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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Herbs
ARTICHOKE

(Cynara Scolymus)


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Artichoke Description
  • Artichoke Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Artichoke Dosage Information
  • Artichoke Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Artichoke Supplements & Products




  • artichoke


    ARTICHOKE DESCRIPTION

    AN EDIBLE THISTLE FLOWERHEAD

    The Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is one of the world's oldest vegetables and is also known as Globe or French Artichoke. It is native to the Mediterranean region and was first grown in eastern Africa and then made its way to Europe via Egypt. Images of artichokes are found on ancient Egyptian papyri and on sacrificial altars. The uncultivated or wild variety of the species is called a cardoon.

    The Artichoke / Globe Artichoke were originally harvested in Naples around the middle of the 15th Century. It has been said that Catherine de Medici (Queen of France) introduced it to France in the 16th Century. The Dutch are responsible for England knowing about the Artichoke, where they were growing in Henry VIIIís garden at Newhall in 1530. The United States did not see them until the 19th Century and that was by the French immigrants to Louisiana. The Spanish immigrants introduced the Artichoke to California around the same time period. The name appears to have started with the Arabic ardi shauk ("ground thorn"), through the Italian, articiocco. Though the Artichoke was not spread through Europe until the 15th Century, the ancient Greeks, Romans and Egyptians used the Artichoke for food and medicine.

    artichoke plant and flower


    The Globe or French Artichoke is a variety of a species of thistle grown for its edible flower heads. It is native to southern Europe and northern Africa. The edible matter is buds that form within the flower heads before the flowers come into bloom. The buds go away or change to a coarse, barely edible form when the flower blooms. It is a perennial plant that grows from 3 to 6.6 feet in height with arching, deeply lobed, silvery, glaucous-green leaves 20 to 32 inches long. The flower head is about 3 to 6 inches in diameter and is eaten when it is immature. The flowers develop in a large head from an edible bud with triangular scales. The individual florets are purple. The edible portions of the buds consist primarily of the fleshy lower portions o the involucral bracts and the base, known as the heart. The mass of immature florets in the center of the bud is called the choke or beard. These are inedible in older, larger flowers. Globe Artichokes are used as fresh or canned vegetables. In the United States, they are grown commercially only in southern California.

    ARTICHOKE CULTIVATION

    Artichoke can be produced from seeds or from vegetative means such as division, root cuttings or micropropagation. Though technically perennials that normally produce the edible flower only during the second and subsequent years, certain varieties of artichoke can be grown from seed as annuals, producing a limited harvest at the end of the first growing season, even in regions where the plants are not normally winter-hardy. This means home gardeners in northern regions can attempt to produce a crop without the need to overwinter plants with special treatment or protection. The recently introduced seed cultivar Imperial Star has been bred to produce in the first year without such measures. An even newer cultivar, Northern Star, is said to be able to overwinter in more northerly climates, and readily survives subzero temperatures.

    Commercial culture is limited to warm areas in USDA hardiness zone 7 and above. It requires good soil, regular watering and feeding, plus frost protection in winter. Rooted suckers can be planted each year, so mature specimens can be disposed of after a few years, as each individual plant lives only a few years. The peak season for artichoke harvesting is the spring, but they can continue to be harvested throughout the summer, with another peak period in midautumn. When harvested, they are cut from the plant so as to leave an inch or two of stem. Artichoke possess good keeping qualities, frequently remaining quite fresh for two weeks or longer under average retail conditions.

    Apart from food use, the globe Artichoke is also an attractive plant for its bright floral display, sometimes grown in herbaceous borders for its bold foliage and large purple flower heads.





    artichoke flower


    ARTICHOKE USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    MEDICINAL USES OF ARTICHOKE

    The fresh and dried leaves and the roots of the Artichoke are the parts used for medicinal purposes. The flower heads are used in cooking. The Globe Artichoke has become important as a medicinal herb in recent years following the discovery of cynarine. This bitter-tasting compound, which is found in the leaves helps with many different things.

    The total antioxidant capacity of Artichoke flower heads is one of the highest reported for vegetables. Cynarine is a chemical constituent in Cynara. The majority of the cynarine found in Artichoke is located in the pulp of the leaves, though dried leaves and stems of artichoke also contain it. It inhibits taste receptors, making water (and other foods and drinks) seem sweet.

