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ARUGULA HERBAL DESCRIPTION
A MEDITERRANEAN CULINARY STAPLE
Arugula is also known as Eruca sativa, and by common names of Salad Rocket, Roquette, Rucola, Rucoli, Rugula, and Colewort. Arugula (Eruca sativa) is a culinary staple since ancient Roman times. Arugula has been grown as an edible annual crop for many years in Europe, but only recently was introduced in North America.
Peasant tradition touted Arugula as a potent aphrodisiac, to "set the blood on fire". A country girl would arrange some arugula leaves underneath her pillow to dream of a future husband.
Native to the Mediterranean area, Arugula is experiencing renewed popularity. An easily grown garden plant, it is now commercially cultivated for year-round availability. Arugula grows from 8 to 39 inches in height. The leaves are deeply pinnately lobed with four to ten small lateral lobes and a large terminal lobe. The flowers are 0.8 to 1.6 inches in diameter with creamy white petals veined with purple and yellow stamens. The sepals are shed soon after the flower opens. The fruit is a pod 0.5 to 1.4 inches lng with an apical beak, and containing several seeds, which are edible. The cultivated varieties differ from wild plants in that they are larger, but their blossoms are not as bright. Arugula is noted for its sharp, pungent flavor. It adds a tangy zip to salads and is a favorite for a garden mix. It may also be added to pasta or other Italian-style dishes. Arugula brims with nutrients, and its bitter constituents assist digestion, including dispelling gas and bloating.
VITAMIN C & IRON BOOSTER SALAD
In this salad, the Vitamin C in the oranges helps your body utilize the Iron in the Arugula.
2 Oranges, peeled and segmented
2 cups Red Lentils, cooked and cooled
1/2 cup Walnuts, chopped
1 small Red Onion, chopped
2 tablespoons Mint, chopped
Mix salad ingredients together in salad bowl. Set the lentil mixture aside for now. Make dressing.
Juice from 1 Orange
2 tablespoons Red Wine Vinegar
1 tablespoon Olive Oil
1 tablespoon Walnut Oil
Stir dressing into lentil salad blend. Spoon lentil mixture over some Arugula arranged on a serving plate and serve.
ARUGULA USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Arugula has a pungent, peppery flavor that is exceptionally strong for a leafy green. It is frequently used in salads, often mixed with other greens in a mesclun. It is also used raw with pasta or meats in northern Italy and in western Slovenia (especially in the Slovenian Istria).
In Italy, raw Arugula is often added to pizzas just before the baking period ends or immediately afterwards, so that it will not wilt in the heat. It is also used cooked in Puglia, in Southern Italy, to make the pasta dish cavatieddi, in which large amounts of coarsely chopped Arugula are added to pasta seasoned with a homemade reduced tomato sauce and pecorino, as well as in many unpretentious recipes in which it is added, chopped, to sauces and cooked dishes or in a sauce (made by frying it in olive oil and garlic) used a condiment for cold meats and fish. In the Slovenian Littoral, it is often combined with boiled potatoes, used in a soup, or served with the cheese burek, especially in the town of Koper. It is also used with salad, tomatoes and mozzarella cheese. In Rome, Italy Arugula is used with special meat dish called straccietti that are thin slices of beef with raw Arugula and parmisan cheese.
A sweet, peppery digestive alcohol called rucolino is made from Arugula on the island of Ischia in the Gulf of Naples. This liqueur is a local specialty enjoyed in small quantities following a meal in the same way as a limoncello or grappa. In Brazil, where its use is widespread, Arugula is eaten raw in salads. A popular combination is Arugula mixed with mozzarella cheese (normally made out of buffalo milk) and sun-dried tomatoes. In Egypt the plant is commonly eaten raw as a side dish with many meals, with ful medames (a dish of cooked fava beans served with vegetable oil, cumin and optionally with chopped parsley, onion, garlic and lemon juice) for breakfast, and regularly accompanies local seafood dishes. In West Asia and Northern India, Arugula seeds are pressed to make taramira oil, used in pickling and (after aging to remove acridity) as a salad or cooking oil. The seed cake is also used as animal feed.
