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BLACK LOCUST HERBAL DESCRIPTION
Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is also known as false acacia. Black Locust is a member of the pea family (Fabaceae). It is native to the southeastern United States, but has been widely planted and naturalized elsewhere in temperate North American, Europe, Southern Africa and Asia. The black locust is native in the United States from Pennsylvania to northern Georgia and westward as far as Arkansas and Oklahoma, but has been widely spread. The tree reaches a height of 70-feet, with a trunk 3 or 4-feet in diameter and brittle branches that form an oblong narrow head. It spreads by underground shoots. The leaflets fold together in wet weather and at night; some change of position at night is a habit of the entire leguminous family. It is considered an invasive species in some areas. It was introduced into Britain in 1636.
With a trunk up to about 2.5-feet (exceptionally up to 170-feet tall and about 5-feet in diameter in very old trees), with thick, deeply furrowed blackish bark. The leaves are 4 to 9.5-inches long, pinnate with 9 to 19 oval leaflets, 0.7 to 2-inches long and 0.5 to 1.2-inches broad. Each leaf usually has a pair of short spines at the base, 1 to 2 mm long or absent on adult crown shoots, up to 2 cm long on vigorous young plants. The intensely fragrant (reminiscent of orange blossoms) flowers are white to lavender or purple, borne in pendulous racemes 3 to 8-inches long, and are edible. The fruit is a legume 2 to 4-inches long, containing 4 to 10 seeds. Although similar in general appearance to the honey locust, it lacks that tree's characteristic long branched thorns on the trunk, instead having the pairs of short spines at the base of each leaf; the leaflets are also much broader.
- Bark: Dark gray brown tinged with red, deeply furrowed, surface inclined to scale. Branchlets at first coated with white silvery down. This soon disappears and they become pale green, afterward reddish brown. Prickles develop from stipules, are short, somewhat triangular, dilated at base, sharp, dark purple, adhering only to the bark, but persistent.
- Wood: Pale yellowish brown; heavy, hard, strong, close-grained and very durable in contact with the ground. The wood has a specific gravity 0.7333, and a weight of approximately 45.7 pounds per cubic foot.
- Winter Buds: Minute, naked, three or four together, protected in a depression by a scale-like covering lined on the inner surface with a thick coat of tomentum and opening in early spring; when forming are covered by the swollen base of the petiole.
- Leaves: Parallel, compound, odd-pinnate, 21 to 40-inches long, with slender hairy petioles, grooved and swollen at the base. Leaflets petiolate, 7 to 9, 1 to 2-inches long, 1/2 to 3/4-inch broad, emarginate or rounded at apex. They come out of the bud conduplicate, yellow green, covered with silvery down which soon disappears; when full grown are dull dark green above, paler beneath. Feather-veined, midvein prominent. In autumn they turn a clear pale yellow. Leafs out relatively late in spring. Stipules linear, downy, membranous at first, ultimately developing into hard woody prickles, straight or slightly curved. Each leaflet has a minute stipel which quickly falls and a short petiole.
- Flowers: May or June, after the leaves. Papilionaceous. Perfect, borne in loose drooping racemes four to five inches long, cream-white, about an inch long, nectar bearing, fragrant. Pedicels slender, half an inch long, dark red or reddish green.
- Calyx: Campanulate, gibbous, hairy, five-toothed, slightly two-lipped, dark green blotched with red, especially on the upper side teeth valvate in bud.
- Corolla: Imperfectly papilionaceous, petals inserted upon a tubular disk; standard white with pale yellow blotch; wings white, oblong-falcate; keel petals incurved, obtuse, united below.
- Stamens: Ten, inserted, with the petals, diadelphous, nine inferior, united into a tube which is cleft on the upper side, superior one free at the base. Anthers two-celled, cells opening longitudinally.
- Pistil: Ovary superior, linear-oblong, stipitate, one-celled; style inflexed, long, slender, bearded; stigma capitate; ovules several, two-ranked.
- Fruit: Legume two-valved, smooth 3 to 4-inches long and 1/2-inch broad, usually four to eight seeded. Ripens late in autumn and hangs on the branches until early spring. Seeds dark orange brown with irregular markings. Cotyledons oval, fleshy.
Black locust is a major honey plant in the eastern US, and, having been taken and planted in France, is the source of the renowned acacia monofloral honey from France. Flowering starts after 140 growing degree days. However, its blooming period is short (about 10 days) and it does not consistently produce a honey crop year after year. Weather conditions can have quite an effect on the amount of nectar collected as well; in Ohio state for example, good locust honey flow happens in one out of five years.