    Studies have shown Artichoke to aid digestion, hepatic and gall bladder function, and raise the ratio of HDL to LDL. This reduces cholesterol levels, which diminishes the risk for arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Aqueous extracts from artichoke leaves have also been shown to reduce cholesterol by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and having a hypolipidemic influence, lowering blood cholesterol. Artichoke contains the bioactive agents apigenin and luteolin. C. scolymus also seems to have a bifidogenic effect on beneficial gut bacteria. Artichoke leaf extract has proved helpful for patients with functional dyspepsia, and may ameliorate symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    A study done in 2000 stated that IBS (irritable bowels syndrome) patients found the Artichoke leaf extract to be better than or at least equal to medicine or therapy they had taken before. Research in 2002 was about antioxidant effects of Artichoke extracts and found marked protective properties against oxidative stress induced by inflammatory mediators. The research on the Artichoke is abundant and outstanding.

    Here are some of the ailments that the Artichoke is used for, or can help assist with:
    • Increase Circulation.
    • Stimulates the secretion of bile.
    • Helps to treat hardening of the arteries.
    • Fights liver damage from alcohol abuse.
    • Assists in the treatment of Jaundice and Hepatitis.
    • Lowers cholesterol levels.
    • Removes excess water with its diuretic actions.
    • As a prophylactic treatment against the return of gallstones.
    • Protects the liver against toxins and infections.
    • Early stages of late-onset Diabetes, helps lower blood sugar.

    COOKING ARTICHOKES

    In the US, large globe artichokes are frequently prepared by removing all but 0.2 to 0.4 inches or so of the stem. To remove thorns, which may interfere with eating, around a quarter of each scale can be cut off. To cook, the artichoke is boiled or steamed. The core of the stem tastes similar to the artichoke heart, and is edible. Salt may be added to the water if boiling artichokes. Leaving the pot uncovered may allow acids to boil off. Covered artichokes, in particular those that have been cut, can turn brown due to the enzymatic browning and chlorophyll oxidation. Placing them in water slightly acidified with vinegar or lemon juice can prevent the discoloration.

    Leaves are often removed one at a time, and the fleshy base eaten, with hollandaise, vinegar, butter, mayonnaise, aioli, lemon juice, or other sauces. The fibrous upper part of each leaf is usually discarded. The heart is eaten when the inedible choke has been peeled away from the base and discarded. The thin leaves covering the choke are also edible. In Italy, artichoke hearts in oil are the usual vegetable for 'spring' section of the 'Four Seasons' pizza (with olives for summer, mushrooms for autumn, and prosciutto for winter). A recipe well known in Rome is Jewish-style artichokes, which are deep-fried whole. Stuffed artichoke recipes are abundant. A common Italian stuffing uses a mixture of bread crumbs, garlic, oregano, parsley, grated cheese, and prosciutto or sausage. A bit of the mixture is then pushed into the spaces at the base of each leaf and into the center before boiling or steaming.

    In Spain, the more tender, younger, and smaller artichokes are used. They can be sprinkled with olive oil and left in hot ashes in a barbecue, sauteed in olive oil with garlic, with rice as a paella, or sauteed and combined with eggs in a tortilla (frittata).

    Often cited is the Greek, aginares a la polita (artichokes city-style, referring to the city of Constantinople), a hearty, savory stew made with artichoke hearts, potatoes, and carrots, and flavored with onion, lemon, and dill. The finest examples are to be found on the island of Tinos, and in Iria and Kantia, two small villages in Argolida in the Peloponnese of southern Greece.

    Another way to use artichokes is to completely break off all of the leaves, leaving the bare heart. The leaves are steamed to soften the fleshy base part of each leaf to be used as the basis for any number of side dishes or appetizing dips, or the fleshy part is left attached to the heart, while the upper parts of the leaves are discarded. The remaining concave-shaped heart is often filled with meat, then fried or baked in a savory sauce. Frozen artichoke hearts are a time-saving substitute, though the consistency and stronger flavor of fresh hearts when available is preferred.

    Throughout North Africa, the Middle East, Turkey, and Armenia, a favorite filling for stuffed artichoke hearts includes ground lamb. Spices reflect the local cuisine of each country. In Lebanon, for example, the typical filling would include lamb, onion, tomato, pinenuts, raisins, parsley, dill, mint, black pepper, and allspice. A popular Turkish vegetarian variety uses only onion, carrot, green peas, and salt.

  • Tisane: Artichokes can be made into a tisane. Artichoke tea is produced as a commerical product in the Da Lat region of Vietnam. The flower portion is put into water and consumed as a tisane, called alcachofa in Mexico. It has a slightly bitter woody taste.
  • Liqueur: Artichoke is the primary flavor of the 33-proof Italian liqueur Cynar produced exclusively by the Campari Group. It can be served over ice as an aperitif or as a cocktail mixed with orange juice, especially popular in Switzerland. It is also used to make a Cin-Cyn, a slightly less-bitter version of the Negroni cocktail, by substituting Cynar in place of Campari.


