MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
(Bídens Tripartíta, Bidens Cernua & Others)
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BUR MARIGOLD (BIDENS) HERBAL DESCRIPTION
Bidens is a genus of flowering plants in the Aster family, Asteraceae. The common names beggarticks, black jack, burr marigolds, cobbler's pegs, Spanish needles, stickseeds, tickseeds and tickseed sunflowers refer to the fruits of the plants, most of which are bristly and barbed, with two shar pappi at the end. The generic name refers to the same character; Bidens comes from the Latin bis (two) and dens (tooth).
The plants are zoochorous; their seeds will stick to clothing, fur or feathers, and be carried to new habitat. This has enabled them to colonize a wide range, including many oceanic islands. Some of these species occur only in a very restricted range and several are now threatened with extinction, notably in the Hawaiian Islands. Due to the absence of native mammals on these islands, some of the oceanic island taxa have reduced burrs, evolving features that seem to aid in dispersal by the wind instead. Bidens is distributed throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Most species occur in the Americas, Africa, and Polynesia, and there are some in Europe and Asia.
Nodding beggarticks (B. cernua) and hairy beggarticks (B. pilosa) are useful as honey plants. Several Bidens species are used as food by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera, such as the noctuid moth Hypercompe hambletoni and the brush-footed butterfly Vanessa cardui, the Painted Lady. The Bidens mottle virus, a plant pathogen, was first isolated from B. pilosa, and it infects many other Asteraceae and plants of other families.
The taxonomy of Bidens has been described as "chaotic", and it is not clear how many taxa are included in its bounds. There are probably at least 150 to 250 species, and some estimates fall around 230.
BUR MARIGOLD OVERVIEW
Scientific Name(s): Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britt., Bidens tripartita L., Bidens bipinnata L., Bidens pilosa L., Bidens cernua L., Bidens frondosa L., and other Bidens species.
Family: Asteraceae (daisies).
Common Name(s): Bastard agrimony, bastard hemp, bur (burr) marigold, hairy beggar-ticks, 3-lobe beggar ticks, lumb, needle grass, Spanish needles, sticktights, water agrimony, water hemp. Bidens tripartita is commonly known as Trifid Bur-Marigold, Three-Lobe Beggarticks, Three-Part Beggarticks, or Leafy-Bracted Beggarticks.
Bur marigold is the common name for any of the 200 species of Bidens ; however, the 6 species listed above are most commonly used in herbal medicine. Bur marigolds are upright annual herbs (0.3 to 1.5 meters in height), often found growing in open shade along the edge of woodlands and rivers. They grow best in full sunlight but are adaptable to partial shade. Leaves are arranged alternately and are toothed or lobed on the margins. The plants bloom from September to October, producing numerous solitary bright yellow flowers. The dark brown seeds of the plant have spiky projections at one end that adhere to clothing and animal fur, hence the common name of beggar ticks. Some species are considered to be invasive weeds.
Nodding Bur Marigold (Bidens Cernua) and Three-Cleft Bur Marigold (Bidens Tripartita) are two common plants of the same order and species found growing wild. Bur Marigold is a flowering plant in the genus Bidens and is native to large parts of the Northern hemisphere, including Europe, the Indian subcontinent, North America, temperate east Asia, and slightly into northern Africa. It has been naturalized in other areas.
The Burr Marigold root is tapering, with many fibers attached to it. The stem is two to three feet high, smooth, angular, solid, maculated, that is, spotted with small brown spots. It stands erect, is leafy with opposite axillary branches. The leaves are opposite, on winged foot stalks. They are a dark green color with smooth, strongly serrated, acute or sharp-pointed in three deep segments, sometimes five. The uppermost and occasionally the lowermost are found undivided. The flowers are in terminal heads, solitary, brownish in color, and are somewhat drooping. They are devoid of beauty, smell, or fragrance. Each flower is surrounded by about eight spreading lanceolate, serrated, or entire bracts of unequal size, but all extending much beyond the flower head, aschenia with two or three prickly angles, and as many erect bristles, which are likewise prickly with reflexed hooks. The achenia will stick like burs to anything they may come in contact with, even to sticking in one's skin.