In Europe it is often planted alongside streets and in parks, especially in large cities, because it tolerates pollution well. The species is unsuitable for small gardens due to its large size and rapid growth, but the cultivar 'Frisia', a selection with bright yellow-green leaves, is occasionally planted as an ornamental tree. In South Africa it is regarded as a weed because of its habit of freely suckering from roots near the surface and aggravated by cutting of the main stem. Black locust has nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its root system; for this reason it can grow on poor soils and is an early colonizer of disturbed areas.
In 1900 it was reported that the value of Robinia pseudoacacia was practically destroyed in nearly all parts of the United States beyond the mountain forests which are its home by locust borers which riddle the trunk and branches. Were it not for these insects, it would be one of the most valuable timber trees that could be planted in the northern and middle states. Young trees grow quickly and vigorously for a number of years, but soon become stunted and diseased, and rarely live long enough to attain any commercial value.
The American Indians first prepared the bark for use as an emetic and strong laxative. Black Locust is mildly toxic to humans and is poisonous to animals; however the timber was plentiful and sturdy for settlers to use in building their homes. In the 17th century, Europeans experimented with this tree to see if it had medicinal properties. They made a tea from the flowers and used it to treat headaches, stomach complaints, and nausea. The blooms were steeped in wine and used for treating anemia. Black Locust was also used to induce vomiting, and held in the mouth to soothe a toothache. The flower is said to contain the anti-tumor compound benzoaldehyde.
BLACK LOCUST USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
BLACK LOCUST WOOD USES
The wood is extremely hard, resistant to rot and durable, making it prized for furniture, flooring, paneling, fence posts and small watercraft. Wet, newly-cut planks have an offensive odour which disappears with seasoning. As a young man, Abraham Lincoln spent much of his time splitting rails and fence posts from black locust logs. Black locust is still in use in rustic handrail systems. Flavonoids in the heartwood allow the wood to last over 100 years in soil. In the Netherlands and some other parts of Europe, black locust is one of the most rot-resistant local trees, and projects have started to limit the use of tropical wood by promoting this tree and creating plantations. It is one of the heaviest and hardest woods in North America.
Black locust is highly valued as firewood for wood-burning stoves; it burns slowly, with little visible flame or smoke, and has a higher heat content than any other species that grows widely in the Eastern United States, comparable to the heat content of anthracite. It is most easily ignited by insertion into a hot stove with an established coal bed. For best results it should be seasoned like any other hardwood, however black locust is also popular because of its ability to burn even when wet. In fireplaces it can be less satisfactory because knots and beetle damage make the wood prone to "spitting" coals for distances of up to several feet. If the black locust is cut, split, and cured while relatively young (within ten years), thus minimizing beetle damage, "spitting" problems are minimal.
It is also planted for firewood because it grows rapidly, is highly resilient in a variety of soils, and it grows back even faster from its stump after harvest by using the existing root system. With fertilizer prices rising, the importance of black locust as a nitrogen-fixing species is also noteworthy. The mass application of fertilizers in agriculture and forestry is increasingly expensive; therefore nitrogen-fixing tree and shrub species are gaining importance in managed forestry.
In traditional medicine of India different parts of Robinia pseudoacacia are used as laxative, antispasmodic, and diuretic. Black Locust has astringent (causes body tissue contraction, typically the skin), diuretic (promotes diuresis or removal of extra water and salts), emetic (induces vomiting), emollient (having the quality of softening or soothing the skin), laxative, purgative (purges or cleanses, usually causing evacuation of the bowels), sedative, and tonic (gives a feeling of vigor or well-being) properties. In folk medicine it is used to treat dyspepsia (impaired digestion symptoms) and spasms. Black Locust is also used to treat indigestion, hyperacidity, gas, abdominal cramps, diarrhea and constipation. Black Locust is a febrifuge, a medicine used to reduce fever.
The flowers are antispasmodic (suppresses muscle spasms), aromatic (having a pleasant and distinctive smell), diuretic, emollient and laxative. They are cooked and eaten for the treatment of eye ailments. The flower contains benzoaldehyde, an anti-tumor compound.
The inner bark and root bark are emetic, purgative and tonic. The root bark is chewed to induce vomiting or held in the mouth for toothache relief.
The fruit, possibly the seedpod, has narcotic qualities.
