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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics


(Fraxinus Americana / Fraxinus Excelsior)

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  • Ash Description
  • Ash Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Ash Dosage Information
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  • Ash Supplements & Products

  • white ash tree



    The Ash tree is also known as Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus excelsior, American Ash, Biltmore Ash, American Biltmore, Cane Ash, Common Ash, European Ash, Weeping Ash and White Ash.


  • Fraxinus excelsior (Ash, Bird's Tongue, European Ash, Common Ash, Weeping Ash)
  • Fraxinus americana (American White Ash, Evergreen Ash, Fresno aka Spanish)
  • Fraxinus chinensis (Chinese Ash)
  • Fraxinus ornus (Manna Ash, Manna, Flowering Ash, Sweet Manna, Flake Manna)

  • Sometimes called American Ash or White Ash, this tree is widely known for the variety of goods that are made from its high quality, tough, and durable wood. It not only provides the wood for baseball bats, it is also the most common shade tree in over half of the United States. The timber is tough and pliant and is used in making everything from church pews to bowling alleys. The American White Ash derives its common name from the glaucous undersides of its leaves. It is very similar in appearance to Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), often making identification quite difficult. The key to differentiating these two species is to closely examine the leaf scars. White Ash leaf scars are deeply notched and take the shape of a horseshoe, while Green Ash leaf scars, which are flat against the bud, are shield-shaped. Additionally, the bottom surface of the White Ash leaf is white or gray in color, while that of the Green Ash is more greenish. Site can also be used as a good indicator.

    The Manna species are indigenous to southern Europe, extending to the southern borders of the Alps and as far as European Turkey. They are cultivated in Italy for their high yield of sap. Manna is the sap generated from the slit bark of trunk and branches, and then dried. The medicinal part of the Manna species is the juice extracted from the bark starting from the eighth to the tenth year. Several ash species exude a nutritious sap called "manna," which is used as a laxative for children and pregnant women. It is also used for ailments where an easier elimination and softer stool is desirable, for example, anal fissures, hemorrhoids, and post-rectal or anal surgery. It is rich in carbohydrates and other nutrients and may be added to Slippery Elm, Agar-Agar, and other nutritious foodstuffs as a sweetener.

    white ash and green ash leaf comparison


    The White Ash is most commonly found on moist, rich, well-drained soils in association with other hardwoods. It is also found in bottomlands near streams and often on low slopes. This tree has a vast range, occurring from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in Canada south to northern Florida and west to eastern Texas.


    The seeds of the White Ash are an important food source for a variety of birds including red-winged blackbird, evening grosbeak, pine grosbeak, and purple finch. Additionally, beavers often use young white ash for food.


    This Ash tree is most famous for being the best wood for baseball bats and other sports equipment such as tennis racquets, hockey sticks, polo mallets, and playground structures. The reasons for white ash being the most popular wood for these items is that it is tough and does not break under large amounts of strain. This wood can be bent into different shapes without losing its strength and is quite light. There are numerous other uses for white ash wood including church pews, bowling alley flooring, garden and porch furniture, and cabinets. White ash is also planted as an ornamental because it is attractive, hardy and relatively free of diseases.

    white ash bark


    Size & Form

    White ash is a large tree that reaches 70 to 80 feet in height, 2 to 3 feet in diameter. This tree has been known to reach 125 feet in rare instances. In the forest it has a clear, straight bole, supporting a narrow, pyramidal crown. Open-grown trees produce branches within a few feet of the ground and form a broad, round-topped, symmetrical crown.


    Leaves are odd-pinnately compound, opposite, and deciduous. They are 8 to 13 inches long, with 5 to 9 stalked leaflets per leaf. The leaflets are oval to elliptical-shaped, 2 to 4 inches long, 1 to 3 inches wide. Leaflet apices are acute and leaflet bases are rounded or wedge-shaped. Leaflet margins are toothed or entire. Leaf surfaces are dark green and glabrous above, paler below and more or less pubescent. The rachis is stout and grooved.


    The light green to purplish flowers are dioecious and lack petals. Male flowers occur in tight clusters and female flowers grow in loose panicles.


    The twigs are stout and green to greenish-brown. The pith is white and homogeneous.


    The fruit is a light-brown samara, about 1 inch long. They are often produced in clumps of 10 to 100 samaras.