One of the best tests used to know you have the right plant is to press one of the heads of the flowers on your clothing, and if in pulling it away the brown achenias stick in the cloth, you may be sure you have the real article. There are other plants that produce burs that will stick to cloth but they do not grow in water like Bur Marigold. Bur Marigold flowers in July, August and September, and is an annual plant.
BUR MARIGOLD USES & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Several Bidens species have been, and continue to be used extensively in folk medicine.
African, Caribbean, Chinese, Peruvian, and other folk medicines describe extensive uses of the plant, including for the treatment of angina, high blood pressure, conjunctivitis, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, diuresis, dropsy, dysmenorrhea, dysentery, febrile convulsions, fever, flank pains, food poisoning, fractures, helminthiasis, hepatitis, inflammation, jaundice, rheumatism, sore throat, threatened abortion, and toothache. The leaves, flowers, and whole plant of different Bidens species are used. Bur marigold products are not widely marketed.
The properties of Bur Marigold are slightly narcotic, sedative, diuretic, aperient, astringent, styptic, antiseptic, and diaphoretic. It is used for treating fevers, dropsy, grave, bladder stones, kidney diseases, consumption, ulcerated lungs, general debility, ruptured blood vessels, and bleeding of every description whether internal or external. The whole plant is used medicinally.
Bur Marigold used in the treatment of dropsy and gravel affections depends more upon its diaphoretic and astringent properties thann on its direct diuretic influences. It resolves mucous deposits, and deterges and heals abraded mucous surfaces in catarrh of the bladder, engorgement of the ureters, and in all atonic conditions of the urinary apparatus. It is peculiarly useful in dropsy, stranguary, hematuria, gout, etc., being a most valuable and auxiliary agent. Its utility in the last-mentioned diseases is owing to the power of resolving the viscidity of the secretions and of promoting renal depuration. It seems to exercise a peculiar soothing and toning influence upon inflamed and abraded mucous surfaces. It also promotes assimilation and restrains diarrheal tendency, but it is in all cases of hemorrhage and where bleeding is concerned that its greatest qualities are found. In bleeding from the lungs, stomach, or bowels its equal cannot be found, for as a styptic it puts all other remedies in the shade, no matter whether they be vegetable or mineral. Turpentine, so generally used in such cases, as well as Iron, Bistort, Tormentil, Oak Bark, Kino, Catechu, and other powerful astringents are less reliable than Bur Marigold.
In all diseases of the respiratory organs, where bleeding is concerned, Bur-Marigold is of the highest value and utility, as it first resolves the viscidity of the pulmonary secretions, the plasticity of the venous blood, and promotes cutaneous depuration, healing the part affected without causing any irritation to the patient. A strong infusion of Bur Marigold and a crushed piece of Ginger is taken warm every 30 minutes has been used to stop bleeding from the lungs. Bur Marigold was also used to stop uterine hemorrhaging.
Evaluation of the chemical composition of Bidens species has revealed the presence of flavonoids, xanthophylls, volatile oil, acetylenes and polyacetalenes, sterols, aurones, chalcones, caffeine and caffeoyl derivatives, and tannins. Antimicrobial activity is believed to be associated with phenylheptatriyne, linolic acid, and linolenic acid. Friedelin, friedelan-3-beta-ol, and flavonoids, such as quercetin, are associated with anti-inflammatory activity. Antioxidant action has been attributed to glucopyranosides found in B. pilosa, while polyacetylenic glucosides may act on T-helper cells.
Animal Data: Anti-inflammatory activity has been studied in B. bipinnata and Bidens campylotheca . Compared with dexamethasone, the flavones of B. bipinnata demonstrated greater anti-inflammatory activity in an in vitro experiment using mice. Another study revealed that 5 isolated polyacetylenes from B. campylotheca inhibited the activity of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipooxygenase.
Clinical Data: There is no clinical data regarding the use of bur marigold as an anti-inflammatory agent.
Animal Data: The genus is associated with antimicrobial activity. B. pilosa whole plant extract was tested for activity against various bacteria and fungi. Some activity was shown against Bacillus coagulans, Citrobacter freundii, and Salmonella typhi, but not Candida albicans. A minimum inhibitory concentration of 50 mcg/mL was obtained from a sesquiterpene phenol from B. cernua for Candida. Animal experiments have evaluated B. pilosa antimalarial activity both in vivo and in vitro in mice. Crude ethanolic extracts of the plant roots demonstrated activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Increased mouse survival and decreased parasitaemia have been displayed; this activity is considered to be caused by the presence of polyacetylenes and flavonoids.