The leaves are cholagogue (an agent that stimulates gallbladder contraction to promote bile flow) and emetic. The juice of the leaf inhibits viruses.
BLACK LOCUST DOSAGE INFORMATION
Black Locust comes in various forms and is an ingredient in many products. For best results, read and follow product label directions.
BLACK LOCUST EDIDIBLE PARTS
SEED: The seed is cooked. Oily, they are boiled and used like peas. After boiling the seeds lose their acid taste. The seed is about 4mm long and is produced in pods up to 10 cm long, containing four to eight seeds. A drying oil is also obtained from the seed.
SEEDPODS: Young seedpods are cooked. The pods contain a sweetish pulp that is safe to eat and is relished by small children (Note that this may be a mistaken report, possibly confused confused with the honey locust, Gleditsia spp).
FRUIT SKIN: A strong, narcotic and intoxicating drink can be made from the skin of the fruit.
PLANT: Piperonal is extracted from the plant, it is used as a vanilla substitute. No further details have been given. Note: All the above entries should be treated with some caution due to potential toxicity.
FLOWERS: An essential oil is obtained from the flowers and is highly valued for the use used in perfumery. To use in food preparation, the flowers are cooked. Having a fragrant aroma, they are used in making jams and pancakes. They can also be made into a pleasant drink. Black Locust flowers are an unusual choice to make a drink, but they give a surprisingly fragrant and refreshing soft drink, ideal for hot summer days. The scent of black locust flowers is intoxicating and it is amazing how easy it can be captured into sugar syrup. The flowers which bloom in drooping clusters in black locust trees are edible and they can be used for making cordials, salads and sweet sauces or as a flavor for alcoholic drinks.
BLACK LOCUST FLOWER SYRUP
The making of black locust flower syrup (cordial, squash) is very similar to the making of elderflower cordial, and similarly, it can be used as a soft drink when diluted with 5 to 6 parts of water. It can also be used as a fragrant mixer for making other drinks like fruit juices or cocktails, as well as a dressing for sweet salads. The scent of black locust flowers is more subtle compared to elderflowers, so recipes for black locust flower syrup usually call for using less sugar. As a result, it is not so sweet and more syrup can be used for dilution. This allows a stronger scent in the diluted drink.
BLACK LOCUST FLOWER SYRUP RECIPE
The basic ratio of ingredients for the black locust flower syrup is:
50 to 75 Black Locust Flower Clusters
2.2 pounds Sugar
1 quart Water
4 teaspoons Citric Acid
This recipe will make approximately 1.6 to 1.7 quarts of syrup. You will also need heatproof pot to prepare sugar syrup and a cheesecloth to strain the cordial.
Instructions: Bring water to boiling, add sugar and stir until it dissolves. You can, but it is not necessary, to let the syrup reach boiling. Turn the heat off and add citric acid. This will probably cause intense foaming for a few seconds, so be prepared for it and use a pot large enough to avoid mess on the stove. Let the syrup cool to room temperature.
Remove black locust flowers from main stems and let them sit in thin layer for 1 to 2 hours. This will give the small bugs hidden in the flowers a chance to evacuate. When the sugar syrup is cool, pour flowers in it (or pour syrup over the flowers in another vessel) and mix well. As flowers contain captured air among petals, they will float on top of the syrup. Frequent stirring will allow flowers to soak, which is necessary to release their flavor into the syrup. Also, you can cover flowers with a plastic plate and put some weight to gently press them down, immersing the flowers into the sugar syrup.
To infuse the Black Locust flowers into the sugar syrup, let the flowers steep in the syrup for 24 hours covered with a clean towel. This will provide dust protection while making the infusion. Stir occasionally and recover with the towel. Strain the Black Locust cordial through the cheesecloth and squeeze it to extract as much cordial as possible. Pour the cordial in clean, dry, sterilized bottles and close the bottles tightly to prevent any contamination. The cordial made in this way can be stored in the refrigerator or freezer (in that case, use plastic bottles). For storing at room temperature, it should be pasteurized, otherwise use food preservative.
