803-809.
  • Putnam, J. & Allshouse, J. 1997. Food consumption, prices, and expenditures. Washington, DC, Economic Research Service, USDA.
  • Steinmetz, K. & Potter, J. 1991. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer, II. Mechanisms. Cancer Causes and Control, 2: 427-442.
  • Tucker, K., Selhub, J., Wilson, P. & Rosenberg, I. 1996. Dietary pattern relates to plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations in the Framingham Heart Study. Journal of Nutrition, 126: 3025-3031.
  • United States National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board. 1989. Diet and health: implications for reducing chronic disease risk. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.
  • United States National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board. 1990. Recommended dietary allowances. Washington, DC, National Academy Press. Tenth ed.
  • USDA. 1996. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC, Government Printing Office.
  • USDA. 1997. World Horticultura; trade and US export. Washington, DC.
  • Whitney, E. & Rolfes, S. 1999. Understanding nutrition. Belmont, Ca., USA, West/Wadsworth. Eighth ed. (ed. W. Rolfes).





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    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


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