  • ARTICHOKE HEART PREPARATION

    Some people like to steam their artichokes, but steaming does not get the heart soft enough for some people. They prefer to boil the artichoke for about 45 minutes to an hour per artichoke. You can add a couple garlic cloves and some rosemary to the water so the leaves and heart absorb those flavors. You can eat them with lots of garlic butter or mayonnaise, savoring every last leaf.


    ARTICHOKE HEART FOOD PREPARATION

    These are key points in preparing artichoke hearts for Vegetable Bouillabaisse.
    peel off and discard outer 3 layers of leaves
    1. Peel off and discard the outer 3 layers of leaves from each artichoke and cut 2 inches from the top.
    remove remaining leaves
    2. Using a sharp paring knife, slice around the outside of the artichokes to remove the remaining leaves and then down the stems to remove the tough, bright-green outer flesh.
    rub exposed area with lemon and cut into 8 pieces
    3. Rub the exposed surface with half a lemon to prevent discoloration. Cut the artichokes into 8 pieces (like a pizza), and then slice away all traces of fuzzy choke from each of the 8 hearts.
    rub with lemon and set aside
    4. Rub each piece with a lemon half and place in bowl of lemon water. Set aside. When ready to use, remove the artichoke pieces from the water and pat dry.
    VEGETABLE BOUILLABAISSE WITH AIOLI
    vegetable bouillabaisse with artichoke hearts
    This soup is a great way to eat vegetables. The hearty fish stew known as bouillabaisse has been transformed into a first-course vegetable soup using the artichoke hearts prepared above. Once the vegetables are prepped, the dish comes together relatively quickly. Pernod is the Anise-flavored liqueur traditionally used in bouillabaisse. The ailoi can be made 3 days in advance. This recipe serves 4.

    AIOLI INGREDIENTS
      1 medium Yukon Gold Potato, rinsed and patted dry, cut into 1/2-inch cubes (about 1 cup)
      4 medium Cloves Garlic, minced
      1 large Egg Yolk
      1 cup Extra-Virgin Olive Oil
      1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon Fine Sea Salt
      1/4 teaspoon Cayenne Pepper
      1/2 teaspoon Lemon Juice, freshly squeezed

    SOUP INGREDIENTS
      1 large Lemon, halved
      2 large Artichokes, stems intact and ends trimmed
      3 medium Leeks
      1 pound (about 2 medium) Zucchini, ends trimmed
      1 (about 1 pound) large Fennel Bulb, trimmed and outer layer removed
      1/2 cup Olive Oil
      1 medium Yellow Onion, cut into 1/2-inch dice (about 1 cup)
      1 strip Orange Peel, about 1 inch wide by 3 inches long
      8 medium Cloves Garlic, finely minced
      Pinch Saffron threads
      1/2 Star Anise
      2 cups Tomato-based Vegetable Juice, such as V8
      1 cup Dry White Wine, such as Sauvignon Blanc
      2 tablespoons Anise-flavored Liqueur, such as Pernod
      1 sprig Thyme
      1 Bay Leaf
      1/2 teaspoon Salt, or more to taste
      1/4 teaspoon Black Pepper, freshly ground
      1 pound Baby Spinach, stemmed, rinsed well and patted dry
      1 tablespoon Sugar
      2 ribs Celery, trimmed and cut into 1/4-inch-thick half-moons
      2 tablespoons Flat-leaf Parsley, finely chopped for garnish
      8 slices French Bread, cut diagonally into long, 1-inch-thick slices and lightly toasted, for garnish

    PREPARATION DIRECTIONS

    Prepare The Aioli: Place a steamer basket in a medium saucepan filled with 1 inch of water. Over medium-high heat, bring the water barely to a boil. Place the potato cubes in the basket, cover and cook/steam for about 20 minutes, until completely tender when pierced with a knife. Transfer the potatoes to a food processor. Add the garlic, egg yolk and about 2 tablespoons of olive oil to allow the blade to turn; process until the mixture is smooth. With the machine running, slowly drizzle in the remaining oil, stopping to scrape down the sides as necessary. Season the aioli to taste with salt, cayenne pepper and lemon juice. (If the aioli seems too heavy, lighten it by adding a tablespoon of water.) Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to 3 days. Bring to room temperature before serving (30 minutes).

    Prepare The Soup: To prepare the artichokes, fill a large bowl with water and squeeze half a lemon into it. Set aside.

    Peel off and discard the outer 3 layers of leaves from each artichoke and use a sharp paring knife to cut away 2 inches from each top. Cut around the outside perimeters of the artichokes to remove the remaining leaves and then down the stems to remove the tough, bright-green outer flesh. Rub the exposed surfaces with the other lemon half to prevent discoloration. Cut the artichokes into 8 pieces (like a pizza) and then slice away all traces of the fuzzy choke from each of the 8 hearts. Rub each piece with the lemon half and place in the bowl of lemon water. Set aside. When ready to use, remove the artichokes from the water and pat them dry on paper towels.