In vitro experiments have demonstrated a dose-dependant effect of whole plant aqueous extract of B. pilosa on the herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. The median effective dose of the whole plant extract was higher than the positive control acyclovir.
Clinical Data: No clinical data has been published regarding the use of bur marigold as an antimicrobial agent, despite widespread traditional use in Brazil.
Animal Data: Several in vitro experiments using human erythrocytes have displayed an antioxidant action of ethanol and aqueous extracts of B. pilosa. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of the plant extract demonstrated free radical scavenging properties comparable with alpha-tocopherol.
Clinical Data: There is no clinical data regarding the antioxidant activity of bur marigold.
Animal Data: Several experiments on extracts of B. pilosa leaves have been conducted on rats to investigate the plant's cardiovascular properties. A hypotensive effect has been observed, with varying results on heart rate and contractility. The researchers sought to establish a mechanism of action and suggest that the extracts possess smooth muscle relaxant properties and a vasodilatory action possibly caused by calcium antagonist action and beta-receptor stimulation.
Clinical Data: There are no clinical data regarding cardiovascular activity of bur marigold.
Animal Data: In a series of experiments in mice, the butanol fraction of a B. pilosa extract moderated the cytokine-mediated differentiation of T-helper cells. In nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, Th-1 cell differentiation was inhibited, while Th-2 differentiation increased. Polyacetylenic glucosides responsible for this moderation prevented the onset of diabetes in NOD mice. Enhanced cytokine production by human erythrocytes in response to B. pilosa also has been demonstrated. In other experiments, neither aqueous nor methylene chloride extracts of B. pilosa had any effect on insulin or glucose in fructose-induced hypertensive rats.
Clinical Data: Despite being recognized in Caribbean and Chinese cultures as a traditional medicine for diabetes, there are no clinical research data relevant to this use.
Animal Data: Antiulcerogenic activity has been studied in Bidens aurea and B. pilosa. The results of an in vitro experiment in rats revealed B. aurea flavonoid extracts provided a higher level of gastric protection (increased mucus secretion) compared with ranitidine and omeprazole. Results for extracts of B. pilosa contradict one experiment showing dose-dependent antisecretory action and another suggesting no effect on gastric section or volume. However, both experiments demonstrated protection against mucosal injury in induced gastric lesions. B. bipinnata was evaluated for antidiarrheal activity and demonstrated an effect for up to 4 hours against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats. The extract showed a rapid relaxant effect on contractile tissues of the duodenum. Higher doses were needed to alter intestinal transit times.
Clinical Data: There are no clinical data regarding GI uses of bur marigold.
Other: An in vitro experiment evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of 3 Bidens species on acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic lesions in rats. The results indicated that Bidens chilensis exhibited the greatest hepatoprotective effect. B. pilosa showed anticell proliferation on human cells in an experiment designed to evaluate antiangiogenic properties.
1. Bidens tripartita L. USDA, NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS Database, ( http://plants.usda.gov January 2007). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. Dimo T, Nguelefack TB, Tan PV, et al. Possible mechanisms of action of the neutral extract from Bidens pilosa L. leaves on the cardiovascular system of anaesthetized rats. Phytother Res. 2003;17:1135-1139.
3. Li S, Kuang HX, Okada Y, Okuyama T. New acetylenic glucosides from Bidens bipinnata L. Chem Pharm Bull. 2004;52:439-440.
4. Kumar JK, Sinha AK. A new disubstituted acetylacetone from the leaves of Bidens pilosa Linn. Nat Prod Res. 2003;17:71-74.
5. Sarker SD, Bartholomew B, Nash RJ, Robinson N. 5-O-methylhoslundin: An unusual flavonoid from Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Biochem Syst Ecol. 2000;28:591-593.
6. Chiang LC, Chang JS, Chen CC, Ng LT, Lin CC. Anti- Herpes simplex virus activity of Bidens pilosa and Houttuynia cordata. Am J Chin Med. 2003;31:355-362.
