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BITTER LEAF HERBAL DESCRIPTION
Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), also known as Mujonso, is a shrub or small tree that grows up to 23 feet tall with gray or brown bark that is rough and flaked. The leaves are green and oblong and the flowers are white, small, thistly, and clustered. The pith, leaf, and root have the medicinal qualities. In many parts of Africa, Bitter Leaf is prepared and eaten like spinach. The root and twigs are chewed as appetizers. This herb is believed to have tonic, anti-parasitic, anti-tumor, and anti-bacterial properties.
BITTER LEAF USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Animals studies have shown that chimpanzees chew the pith and ingest the leaves when suffering from parasitic infections for its anti-parasitic properties, but it is also used in Africa to treat intestinal parasite infestation in humans as well. It is also used to treat schistosomiasis, a disease caused by parasitic worms, but also works well in treating diarrhea and malaise.
The African people also use it to treat fever, other intestinal complaints, malaria, and to help restore stamina. In a preliminary clinical trial, a decoction of 25 grams of fresh leaves of V. amygdalinna was 67-percent effective in creating an adequate clinical response inn African patients with mild falciparum malaria. Of these 32-percent had complete parasite clearance. Unfortunately 71-percent of subjects had recurrence of symptoms. The treatment was without significant adverse effects.
BITTER LEAF HERBAL EXTRACT RESEARCH
Vernonia amygdalina extracts and isolated chemical constituents have been studied for their potential pharmacological effects, including:
- Induction of apoptosis as determined in cell culture and animal studies.
- Enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity - V. amygdalina extracts may render cancerous cells to be more sensitive to chemotherapy.
- Inhibition of the growth or growth signals of cancerous cells.
- Suppression of metastasis of cancerous cells in the body by the inhibition of NFκB is an anti-apoptotic transcription factors as demonstrated in animal studies.
- Reduction of estrogen level in the body by the suppression of aromatase activity. The involvement of blood estrogen level in the etiology of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer has been widely reported. Additional source of estrogen production in humans besides the ovary and adrenal gland is the conversion of testosterone to estrogen in a reaction catalyzed by aromatase. Many studies have shown positive correlations between blood estrogen levels and breast cancer risks. Therefore, compounds that inhibit aromatase activity are used for the treatment of breast cancer.
- Antioxidants - V. amygdalina may provide anti-oxidant benefits.
- Enhancement of the immune system - Many studies have shown that V. amygdalina extracts may strengthen the immune system through many cytokines (including NFκB, pro inflammatory molecule) regulation.
- Studies conducted using streptozotocin-induced diabetic laboratory animals showed that V. amygdalina administration decreased blood glucose by 50-percent compared to untreated diabetic animals.
- Extracts of V. amygdalina possess in vitro anthelminthic anti-parasitic properties.
Vernonia Amygdalina: Anticancer Activity, Authentication, & Adulteration Detection
Gresham LJ, Ross J, Izevbigie EB. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2008 Dec;5(5):342-8. The Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Phytoceuticals, and Cancer Prevention and Therapies, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA.
Evidence suggests that most chemotherapeutic agents are less effective as treatment in patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast carcinomas compared to those with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast carcinomas. Moreover, African American Women (AAW) is disproportionately diagnosed with ER- breast cancer compared to their white counterparts. Novel therapies effective against ER- breast carcinomas are urgently needed to ameliorate the health disparity. Previous reports show that low concentrations (microgram/ml) of water-soluble leaf extracts of a Nigerian edible plant, V. amygdalina (VA), potently retards the proliferative activities of ER+ human breast cancerous cells (MCF-7) in vitro in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, the anti-proliferative activities of VA in either ductal or ER- carcinoma cells have not been characterized. The exposure of BT-549 to increasing concentrations of VA (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) inhibited cell growth by approximately 14% (P<0.05), 22% (p<0.05), and 50% (p<0.005) respectively. The cell count studies were corroborated by DNA synthesis studies. Treatments of BT-549 with 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL VA inhibited DNA synthesis in a concentration dependent fashion by 22%, 76% (P<0.05), and 86% (p<0.01) respectively. BT-549 cells were insensitive to 10 and 100 nM paclitaxel (TAX) treatments. Isolation of DNA from dried VA leaves yielded approximately 12.2 and 1 kbp genomic DNA that were Eco RI-insensitive but Hind III and Bam HI-sensitive. These pieces of information may be used to enhance the safety of medicinal botanical VA through authentication, and adulteration detection.
NIH: Antioxidative & Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia Amygdalina & Garcinia Bioflavonoid Research Gate: Nutritional & Antimicrobial Properties of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaves ACS Publication: Flavonoids From Vernonia Amygdalina & Their Antioxidant Activities
BITTER LEAF DOSAGE INFORMATION
Bitter Leaf comes in various forms and is an ingredient in other products. For best results, read and follow product label directions.
BITTER LEAF SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS INFORMATION
Bitter Leaf is generally regarded as safe for use as a food and a medicine; however, safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known. If you think you may have intestinal worms, it is best to consult with your physician before using Bitter Leaf for the treatment of your condition.
BITTER LEAF HERBAL & RELATED PRODUCTS
QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS
BITTER LEAF HERBAL PRODUCTS
Nutrition Basics: Bitter Leaf Herbal Information
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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