With very few calories and tons of flavor it is a great green to help maintain a healthy weight without sacrificing great tasting foods.
Arugula is a rich source of certain phytochemicals that have been shown to combat cancer-causing elements in the body. Arugula is also a great source of folic acid and Vitamins A, C and K. As one of the best vegetable sources of Vitamin K, Arugula provides a boost for bone and brain health.
Arugula has an array of minerals and high levels of Iron and Copper, making it a good substitute for spinach if you are paying attention to getting more vegetable based iron in your diet.
Its peppery flavor provides a natural cooling effect on the body - a good food for hot weather picnics.
Like other leafy greens, Arugula is also a hydrating food, helping keep your body hydrated in the heat of summer. Arugula is more than 90 percent water, but it is still rich in beta carotene sulfur, vitamin A, phosphorus and iron.
Arugula juice is reputed to be beneficial for asthma and other lung diseases, and can be useful in the treatment of persistent coughs.
Bitterness makes Arugula an excellent digestive; it is said to stimulate the kidneys while preventing intestinal gas and bloating.
Centuries ago Romans discovered an unlikely quality of this leafy green. Finding that those who ate it on a regular basis were more sexually energized, it became revered as a powerful aphrodisiac. It has since been used as a sensual enhancer throughout many regions of the world, and often combined with other aphrodisiac herbs like lavender and chicory to create a somewhat of a love potion. Arugula's aphrodisiac qualities may stem from its stimulating effects on the body, providing power and energy that vitalizes the system.
Arugula is easily grown from seed in pots or in the garden. Choose young leaves when picking Arugula; the older ones may be too bitter. Use the leaves immediately or store them in the refrigerator for no more than one to two days. Wash thoroughly before using.
ARUGULA DOSAGE INFORMATION
KITCHEN HINTS FOR ARUGULA
ARUGULA PESTO: Arugula can be used in place of Basil in pesto. Blend 1 bunch of Arugula with 2 garlic cloves, 1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil, 1/4 cup toasted pine nuts and 1/4 cup Parmesan cheese. Use the sauce with pasta dishes. The garlic helps to boost your immune system.
ROOTS & SHOOTS SALAD: Use Arugula to create a healthful, iron-rich "roots and shoots" salad. Combine 1 bunch of Arugula with some finely sliced Spanish Onion, grated raw Beet root and a handful of Watercress. Add a vinaigrette dressing and sprinkle the top with finely grated lemon zest.
WEED SALAD: Try a "weed salad". A peppery combination of Arugula, sliced White Onions, Watercress, chopped Dandelion leaves and Nasturtium leaves. An excellent vitamin and mineral source, this salad is best eaten as an appetizer to encourage digestion of the main meal.
ELEGANT ARUGULA SALAD: To prepare an elegant salad, try tossing some Arugula with slices of fresh Pear or Figs and thinly sliced wedges of Red Onion, Dress with a balsamic vinaigrette. Sprinkle the top of the dish with freshly shaved Parmesan cheese and toasted Pine Nuts.
ROBUST ARUGULA SALAD: A robust salad can be made with Arugula. Arugula's robust, peppery taste will add tang to green-leaf salads, but it may take getting used to. Start by mixing Arugula with butter lettuce, endive or romaine. Adding Arugula to any salad mix instantly boosts its flavor and nutritional value.
ARUGULA SANDWICHES: Arugula gives an extra tang to sandwiches. Add it to such fillings as egg, artichoke, chicken, cheese, tuna and avocado.
ARUGULA PASTA: For a quick meal, combine pasta, crumbled goat's cheese, minced garlic, torn Arugula leaves, cherry tomatoes and a drizzle of olive oil.
ARUGULA DIP & SPREAD: To make an easy dip, mix some Gorgonzola cheese with shredded Arugula leaves and some roasted, finely chopped Hazelnuts. For a delicious crostini, spread this mix on slices of Italian bread and bake for 350°F for 10 minutes.