7. Lans CA. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine. 2006;2:45-56.
8. Li S, Kuang HX, Okada Y, Okuyama T. New flavanone and chalcone glucosides from Bidens bipinnata Linn. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2005;7:67-70.
9. Chiang YM, Chuang DY, Wang SY, Kuo YH, Tsai PW, Shyur LF. Metabolite profiling and chemopreventive bioactivity of plant extracts from Bidens pilosa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;95:409-419.
10. Geissberger P, Sequin URS. Constituents of Bidens pilosa L.: do the components found so far explain the use of this plant in traditional medicine? Acta Trop. 1991;48:251-261.
11. Chiang YM, Chang CL, Chang SL, Yang WC, Shyur LF. Cytopiloyne, a novel polyacetylenic glucoside from Bidens pilosa, functions as a T helper cell modulator. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;110:532-538.
12. Wang J, et al. Pharmacological effects of a new anti-inflammatory constituents in Spanish needles (Bidens bipinnata). Zhong Cao Yao. 1997;28:665-668.
13. Redl K, Breu W, Davis B, Bauer R. Anti-inflammatory active polyacetylenes from Bidens campylotheca. Planta Med. 1994;60:58-62.
14. Khan MR, Kihara M, Omoloso AD. Anti-microbial activity of Bidens pilosa, Bischofia javanica, Elmerillia papuana and Sigesbekia orientalis. Fitoterapia. 2001;72:662-665.
15. Bondarenko AS, Petrenko GT, Aizenman BE, Evseenko OV. Antimicrobial properties of phenylheptatriyne, a polyacetylene antibiotic [in Russian]. Mikrobiol Zh (Kiev). 1985;47:81-83.
16. Smirnov VV, et al. Antimicrobial activity of sesquiterpene phenol from Bidens cernua. Fitoterapia. 1998;69:84-85.
17. Smirnov VV, et al. A new sesquiterpene phenol from Bidens ceruna L. with antimicrobial activity. Rastit Resur. 1995;31:31-37.
18. Brandao MG, Krettli AU, Soares LS, Nery CG, Marinuzzi HC. Antimalarial activity of extracts and fractions of Bidens pilosa and Bidens species (Asteraceae) correlated with the presence of acetylene and flavonoid compounds. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;57:131-138.
19. Oliveira FQ, Andrade-Neto V, Krettli AU, Brandao MG. New evidences of antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa roots extract correlated with polyacetylene and flavonoids. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93:39-42.
20. Andrade-Neto VF, Brandao MG, Oliveira FQ, et al. Antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in various localities or plants cultivated in humus soil. Phytother Res. 2004;18:634-639.
21. Yang HL, Chen SC, Chang NW, et al. Protection from oxidative damage using Bidens pilosa extracts in normal human erythrocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44:1513-1521.
22. Abajo C, Boffill MA, del Campo J, et al. In vitro study of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of aqueous infusion of Bidens pilosa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93:319-323.
23. Dimo T, Azay J, Tan PV, et al. Effects of the aqueous and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa leaf on fructose-hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76:215-221.
24. Dimo T, Rakotonirina SV, Tan PV, Azay J, Dongo E, Cros G. Leaf methanol extract of Bidens pilosa prevents and attenuates the hypertension induced by high-fructose diet in Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83:183-191.
25. Nguelefack TB, Dimo T, Nguelefack Mbuyo EP, Tan PV, Rakotonirina SV, Kamanyi A. Relaxant effects of the neutral extract of the leaves of Bidens pilosa Linn on isolated rat vascular smooth muscle. Phytother Res. 2005;19:207-210.
26. Alarcon de la Lastra C, Martin MJ, La Casa C, Motilva V . Antiulcerogenicity of the flavonoid fraction from Bidens aurea: comparison with ranitidine and omeprazole. J Ethnopharmacol . 1994:42:161-168.
27. Calero MJ, et al. Healing process induced by a flavonoid fraction of Bidens aurea on chronic gastric lesion in rat. Role of angiogenesis and neutrophil inhibition. Bioscience. 1996;51:570-577.
28. Alarcon de la Lastra C, et al. Ulcer-protecting effects of a flavonoid from Bidens aurea. Role of endogenous prostaglandins and microvascular permeability. Phytomedicine. 1997;3:327-333.
