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Nutrition Basics

Bitter Nightshade, Woody Nightshade

(Solanum Dulcamara)

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  • Bittersweet Herbal Description
  • Bittersweet Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Bittersweet Dosage Information
  • Bittersweet Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Bittersweet Herbal Supplements & Products

  • bittersweet



    Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara) is also known as Bitter Nightshade, Bittersweet Nightshade, Nightshade, Woody Nightshade, Felonwort, Blue Bindweed, Amara Dulcis, Climbing Nightshade, Fellenwort, Poisonberry, Poisonflower, Scarlet Berry, Snakeberry, Dulcamara, Fellen, Mortal, Fever Twig, Blue Nightshade, Staff Vine, Trailing Bittersweet, Trailing Nightshade, and Violet-Bloom.

    Bittersweet is a species of vine in the potato genus Solanum, family Solanaceae. It is a native to Europe, Northern Africa and Asia and widely naturalized elsewhere throughout the world, including North America, where it is considered an invasive problem weed. Bittersweet occurs in a wide range of habitats, from woodlands to scrubland, hedges and marshes. It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region and was first spotted in 1843. The plant is relatively important in the diet of some species of birds such as European thrushes that feed on its fruit and are immune to its poisons. It grows in all types of terrain with a preference for wetlands and the understory of riparian forests and grows easily in rich wet soils with plenty of nitrogen. Along with other climbers, it creates a dark and impenetrable shelter for varied animals. The plant grows well in dark areas in places where it can receive the light of morning or afternoon. An area receiving bright light for many hours reduces their development.

    bittersweet leaves

    Bittersweet is a semi-woody herbaceous vine-like perennial with trailing or climbing stems up to 10 feet long with heart-shaped or arrowhead-shaped leaves, often lobed at the base. It has loose-clustered, star-shaped pinkish-purple flowers with five petals and bright yellow stamens and style pointing forward. Flower bloom from mid-May to September. The fruit are ovoid green berries, which turn bright red. They are about 1 cm long, soft and juicy, wit the aspect and odor of a tiny tomato. However, the berry is poisonous to humans and livestock. The berry's attractive and familiar look make it dangerous for children. Fruit and seed production can be abundant, each berry contains about 30 seeds. The berries are edible for some birds, which disperse the seeds widely by eating the ripe beries and by fragments of stem and root moving in soil or water. Bittersweet moves out from a parent plant by way of suckering roots, prostate stems rooting at nodes, and by growing up and over vegetation or structures like fences and buildings. It climbs onto small trees, shrubs and fences or remains low-growinge depending on what is available. It can climb 30 feet or higher into trees or form thickets along the ground. Branches grow and die back 3 to 6 feet or mre each year.

    Bittersweet is a persistent weed that is part of the same botanical family as potato and the tomato, but is a poisonous black sheep, and even though it is toxic, ancient Romans used this herb to treat pneumonia, absent menstruation, jaundice, rheumatism, cramps, eczema, psoriasis, asthma, and phlegm.

    In homeopathy, it is similar to the Belladonna, Capsicum, Hyoscyamus, and Stramonium remedies, which are also given to people who are very sensitive to cold and damp. Bittersweet has stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, and detoxifying properties.

    bittersweet flowers



    Herbalists use Bittersweet extract made from the stems as a sedative, pain reliever, and diuretic. Bittersweet Nightshade has been used as a traditional external remedy for skin abrasions and inflammation.

    The stems are approved by the German Commission E for external use as supportive therapy in chronic eczema. A decoction of the twigs as a wash lessens the severity of skin conditions. It also works well in treating hives, ringworm, and itchy, crusty eruptions on the scalp and face. Bittersweet is used internally or externally for skin diseases such as eczema, itchiness, psoriasis, and warts and as a treatment for swellings. It has been used as an external remedy to treat felons (inflammations around nail beds) and may be the source of the name Felonwort. Recent research has shown that Bittersweet contains the anti-tumor agent, beta-solarmarine, which may have some effect in treating cancer.

    The yellow berries are used for treating convulsive disorders and menstrual problems. The alkaloids, solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots) inhibited the growth of E. coli annd S. aureus. Solanine and solasodine extracted frm Solanum dulcamara showed antidermatophytic activity against Chrysosporium indicum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. simil. and thus may cure ringworm.