    This light gray-brown bark is characterized by having deep, narrow ridges that form a diamond-shaped pattern.

    american white ash leaves


    Ash has also been used medicinally for hundreds of years. Early settlers learned from Native American Indians the many medicinal qualities of Ash. They used the sap externally for treating cancerous growths. The leaves were used as an antiseptic for cleansing women after childbirth. A tea made from the bark was used externally for itchy scalp and sores, and internally for expelling worms from the body. Ash seeds were thought to have aphrodisiac, diuretic, and digestive stimulant properties. The bark is tonic and astringent. The leaves have laxative, astringent, and diuretic properties and contains vitamin C, sugar, coumarin, iron, copper, potassium, and bioflavonoids.

    white ash seed



    The British native species of Ash, Fraxinus excelsior has had numerous uses in folk medicine and folklore.

    Ash tea made from the bark is used to help stop minor bleeding, and acts as an emetic. It is also used for itchy scalp. Teas made from the leaves are used to reduce fevers and water retention. The seeds are used to reduce fever and stimulate the appetite. Ash tincture is used to enhance sexual desire in men, but must be used in moderation as the libido enhancing effect is very strong. Ash leaves have been used as a substitute for senna.

    In the Scottish Highlands, Ash sap was traditionally given to a newborn baby as its first nourishment - a practice that it has been suggested, could originate in Persia, where the sweet sap of the so-called Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) was dried and eaten for its food value and its action as a gentle laxative. Ash sap has been used to treat earache in Ireland, and also in England right up to the present day. This remedy can be traced back to Saxon Britain. In the Scottish Highlands, burned Ash bark was used as a treatment for toothache. Other folk medicinal uses for the native British Ash include a poultice of the leaves to treat snake bites. Both Pliny and Gerard claimed that there was such a strong antipathy between the Ash and the snake that a snake would pass through fire to avoid the tree. A Somerset proverb recorded in 1912 reflects this belief. In West Somerset, there was a custom of hanging a wreath of flowers on an Ash tree near a farm to protect the animals and people against snake bites. Smoke from burning Ash was used to treat ringworm.

    Folk uses of the Ash involve some clear examples of the transference of disease. One custom, made famous by Gilbert White in the eighteenth century, was to make a so-called Shrew-Ash, by imprisoning a live shrew in a hole bored in an Ash tree. This tree then maintained its medicinal virtue for its lifetime. Such trees were used as cures for a variety of ailments, including whooping cough and paralysis. Warts were "transferred" to Ash trees in a variety of ways. In one method, a pin was stuck in each wart and afterward in the Ash tree, where it was left. Hernia in children was thought to be curable by splitting open a growing ash sapling and passing the child through the opening. The tree was then bound up, and as it healed, so would the child. This custom has been recorded in use in Sussex as recently as the 1920s.

    In North American folk medicine, as in British and Irish, Ash sap was used to treat earache. Another use for the Ash was as an aid to weight reduction; for this purpose, the dried leaves were used as a tea. A preparation of Ash bark tea was used in the treatment of snake bite, again reflecting the claim of an antipathy between snakes and Ash. There is an echo of the British folk remedy for hernia in a report from Burlington County, New Jersey, of children being treated for ruptures by being passed through a split in a tree, but the type of tree is not specified. A child could be passed through a split Holly, Oak, or Ash, for the cure of hernia. Other uses of Ash in North American folk medicine include wound treatment. Fraxinus americana was also used as an emmenagogue. In Native American medicine there were numerous uses for various species of Ash. Ash sap was widely used to treat earache, and the method of obtaining the sap is identical to that described for Scotland. White ash (Fraxinus americana) was used to provoke menstruation and as an abortifacient by the Abnaki. Both roots and flowers of this species have been used in snake bite treatment. Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) has been used as a tonic and an antirheumatic.


    By Ellen Evert Hopman

    In ancient Europe Ash trees were used to make spear shafts, household crafts, and bows. The proto Indo-European word for Ash gave us the words for spear, lance and javelin in several European languages.

    Ash was an important fodder tree for Neolithic farmers. The tender tips and leaves of the European Ash were used as a tea for gout, jaundice, and rheumatism. In winter the branch bark or the bark of the root was employed. Spring gathered leaves were dried for later use as a gentle laxative (the American White Ash is used similarly).

    In Greek tradition it was said that Zeus created humans from Ash trees. Yggdrasil was the Cosmic Ash upon which Odin hung for nine days until He discovered the runes. It was also the horse of Odin, who like the mare of Muhammad, bore him to the skies for a glimpse of heaven. On-Niona was the Gaulish Goddess of the Ash groves. The Irish word for Ash, Nion, was also the word for heaven, Nionon. The Icelandic word Aske meant "blaze of great fire", Ash being one of the best fire woods (especially when burned green!) as well as leading to the fires of enlightenment. Considered a Solar tree, its wood is used for the Yule Log. Druids carved charms from its wood. Ashen divining rods were cut on Summer Solstice. A Druidic Ash wand decorated with spirals was found on Anglesey.