29. Alvarez A, Pomar F, Sevilla MA, Montero MJ. Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of an ethanolic extract of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Schult. Bip. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;67:333-340.
30. Tan PV, Dimo T, Dongo E. Effects of methanol, cyclohexane and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa on various gastric ulcer models in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73:415-421.
31. Atta AH, Mouneir SM. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity. Phytother Res. 2005;19:481-485.
32. Chin HW, Lin CC, Tang KS. The hepatoprotective effects of Taiwan folk medicine ham-hong-chho in rats. Am J Chin Med. 1996;24:231-240.
33. Wu LW, Chiang YM, Chuang HC, et al. Polyacetylenes function as anti-angiogenic agents. Pharm Res. 2004;21:2112-2119.
BUR MARIGOLD DOSAGE INFORMATION
Trifid Bur-Marigold (Bídens tripartíta) is outwardly used in allergic dermatoses, eczema, psoriasis, minor skin wounds as a compress and baths. It is desirable to simultaneously drink Trifid Bur-Marigold tea.
Adults 10 to 15 grams Bur Marigold per cup of boiling water, leave for 2 hours, strain. Use 1/4 cup, 3 to 4 times daily.
Children 1 tablespoon Bur Marigold in a glass of boiled water, 10 minutes, drain. Use up to a glass daily for a tablespoon.
To Treat Bleeding: Take 2 ounces of Bur-Marigold, cut into small pieces, and place with 1 ounce of crushed lump Ginger into 3 pints of cold water, and simmer it down to one quart. Strain, and it is ready for use. The dose is half to one teacupful, taken either warm or cold as often as required. The more severe the case, the more frequently it should be given.
BUR MARIGOLD SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTION INFORMATION
Contraindications have not been identified.
No interactions well documented. Theoretical interactions with calcium channel antagonists, beta-blockers, and cardiac glycosides exist.
Information regarding safety and efficacy during pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
Toxicology: Little information is available.
Adverse Reactions: There is little or no information available on adverse reactions caused by Bur Marigold. Cross-hypersensitivity (an allergic reaction) to other members of the Asteraceae family is possible. A deterioration of cell-mediated airway inflammation is possible for people with allergies and/or asthma, because of the enhanced production of T-helper 2 cells by polyacetylenic glucosides demostrated in mice.
BUR MARIGOLD HERBAL PRODUCTS
QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS
BUR MARIGOLD (BIDENS) HERBAL PRODUCTS
Amazon: Bur Marigold Herb, Dried Herb, PhytoLab, 1.8 oz.
Amazon: Trifid Bur-Marigold, Organic Dried Herb, Kubja Urditalu, 200 grams (7 oz.) (10 Packs of 20 grams / 0.7 oz.) Herb Trifid Bur-Marigold, 100% Bídens tripartíta. Outwardly used in allergic dermatoses, eczema, psoriasis, minor skin wounds as a compress and baths. It is desirable to simultaneously drink tea trifid bur-marigold. Preparation: adults 10 to 15 grams per cup of boiling water, leave for 2 hours, strain. Children 1 tablespoon in a glass of boiled water, 10 minutes, drain. Use: adults 1/4 cup 3 to 4 times a day for children up to a glass a day for a tablespoon.
Amazon: Bur Marigold Oil, Salem Botanicals, 50 ml (1.7 fl. oz.) For External Use Only. Helps Support Healthy Skin. Used to remove ink from the lashes, while nourishing and strengthening eyelashes. Widely used for the care of children's skin with diathesis and rashes on the body. Oil series of effective hair loss, seborrhea and dandruff. Has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and soothing. Used for skin care in allergic rash youthful acne, psoriasis. Suitable for all skin types, especially for oily and problem. This oil extract is actively used in cosmetology to cease itching and inflammation of the skin. It improves skin condition with diathesis, neurodermatitis and skin rashes. It is an excellent tool for strengthening dry and brittle hair - for this effect it is necessary to put oil on the scalp, rub lightly, leaving for 30 minutes, then rinsing. Also used for preparation of medicinal baths. It is widely used in pediatric practice - 10 ml added in a water bath at a desired temperature.
Nutrition Basics: Biden (Bur Marigold) Herbal Information
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