ARUGULA & POTATO SOUP RECIPE
2 pounds New Potatoes
1 quart Vegetable Stock
1 bunch Arugula, well washed
Pinch of Cayenne Pepper
Freshly ground Black Pepper
Rock or Sea Salt
1/4 loaf Italian Bread, torn into chunks
4 cloves Garlic, thinly sliced
2 tablespoons Extra Virgin Olive Oil
1. Dice the Potatoes and place them in a saucepan with the stock. Bring to a boil.
2. Tear the Arugula leaves and add them to the pan. Simmer 15 minutes longer.
3. Add the Cayenne Pepper and season the soup to taste with Black Pepper and Salt.
4. Add the Bread and remove it from the heat. Cover the soup and let it stand for 10 minutes.
5. Saute the Garlic in the oil until golden brown and slightly crisp.
6. Serve the soup garnished with sauteed Garlic and, if desired, additional oil.
ARUGULA NUTRITION INFORMATION
Amounts per 100 grams (Approximately 5 cups raw leaves) CALORIE INFORMATION Amounts Per Selected Serving %DV Calories 25.0 (105 kj) 1% From Carbohydrate 13.2 (55.3 kj) From Fat 5.5 (23.0 kj) From Protein 6.3 (26.4 kj) From Alcohol 0.0 (0.0 kj) CARBOHYDRATES Amounts Per Selected Serving %DV Total Carbohydrate 3.7 g 1% Dietary Fiber 1.6 g 6% Starch 0.0 g Sugars 2.1 g FATS & FATTY ACIDS Amounts Per Selected Serving %DV Total Fat 0.7 g 1% Saturated Fat 0.1 g 0% Monosaturated Fat 0.0 g Polyunsaturated Fat 0.3 g Total Omega-3 Fatty Acids 170 mg Total Omega-6 Fatty Acids 130 mg PROTEIN & AMINO ACIDS Amounts Per Selected Serving %DV Protein 2.6 g 6% VITAMINS Amounts Per Selected Serving %DV Vitamin A 2373 IU 47% Retinol Activity Equivalent 119 mcg Beta Carotene 1424 mcg Lutein & Zeaxanthin 3555 mcg Vitamin C 15.0 mg 25% Vitamin D - - Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol) 0.4 mg 2% Vitamin K 109 mcg 136% Thiamin 0.0 mg 3% Riboflavin 0.1 mg 5% Niacin 0.3 mg 2% Vitamin B-6 0.1 4% Folate 97.0 mcg 24% Vitamin B-12 0.0 mcg 0% Pantothenic Acid 0.4 mg 4% Choline 15.3 mg Betaine 0.1 mg MINERALS Amounts Per Selected Serving %DV Calcium 160 mg 16% Iron 1.5 mg 8% Magnesium 47.0 mg 12% Phosphorus 52.0 mg 5% Potassium 369 mg 11% Sodium 27.0 mg 1% Zinc 0.5 mg 3% Copper 0.1 mg 4% Manganese 0.3 mg 16% Selenium 0.3 mcg 18% Fluoride - STEROLS Amounts Per Selected Serving %DV Cholesterol 0.0 mg 0% Phytosterols - OTHER Amounts Per Selected Serving %DV Water 91.7 g Ash 1.4 g
FOOTNOTES FOR ARUGULA, RAW
Source: Nutrient data for this listing was provided by USDA SR-21. Each " - " indicates a missing or incomplete value.
Percent Daily Values (%DV) are for adults or children aged 4 or older, and are based on a 2,000 calorie reference diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower based on your individual needs.
Nutrition information provided is not intended to replace the advice of a nutritionist or health-care professional.
ARUGULA SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS
NITRATES & CARCINOGENS
Plants accumulates a lot of nitrate. In a vegetable survey published in 2008 as part of an EFSA opinion, average nitrate levels varied from a low of 20 to 30 mg/kg in Brussels sprouts and peas to a high of 4,667 mg/kg in Arugula. Other leafy green vegetables also had relatively high nitrate levels with lettuce at 2,026 mg/kg and spinach at 1,066 mg/kg, but nowhere near the levels found in Arugula.