    Eating red Ash buds at Midsummer brings protection from sorcery. Witch's brooms, used for flying, are traditionally made of an Ash pole with Birch twigs and Willow bindings. Ash "draws the flash" and so is used in rain magic.

    In Scotland it was believed that carrying the keys, or seeds, brought protection from evil sorcery. Ash sticks were preferred for herding cattle for they were sure not to injure an animal. Snakes were said to avoid Ash trees and their fallen leaves, an adder could be killed by a single blow from an Ashen stick. A circlet of Ash twigs was worn around the neck to heal snake bite. Ash sticks were carried in snake infested woods and according to Pliny, drawing a circle with an Ash wand around a snake would cause it to die.

    Ash trees were used in weather forecasting. If the Oak leafed first dry weather would follow. If the Ash leafed first wet weather was forecast. In Lincolnshire, England, it was said that the female Ash, the Sheder, could be used to overpower a male Witch and the male Ash, the Heder, could be used to overpower a female Witch.

    In Leicestershire a child with warts was carried to an Ash tree in April or May. A pin would be stuck into the tree then into the child's wart until pain was felt and then into the tree again and left in the bark. The rhyme "Ashen tree, ashen tree. Pray buy this wart of me" was recited. In the Highlands of Scotland at the birth of a child a branch of Ash was placed in the fire. The sap which was forced out at the ends was collected in a spoon and fed to the infant.

    Children with hernias, weakness, or rickets were passed through a cleft in an Ash sapling, before sunrise, while fasting. The slit in the tree was then bound and as the tree healed, so did the child. If the tree was later cut down the child would be re-injured and so woodcutter's often found these trees full of nails. In Herefordshire a lock of a child's hair was pinned to an Ash to cure a bad cough.


    Ellen Evert Hopman is a Druid Priestess, herbalist and author of "Priestess of the Forest: A Druid Journey", "A Druids Herbal - Of Sacred Tree Medicine", "Walking the World in Wonder - A Children's Herbal" and other volumes. Visit her website for more information.



    Ash comes in various forms and is an ingredient in many products. Due to its strong actions, it is important to read and follow product label directions. If you are unsure how much to use for the treatment of your condition, please seek the advice of your health care practitioner or a qualified herbalist.

    Folklore states that Ash bark has been employed as a bitter tonic and astringent, and is said to be valuable as an antiperiodic. On account of its astringency, it has been used, in decoction, extensively in the treatment of intermittent fever and ague (a fever involving shivering and chills), as a substitute for Peruvian bark. The decoction is odorless, though its taste is fairly bitter. It has been considered useful to remove obstructions of the liver and spleen, and in rheumatism of an arthritic nature.

    White Ash bark (Fraxinus americana) is astringent, emmenagogue and a bitter tonic. An infusion is used to promote menstruation. It has also been used as a wash to treat skin sores, itches and scalp vermin. The inner bark is diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic and strongly laxative. It is used as a tea to remove bile from the intestines, as a tonic after childbirth and to relieve stomach cramps and fevers. It is chewed and applied as a poultice to sores. The leaves are used to soothe the itching caused by mosquito bites and bee stings. The seeds are thought to be aphrodisiac.

    The leaves should be gathered in June, well dried, powdered and kept in wellcorked bottles. The leaves have diuretic, diaphoretic and purgative properties, and are employed in modern herbal medicine for their laxative action, used for worm infestations and especially in the treatment of gout, arthritis, and rheumatic complaints, proving a useful substitute for Senna, having a less griping effect. The infusion of the leaves, 1 ounce of leaves brewed in a pint of hot water, may be given in frequent doses during the twenty-four hours. The distilled water of the leaves, taken every morning, was considered good for edema (accumulation of excess water in the soft tissues causing swelling) and obesity. The leaves are used externally for lower leg ulcers and wounds. A decoction of the leaves in white wine had the reputation of dissolving stones (bladder complaints) and curing jaundice. The leaves have been gathered to mix with tea and in some parts of the country are used to feed cattle, when grass is scarce in autumn, but when cows eat the leaves or shoots, the butter becomes rank.

    The fruits of the different species of Ash are regarded as somewhat more active than the bark and leaves. Ash Keys were held in high reputation by the ancient health practitioners, being employed as a remedy for flatulence. They were also in more recent times preserved with salt and vinegar and sent to table as a pickle. They were often substituted for capers in sauces and salads.


