animated goddess mdbs banner animated goddess

MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics


(Vernonia Amygdalina)

For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.

  • Bitter Leaf Herbal Description
  • Bitter Leaf Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Bitter Leaf Dosage Information
  • Bitter Leaf Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Bitter Leaf Supplements & Products

  • bitter leaf plant


    Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), also known as Mujonso, is a shrub or small tree that grows up to 23 feet tall with gray or brown bark that is rough and flaked. The leaves are green and oblong and the flowers are white, small, thistly, and clustered. The pith, leaf, and root have the medicinal qualities. In many parts of Africa, Bitter Leaf is prepared and eaten like spinach. The root and twigs are chewed as appetizers. This herb is believed to have tonic, anti-parasitic, anti-tumor, and anti-bacterial properties.

    bitter leaf flower


    Animals studies have shown that chimpanzees chew the pith and ingest the leaves when suffering from parasitic infections for its anti-parasitic properties, but it is also used in Africa to treat intestinal parasite infestation in humans as well. It is also used to treat schistosomiasis, a disease caused by parasitic worms, but also works well in treating diarrhea and malaise.

    The African people also use it to treat fever, other intestinal complaints, malaria, and to help restore stamina. In a preliminary clinical trial, a decoction of 25 grams of fresh leaves of V. amygdalinna was 67-percent effective in creating an adequate clinical response inn African patients with mild falciparum malaria. Of these 32-percent had complete parasite clearance. Unfortunately 71-percent of subjects had recurrence of symptoms. The treatment was without significant adverse effects.


    Vernonia amygdalina extracts and isolated chemical constituents have been studied for their potential pharmacological effects, including:
    • Induction of apoptosis as determined in cell culture and animal studies.
    • Enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity - V. amygdalina extracts may render cancerous cells to be more sensitive to chemotherapy.
    • Inhibition of the growth or growth signals of cancerous cells.
    • Suppression of metastasis of cancerous cells in the body by the inhibition of NFκB is an anti-apoptotic transcription factors as demonstrated in animal studies.
    • Reduction of estrogen level in the body by the suppression of aromatase activity. The involvement of blood estrogen level in the etiology of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer has been widely reported. Additional source of estrogen production in humans besides the ovary and adrenal gland is the conversion of testosterone to estrogen in a reaction catalyzed by aromatase. Many studies have shown positive correlations between blood estrogen levels and breast cancer risks. Therefore, compounds that inhibit aromatase activity are used for the treatment of breast cancer.
    • Antioxidants - V. amygdalina may provide anti-oxidant benefits.
    • Enhancement of the immune system - Many studies have shown that V. amygdalina extracts may strengthen the immune system through many cytokines (including NFκB, pro inflammatory molecule) regulation.
    • Studies conducted using streptozotocin-induced diabetic laboratory animals showed that V. amygdalina administration decreased blood glucose by 50-percent compared to untreated diabetic animals.
    • Extracts of V. amygdalina possess in vitro anthelminthic anti-parasitic properties.

    Vernonia Amygdalina: Anticancer Activity, Authentication, & Adulteration Detection

    Gresham LJ, Ross J, Izevbigie EB. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2008 Dec;5(5):342-8. The Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Phytoceuticals, and Cancer Prevention and Therapies, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA.

    Evidence suggests that most chemotherapeutic agents are less effective as treatment in patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast carcinomas compared to those with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast carcinomas. Moreover, African American Women (AAW) is disproportionately diagnosed with ER- breast cancer compared to their white counterparts. Novel therapies effective against ER- breast carcinomas are urgently needed to ameliorate the health disparity. Previous reports show that low concentrations (microgram/ml) of water-soluble leaf extracts of a Nigerian edible plant, V. amygdalina (VA), potently retards the proliferative activities of ER+ human breast cancerous cells (MCF-7) in vitro in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, the anti-proliferative activities of VA in either ductal or ER- carcinoma cells have not been characterized. The exposure of BT-549 to increasing concentrations of VA (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) inhibited cell growth by approximately 14% (P<0.05), 22% (p<0.05), and 50% (p<0.005) respectively. The cell count studies were corroborated by DNA synthesis studies. Treatments of BT-549 with 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL VA inhibited DNA synthesis in a concentration dependent fashion by 22%, 76% (P<0.05), and 86% (p<0.01) respectively. BT-549 cells were insensitive to 10 and 100 nM paclitaxel (TAX) treatments. Isolation of DNA from dried VA leaves yielded approximately 12.2 and 1 kbp genomic DNA that were Eco RI-insensitive but Hind III and Bam HI-sensitive. These pieces of information may be used to enhance the safety of medicinal botanical VA through authentication, and adulteration detection.

    More Research:

  • NIH: Antioxidative & Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia Amygdalina & Garcinia Bioflavonoid
  • Research Gate: Nutritional & Antimicrobial Properties of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaves
  • ACS Publication: Flavonoids From Vernonia Amygdalina & Their Antioxidant Activities


    Bitter Leaf comes in various forms and is an ingredient in other products. For best results, read and follow product label directions.


    Bitter Leaf is generally regarded as safe for use as a food and a medicine; however, safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known. If you think you may have intestinal worms, it is best to consult with your health care provider before using Bitter Leaf for the treatment of your condition.


  • Bitter Leaf Herbal Products


    FTC Advertising & Affilate Disclosure: This website has an affiliate relationship with certain merchants selling products and we recieve commissions from those sales to help support this website. Any products listed here are not listed by any rating system. We do not rate any product or post any feedback about products listed here. We leave this to the individual merchants to provide. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit. All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual.



    Amazon: Bitter Leaf Plant (Vernonia amygdalina), Livater Garden, 1 Potted Plant

    Great herbal medicinal health benefits and nutritional value. Rich in vitamins. Fresh leafy greens can be used for soups, stews, tea, salad, juice and drinks. Great for digestive tract and detoxification. Easy to grow with low maintenance. Bitter leaf plant with leafy green vegetable is also known as Vernonia amygdalina. It is of the African origin. It is a very popular plant loved by the people from the eastern and western parts of Africa. Bitter leaf greens are used in the form of vegetable eaten to promote and enhance the digestive tract to do its job. When you look at it closely, most of the health problem we have start from what is put in the GI tract. Bitter leaf has a lot of therapeutic elements such as saponins, venomygdin and vernodalin; all of which have antibacterial properties and are useful in maintaining the health of other organs of the body like kidney and liver naturally without chemicals. Fresh bitter can be squeezed or blended like smoothies and drink as juice, you can boil it and drink as tea, put a little bit in your salad or use with other greens in your soup. You will receive the primary and secondary root with the stem inside a clear poly bag with some moistened potting soil. Bitter leaf plant likes direct sunlight and water in well drained soil. Bitter leaf plant is best planted in loam well-drained soil condition. Keep soil evenly moist. Bitter leaf grows tall to about 18 feet high. Snails love bitter leaf so be aware to prevent snails from your garden. Each plant is individually wrapped for protection. Ships within 2 to 3 days.

  • Nutrition Basics: Bitter Leaf Herbal Information

  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

    Health & Wellness Index


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water


  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index

  • Starwest Botanicals

    HerbsPro Supplement Store


    Up to 70% Off Bath & Beauty - evitamins


 Herbs, Foods, Supplements, Bath & Body

    Chinese Herbs Direct

    Ayurvedic Herbs Direct

    Pet Herbs Direct

    ShareASale Merchant-Affiliate Program


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.