Nitrate is a naturally occurring compound playing an important role in the nutrition and function of plants as part of the nitrogen cycle. Higher levels of nitrate tend to be found in leaves whereas lower levels occur in seeds or tubers. Thus leafy green vegetables generally have higher nitrate concentrations than other vegetable groups. Human exposure to nitrate comes mainly from vegetables. Nitrate, as such, is relatively non-toxic.
However, the metabolites of nitrate and their reaction products, nitrite, nitric oxide and N-nitroso compounds, have raised concern because of adverse health effects like methaemoglobinaemia in young children (blue baby syndrome) and potential cancer in adults. When we consume nitrate it is easily absorbed and circulated in the blood stream. In humans, about 25-percent of ingested nitrate is secreted in saliva of which at least 20-percent is converted to nitrite by the microbial flora we all carry in the mouth. We swallow most of the saliva and that provides about 80-percent of our nitrite intake.
Vegetables provide more nitrite than processed meat products. Processed meat products are often blamed for high nitrite intake but this is plain wrong. Vegetables are the real culprits in this respect. When nitrite reaches the acidic conditions of the stomach it changes into nitrous acid that after further changes reacts with amines in other food sources like fish, meat and cheese and form nitrosamines. These N-nitroso compounds are known carcinogens. A Arugula and Parmesan Cheese salad could be the ultimate source for nitrosamine formation.
The Up Side
Recent research indicates that nitrite have antimicrobial activity and participates in defending against infections. Other nitrate metabolites, e.g. nitric oxide, have important physiological roles in lowering blood pressure. Thus, despite being a major source of nitrate, increased consumption of vegetables is widely recommended because of their generally agreed beneficial effects for health.
But the beneficial side does not end there. Vegetables provide other biologically active substances as well as nutrients like pro-vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, folate, potassium, magnesium, digestible carbohydrates and non-digestible carbohydrates (fiber), and protein. In addition, vegetables lack saturated fat and trans fatty acids and are low in sodium which are all good for health. And looking at the vitamin C content in vegetables it can actually prevent the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Maybe this is the reason why epidemiological studies have not found an association between dietary nitrate intake and cancer. On the contrary we are encouraged to eat more vegetables with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommending that we all eat at least 400 g of fruit and vegetables a day.
There is actually an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for nitrate of 3.7 mg/kg bodyweight per day, or 222 mg nitrate per day for a 60 kg adult established by the former European Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and reconfirmed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2002. This means that if you stay below this limit on average over your lifetime you should be safe. You can safely eat close to 50 grams (About 2.5 cups of raw leaves) of Arugula in a day before exceeding this limit as long as you do not consume other food or water with appreciable levels of nitrate during the same day. And an occasional Arugula pizza should also be fine. But do not make it a regular habit.
It is also possible to reduce the bacterial flora in the mouth responsible for nitrite formation by regularly using antibacterial mouth wash. But you will miss out on the lowering effect on blood pressure so this might not be a good idea. It is also worth noting that people on antacids to reduce the acidity in the stomach face less risk of nitrosamine formation. But again the acidic condition is quite helpful for normal digestion so do not try this if you do not have to because of another health issue.
ARUGULA HERBAL PRODUCTS
QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS
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ARUGULA HERBAL PRODUCTS
Kalyx: Arugula Leaf Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 1 Kg (2.2 lbs): EB
Kalyx: Arugula Leaf Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 5 Kg (11 lbs): EB
Kalyx: Arugula Leaf Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 10 Kg (22 lbs): EB
Kalyx: Arugula Leaf Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 Kg (55 lbs): EB
Kalyx: Arugula Leaf Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 50 Kg (110 lbs): EB
Kalyx: Arugula Leaf Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 100 Kg (220 lbs): EB
Kalyx: Arugula Leaf Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 200 Kg (440 lbs): EB
Amazon: Arugula Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
Amazon: Arugula Candle Fragrance Oil, Crafts N More, 1 fl. oz.
Amazon: Arugula Powder, NutriCargo, 1.1 lb. (500 grams)
Amazon: Organic Arugula Wild Seeds, Lake Valley Seed, 400 mg
Amazon: Baby Arugula, Fresh Picked, Average 4 lb. Bag
Nutrition Basics: Arugula Herbal Information
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
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RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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