    This herb is also used to relieve asthma, chronic bronchitis, rheumatic conditions and gout. The plant has been investigated for possible antirheumatic, diuretic, narcotic, and sedative activity, but these actions are linked to the toxicity of the plant, and therefore, have not been successfully expored.

    Bittersweet / Woody Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)

    The homeopathic remedy Dulcamara is prepared using the fresh green leaves and stems of the Bittersweet plant, which is also known as the Bitter Nightshade, and used to treat a host of ailments, especially joint problems, skin conditions and complaints that have an influence on the mucus membranes.

    Both naturopathy and herbal medicine have used the Bittersweet vine traditionally to treat several health conditions. As aforementioned, the primary use of this herbaceous plant is for treating health conditions that influence the skin, mucous membranes as well as the synovial membrane present around the joints. Some people consider the Bittersweet to be an herbal medication for curing allergies as well as herpes (any ailment caused by herpes virus and distinguished by eruption of blisters on the skin or mucous membranes). While the use of Bittersweet does not generally result in life-threatening toxicity to humans, quite a number of such cases have been recorded in the past. Solanine is considered to be the toxic substance enclosed by Bittersweet vine.

    The therapeutic properties of Nightshade or the Bittersweet vine was even known to people in the ancient times and since the Roman age it has been used to treat several and dissimilar health conditions. As early as in the 18th century, Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus recommended the use of the Bittersweet vine to treat fever as well as other infections that resulted in inflammations. However, it was Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of the alternative stream of medication homeopathy, who proved the effectiveness of Nightshade as a homeopathic remedy in 1811.

    Traditionally Dulcamara is related to individuals who are very prone to moist and chills. Dulcamara is usually prescribed for people who are susceptible to humidity and colds accompanied by quickly changing body temperatures in chilly or damp weather conditions. They are also susceptible to infections of the respiratory tract that usually cause dense, yellowish mucus. In addition to commonly developing ailments like hay fever as well as other allergic reactions, such individuals may also often suffer from eczema, diarrhea and joint pains.

    In effect, the physical symptoms of people who require the homeopathic remedy dulcamara most prevail over the psychological attributes, but it may be noted that such people also suffer from some type of uncertainty, edginess, tetchiness and even restiveness. All these psychological characteristics are very much obvious among people who respond best to the homeopathic remedy dulcamara and they are probably with a dominant attitude mainly toward the family members.

    The homeopathic remedy Dulcamara is prepared with the freshly obtained green leaves and stems of the Bittersweet or Nightshade plant - a perennially growing vine. It needs to be remembered that collecting the stems and leaves of the vine ought to be done before the plant begins to blossom. Subsequently, the green leaves and stems of bittersweet are chopped into fine pieces and macerated or marinated in alcohol for a period of time. The resultant solution is filtered and diluted to desired levels giving us the useful homeopathic remedy Dulcamara. As in the case of any other homeopathic medication, Dulcamara does not retain even the slightest trace or any toxicity of the Bittersweet vine and is safe for human use.


    In homeopathy, the remedy Dulcamara is very much comparable to other medications, such as capsicum, belladonna, stramonium and hyoscyamus. While this homeopathic remedy is used to treat a number of health conditions, it has been primarily used to cure jaundice, pneumonia, psoriasis, eczema, cramps, and lack of menstruation, asthma and phlegm. In other words it is an effective medication for treating conditions which have an impact on the mucous membranes, joint pains as well as skin conditions.

    In addition, Dulcamara is highly effective in treating health conditions caused by exposure to chilly and humid weather conditions or abrupt changes in temperature or becoming chilly very soon following profuse sweating. It has been found that individuals who require the homeopathic remedy Dulcamara are generally dominating, possessive as well as very determined in nature. At the same time, such people are very susceptible of humid and cold weather, very sensitive to colds that may result in other diseases, for instance, a wheezy cough, cystitis, conjunctivitis or even diarrhea. Turning to dulcamara not only helps to cure these ailments, but also alleviate the associated symptoms.

    In addition to treating the health conditions mentioned above, the homeopathic remedy Dulcamara is also effective in curing a number of skin disorders, including, ringworm, hives (any of the numerous eruptions on the skin, such as urticaria), and scratchy, scabby eruptions on the face and scalp. A brief discussion on the other condition-specific uses of this homeopathic remedy is presented below.