    The dried up leaves of ash are employed to prepare herbal teas that possess diuretic as well as fever-reducing (febrifuge) attributes. During the fall, you may utilize the fruits to prepare a mother tincture by using one portion of the crushed fruit and four parts of alcohol. Marinate the mixture for about a month and subsequently filter the liquid. Men may take as many as 10 drops of this mother tincture about 30 minutes prior to engaging in sexual intercourse. However, it can only be used once daily for this purpose. It has been established that ash facilitates reproduction, but one should always use this herb with restraint since the virilizing consequences of ash are extremely potent.

    Take one teaspoonful of the dried inner bark of ash and add it to one cup (250 ml) of simmering water. This solution is actually a potent febrifuge and diuretic. You may drink a maximum of three cups (750 ml) of this liquid every day for a maximum period of 10 days in succession.


    The leaves of ash may be used to prepare a sparkling wine. The ingredients required to prepare this sparkling wine include:
    To prepare the sparkling wine, boil the ash leaves and chicory root in water at low heat for about 10 minutes. Then add sugar, yeast and tartaric acid to the mixture, allow them to dissolve in the liquid and leave the mixture for about 10 days at 68°F to ferment in a covered pot. However, it is important not to close the pot completely, provided the cover does not fly off. Subsequently, store the liquid in a bottle and wait for about three months. Drink this wine in small amounts (in doses of 1 oz or 25 ml) in the form of a remedy for slimming or as a diuretic prior to taking meals for 10 consecutive days. In addition to slimming and working as a diuretic, this homemade champagne is also effective in treating water retention, fever and gout.


    Due to Ash's emetic property it does cause vomiting, and therefore, caution should be used when taking it internally. Also due to Ash's strong actions, if you are on other medications, it is best to consult with your health care practitioner before using this herb for the treatment of your condition. Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known.


  • Ash Tree Herbal Products


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    Kalyx: Ash Bark (Fraxinus rhynchophylla; Qin Pi) Granules, Plum Flower Brand, 100 Grams (3.5 oz): V (Special Order)
    Kalyx: Ash Bark (Fraxinus rhynchophylla; Qin Pi) 5:1 Extract Powder, Plum Flower Brand, 100 Grams: V (Special Order)
    Kalyx: Ash Bark (Fraxinus rhynchophylla; Qin Pi) Powder, Plum Flower Brand, 500 Grams (1.17 lbs): V (Special Order)
    Kalyx: Ash Bark (Fraxinus rhynchophylla; Qin Pi) Whole, Plum Flower Brand, 500 Grams (1.17 lbs): V (Special Order)


    Amazon: Fraxinus Excelsior (European Ash Tree) Herbal Products
    Amazon: Fraxinus Americana (American Ash Tree) Herbal Products

    Amazon: Fraxinus Excelsior Glycerin Macerat 1 DH, Organic Herbal Supplement, Time Laboratories, 4 fl. oz.
    Crafted from precisely defined botanicals. Processed immediately after gathering to preserve the active principles of fresh embryonic plant tissue. Ingredients includes water, glycerine, alcohol 16 to 19-percent, fresh ash tree (fraxinus excelsior) buds. Take 30 drops two to three times per day diluted in water or juice or as directed by a qualified health professional.

    Amazon: European Ash Homeopathic Remedy, Boiron, 2 fl. oz.
    European Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior), an herbal supplement, is available in 2 oz. (60 ML) by Boiron Homeopathics.

    Amazon: European Ash Bud (Fraxinus Excelsior) Gemmo Therapy, UNDA Dietary Supplements, 4.5 fl oz (125 ml)
    A dietary supplement uses the extracts of fresh buds of the European Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior) where the plants life essence is at its peak in the young growths. UNDA Gemmotherapy remedies are prepared in a natural glycerin and organic ethanol medium, which is then filtered and potentized at a 1/10th dilution (1X Hahnemannian) in a pure water, natural glycerin and organic ethanol medium. These complex remedies are macerated.This methodology captures the most complete set of highly-concentrated active constituents necessary for tissue regeneration, favorable growth development and essential drainage properties.

    Amazon: European Ash Leaf (Fraxinus Excelsior) Non-Alcoholic Tincture, Mountain Fresh, 100 ml (3.4 fl oz)

    Amazon: European Ash Leaf (Fraxinus Excelsior) Non-Alcoholic Tincture, Mountain Fresh, 200 ml (6.8 fl oz)

    All our tinctures are bottled fresh to order. Alcoholic Tinctures are extracted at a minimum ratio of 1:3 in at least 35-percent alcohol. All non-alcoholic tinctures are extracted at a ratio of 1:2 in a pure vegetable glycerin and springwater base. They come in glass bottles with a dropper cap.

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