WOOD & BARK: Non-food, non-medicinal uses include a yellow dye obtained from the bark. Robinetin is a strong dyestuff yielding with different mordants different shades similar to those obtained with fisetin, quercetin, and myricetin, with aluminum mordant, it dyes cotton to a brown-orange shade. The bark contains tannin, but not in sufficient quantity for utilization. On a 10-percent moisture basis, the bark contains 7.2-percent tannin and the heartwood of young trees 5.7-percent. The bark is used to make paper and is a substitute for silk and wool. Trees sucker freely, especially if coppiced, and they can be used for stabilizing banks etc. The wood is close-grained, exceedingly hard, heavy, very strong, resists shock and is very durable in contact with the soil. It weighs 45 lb per cubic foot and is used in shipbuilding and for making fence posts, treenails, floors etc. A very good fuel, but it should be used with caution because it flares up and projects sparks. The wood of Robinia pseudoacacia var. rectissima, the so called "Long Island" or "Shipmast" locust, has a greater resistance to decay and wood borers, outlasting other locust posts and stakes by 50 to 100-percent.
BLACK LOCUST SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS INFORMATION
All parts of the plant (except the flowers) and especially the bark, should be considered to be toxic. The toxins are destroyed by heat.
Black Locust is mildly toxic and is poisonous to animals. There have been cases of poisoning from chewing the bark or swallowing the juice of the Black Locust tree. Black locust's pods are small and light, and easily carried long distances. Although the bark and leaves are toxic, various reports suggest that the seeds and the young pods of the black locust are edible. Shelled seeds are safe to harvest from summer through fall, and are edible both raw and/or boiled. Due to the small nature of Black Locust seeds, shelling them efficiently can prove tedious and difficult. In France and in Italy Robinia pseudoacacia flowers are eaten as beignets after being coated in batter and fried in oil. Important constituents of the plant are the toxalbumin robin, which loses its toxicity when heated and robinin, a non-toxic glucoside. Horses that consume the plant show signs of anorexia, depression, incontinence, colic, weakness, and cardiac arrhythmia. Symptoms usually occur about 1 hour following consumption, and immediate veterinary attention is required.
It is important to read and follow the product label directions. Black Locust should not be used by young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease.
BLACK LOCUST HERBAL & RELATED PRODUCTS
QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS
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BLACK LOCUST HERBAL PRODUCTS
Amazon: Black Locust Herbal Products
Amazon: Robinia Pseudoacacia Products
Amazon: Robinia Pseudoacacia Homeopathic Supplement Health Products
Amazon: Robinia Pseudoacacia 6C Homeopathic Medicine, Boiron, 75 Pellets (1 Tube)
Amazon: Robinia Pseudoacacia 9C Homeopathic Medicine, Boiron, 1 Tube
Amazon: Robinia Pseudoacacia 12C Homeopathic Medicine, Boiron, 75 Pellets (1 Tube)
Amazon: Robinia Pseudoacacia 30C Homeopathic Medicine, Boiron, 75 Pellets (1 Tube)
Amazon: Robinia Pseudoacacia 200C Homeopathic Medicine, RXHomeo, 750 Pellets (1 oz.)
Amazon: Robinia Pseudoacacia 1M Homeopathi Medicine, RHHomeo, 750 Pellets (1 oz.)
Black Locust Seeds & Garden Plants
Amazon: Black Locust Tree (Robinia Pseudoacacia) Plants, Trees Again, 7 to 12-inches
Black Locust Tree (Robinia pseudoacacia) seedling 7 to 12-plus inches tall with soil/root plug, not bareroot. Grows best in zones 3 to 9. The wood is extremely hard, resistant to rot and durable, making it prized for furniture, flooring, paneling, fence posts and small watercraft. It is one of the heaviest and hardest woods in North America. Black locust is highly valued as firewood for wood-burning stoves; it burns slowly, with little visible flame or smoke, and has a higher heat content than any other species that grows widely in the Eastern United States, comparable to the heat content of anthracite. It is also planted for firewood because it grows rapidly, is highly resilient in a variety of soils, and it grows back even faster from its stump after harvest by using the existing root system.
Amazon: Black Locust Tree (Robinia Pseudoacacia) Seeds, TreeSeedsPlus, 50 Seeds
Amazon: Black Locust Tree (Robinia Pseudoacacia) Seeds, TreeSeedsPlus, 50 Seeds
Good drought tolerance. Fixes nitrogen. Avoid pruning in spring when it tends to bleed. It is considered to be a good selection for difficult areas where other trees will not grow well.
Amazon: Black Locust Tree (Robinia Pseudoacacia) Seeds, SamenchilishopWorld, 1000 Seeds
Good drought tolerance. Fixes nitrogen. Avoid pruning in spring when it tends to bleed. Uses: It is considered to be a good selection for difficult areas where other trees will not grow well.
Nutrition Basics: Black Locust Herbal Information
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