    SKIN CONDITIONS: The homeopathic remedy Dulcamara is an effective medication for treating skin complaints, such as congealed, crispy, itchy skin, especially on the scalp, which results in blood loss when scratched. In addition, in homeopathy, Dulcamara is an appropriate medication for treating hives caused by profuse perspiration in moist or soggy conditions, ringworms that are generally found on the scalp of small children, as well as warts, particularly on the palms of the hands.

    HAY FEVER & ASTHMA: People suffering from hay fever and/ or asthma generally experience symptoms like nose blockade accompanied by copious, watery discharge from the eyes as well as breathing troubles. Their symptoms are likely to worsen when these patients are exposed to grass pollen, animal fur, dust mites as well as any other allergen making their condition severe. In such cases, turning to the homeopathic medication Dulcamara helps to cure the main condition - hay fever and asthma, while providing quick relief from the associated symptoms.

    COUGHS & COLDS: In homeopathy, Dulcamara is an effective remedy for aching throat accompanied by a dense, yellowish discharge from the nose as well as the eyes. The formation and discharge of the mucus is possibly caused by sinusitis and also owing to an excruciating pressure and blockade in the head. The patient may frequently suffer from firm neck possibly accompanied by pain in the back as well as the limbs. Such colds and coughs may result in other conditions, such as a clattering cough, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and bronchitis if the patient does not seek medical aid soon after the appearance of the symptoms. In such cases, turning to the homeopathic remedy Dulcamara helps not only to cure the cough and colds, but also prevent and alleviate the other accompanying problems.

    JOINT PAIN: Dulcamara is an excellent homeopathic remedy for treating stiff joints and joint pains. Precisely speaking, this medication works on the synovial membrane present around the joints to alleviate the rheumatic pains. Usually, these conditions worsen when the patient is in damp or humid conditions.

    HEAD & FACIAL PAIN: The homeopathic medication Dulcamara is effective in treating pains in specific areas of the head or headaches accompanied by a feeling of heaviness, queasiness and/ or perplexity. In addition, this remedy may also be useful in curing neuralgic face pain (face pain due to nerve disorders), possibly a result of Bell's palsy (usually a temporary paralysis of the muscles of the face on one side). Dulcamara has also been found to be effective in healing pains caused by sinusitis.

    DIARRHEA: In homeopathy, Dulcamara is an effective medication to treat diarrhea, especially those having slippery, yellowish or green stools possibly accompanied by tinges of blood. Patients suffering from this type of diarrhea may also experience nausea as well as pain prior to passing stools. Such symptoms may be set off in young children during teething. Using Dulcamara in such conditions cures the main ailments as well as provides relief from the associated symptoms.

    bittersweet berries



    Chemical investigations into the composition of bittersweet have identified a number of alkaloids in the leaves and fruit.

    There are several varieties of the plant that possess different alkaloid profiles. They occur primarily as glycosides of the 3 spirosolane alkaloids tomatidenol, soladulcidine, and solasodine, although the free alkaloids are sometimes also detected. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-solamarine are glycosides of tomatidenol, while soladulcines A and B are derived from soladulcidine, and solasonine and solamargine are glyosides of solasodine. Green and yellowing fruits contain a higher percentage of the glycoalkaloids than ripe fruits. Other compounds isolated from the plant include saponins such as soladulcosides A and B, free sterols such as tigogenin, and lycopene.

    If using pure Bittersweet, it is best to do so, only under the guidance of your health care provider. For other products with Bittersweet as an ingredient, read and follow product label directions for use.

    There is no clinical evidence to guide dosage of Bittersweet Nightshade. Traditional use of the stem has been at a dosage of 1 to 3 grams per day, usually given as a decoction or infusion inn 250 ml of water.



    For internal use, it is recommended that Bittersweet only be used with professional medical guidance or in homeopathic preparations.

    Bittersweet is toxic. Although this is not the same plant as Deadly Nightshade or Belladonna (an uncommon and extremely poisonous plant), Bittersweet Nightshade is somewhat poisonous and has caused loss of livestock and pet poisoning and, more rarely, sickness and even death in children who have eaten the berries. Fortunately, Bittersweet Nightshade has a strong, unpleasant odor, so most animals will avoid it, and poisonings from this plant are not very frequent.

    The entire plant contains solanine, the same toxin found in green potatoes and other members of the nightshade family, and it also contains a glycoside called dulcamarine, similar in structure and effects to atropine, one of the toxins found in deadly nightshade. The toxin amount varies with soil, light, climate and growth stage. Ripe fruits are generally less toxic than the leaves and unripe berries, but even ripe berries can be poisonous.

    If using the herb, medicinally, exceeding the recommended doses can cause respiratory paralysis, coma, and death. Ingestion of unripened berries should be considered a medical emergency. Symptoms may be delayed for several hours. Although fatal human poisonings are rare, several cases have been documented. The poison is believed to be solanine. Aggressive treatment of children ingesting limited amounts of ripened S. dulcamara berries appears to be unnecessary.

    Bittersweet is not for use by young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease. Documented teratogenic effects of the glycoalkaloids in animals. Administration of mature, unripe fruit to pregnant hamsters on day 8 of gestation resulted in a significant increase in craniofacial malformations over controls. The malformations included exencephaly, encephalocele, and occasional cebocephaly, cleft palate, or cleft lip. The dose used (7.5 g/kg by gavage) also induced significant maternal toxicity. However, the 2 effects were considered distinct because purified alkaloids (eg, solasodine) caused fetal damage without maternal toxicity. S. dulcamara was 10-fold more potent than the other species of Solanum studied, based on alkaloid content. The saponins present in the fruit may enhance absorption of the glycoalkaloids.

    Contraindications have not yet been identified and no interactions well documented.


    The FDA classifies bittersweet as an unsafe poisonous herb because of the presence of the toxic spirosolane glycoalkaloids. Like saponin, the glycoalkaloids cause hemolytic and hemorrhagic damage to the GI tract. Such poisoning is often confused with bacterial gastroenteritis, with symptoms appearing only after a latent period of several hours following ingestion. A weak effect on cardiovascular function has been documented. Toxic effects on both pregnant and nonpregnant mice have been found.

    Symptoms of spirosolane alkaloid poisoning include the following: circulatory and respiratory depression, convulsions, cyanosis, death, diarrhea, dilated pupils, headache, paralysis, scratchy throat, shock, speech difficulties, stomachache, subnormal temperature, vertigo, and vomiting. Adults appear to be relatively resistant to the toxicity of spirosolanes, but fatal intoxications are more common in children. Emesis, fluid replacement, and supportive care, such as that used for gastroenteritis, should be administered. Despite this typically aggressive therapy, the results of one study in mice fed ripened fruit suggested that because no GI or neurologic toxicity was observed, aggressive treatment of children who ingest ripened berries may not be necessary. Nevertheless, these investigators found significant neurologic and pathologic GI toxicity when mice were fed unripened fruit, indicating that poisoning with this plant should be considered a critical situation. Other investigators have confirmed the pathologic changes in the GI tract (glandular mucosal necrosis and necrosis of the small intestine) in hamsters fed ground bittersweet fruit.

    Despite its history of obvious toxicity and teratogenicity, bittersweet nightshade continues to appear as a component of homeopathic and herbal medicine, in the latter case appearing as biological immune response modifier (BIRM) from an Ecuadorian source used in alternative cancer treatment.


  • Bittersweet Herbal Products

  • Dulcamara Homeopathic Products




    Kalyx: Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara) Leaf Powder, Kalyx, 1 kg (2.2 lbs.): RF
    Kalyx: Bittersweet Leaf Powder, Kalyx, 1 kg (2.2 lbs) (EB): EB


    Amazon: True Bittersweet Woody Nightshade (Solanum Dulcamara) Seeds, Woody Vine, 200 Fresh Seeds
    Amazon: Unda Neutraceuticals Formula #270 Ointment, Seroyal, 1.4 oz.
    In some cases‚ skin that looks or feels less than perfect may be a result of your kidneys functioning improperly. Unda #270 Ointment by Seroyal uses homeopathic principles to help support skin that may be affected by mild inflammation‚ itching‚ blisters‚ sores‚ or colored patches. Unda #270 contains a blend of herbal compounds; one of the main herbs is St. John's wort‚ which may have an anti-inflammatory effect on certain allergic reactions and help support the skin’s nerve endings. Meanwhile‚ the horsetail extract in Unda #270 may work to support optimal kidney function and promote detoxification. Calendula (a form of marigold) is in this topical solution because it may help decrease mild pain and swelling on the skin when applied topically. Finally‚ Solanum dulcamara contains alkaloids that may inhibit the growth of certain forms of bacteria. Apply 10 to 30 drops on the affected areas‚ one to three times a day.


    Horizon Herbs: Bittersweet Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), Organic, 100 Seed Packet

  • Nutrition Basics: Bittersweet Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Dulcamara Homeopathic Information



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