    Cut each leek lengthwise into quarters and cut each one crosswise into 1/2-inch slices. Place them in a large bowl of warm water and use your hands to separate the rings and remove all of the sand from them. Skim the leeks from the water and pat them dry on paper towels.

    Cut the zucchini in half lengthwise, then into 1/2-inch half-moon slices.

    Cut the fennel bulb into quarters and cut those into 6 1/2- to 7-inch slices. (They don't need to be even.) Rinse the slices in a large bowl of warm water (as with the leeks), then remove and pat dry on paper towels.

    Place a large, heavy casserole over medium heat. Add the olive oil, onion and artichoke hearts. Cook for 5 minutes, stirring regularly. Add the leeks and orange peel, then the garlic, saffron and star anise, stirring to combine. Add the fennel, then the juice, wine, anise-flavored liqueur, thyme, bay leaf, salt and pepper. Bring to a boil, then reduce the heat to medium-low. Cover and cook until the artichokes are cooked through (but still firm) and the leeks are tender, about 10 minutes.

    Remove and discard the thyme sprig, bay leaf and orange peel. Add the zucchini, baby spinach and sugar, stirring to combine. Cook for a few minutes until the spinach has wilted. Add salt as necessary. Add the celery and cook for 1 minute. Remove from heat.

    To Assemble: Divide the soup among shallow bowls. Spread the aioli on the toasted French bread slices. Sprinkle them with the chopped parsley, and garnish each bowl with 2 slices. Serve immediately.

  • For more information about preparations and recipes, visit: California Artichoke Advisory Board


  • ARTICHOKE NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS
    Cooked Boiled, Salted

    Nutrition Value Per 100 Grams (3.5 oz.)


    (Source: USDA National Nutrient Data Base)
    Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
    Principle
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Energy      50 kcal (211 kJ)       -
         Carbohydrates      11.39 g       -
         Protein      2.89 g       -
         Total Fat      0.34 g       -
         Cholesterol      0 mg       -
         Dietary Fiber      8.6 g       -
    Vitamins
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Lutein & Zeaxanthin      464 µg       -
         Thiamin (Vitamin B-1)      0.05 mg      4%
         Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2)      0.089 mg      7%
         Niacin (Vitamin B-3)      1.11 mg      7%
         Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5)      0.24 mg      5%
         Vitamin B-6      0.081 mg      6%
         Folates (Vitamin B-9)      89 µg      22%
         Vitamin C      7.4 mg      9%
         Vitamin E      0.19 mg      1%
         Vitamin K      14.8 µg      14%
    Minerals
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Calcium      21 mg      2%
         Iron      0.61 mg      5%
         Magnesium      42 mg      12%
         Manganese      0.225 mg      11%
         Phosphorus      73 mg      10%
         Potassium      286 mg      6%
         Sodium      296 mg      20%
         Zinc      0.4 mg      4%





    ARTICHOKE DOSAGE INFORMATION

    SUPPLEMENTS

    Eating Artichoke is beneficial to your health, but for treating certain conditions, it is best to take a daily supplement.

    For best results, read and follow product label directions. If you have any questions ask your health care provider or homeopathic practitioner for more information.

    Artichoke Constituents: Cynarin, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, stigmasterol.
    Artichoke Parts Used: Dried leaf, rather than the flowering buds eaten as a vegetable.
    Artichoke Typical Preparations: Powdered leaves made into a capsule, the dried leaf as a tea, in liquid extract form and the pressed juice of the fresh plant.





    ARTICHOKE SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    SAFETY CONCERNS

    Since Artichoke has long been used as a food it is regarded as safe.

    There are no known safety issues with this herb. Artichoke extracts have been documented to lower blood cholesterol in human studies, as such, may potentiate the effects of cholesterol-lowering and satin drugs. Safety in young children under the age of 12, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known.

    Precautions: Do not use Artichoke leaf if you have gallstones.





    ARTICHOKE HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS & RELATED PRODUCTS

  • Artichoke Leaf Herbal Products


  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


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    ARTICHOKE LEAF HERBAL PRODUCTS

    Artichoke Leaf is used for abdominal pain, appetite, cholesterol, constipation, digestion, dyspepsia, flatulence, gallstones, digestion, liver, nausea, abdominal cramps, triglycerides and diabetes. Promotes bile production to cleanse the liver and gall bladder, lowers blood lipids and cholesterol. Helps prevent constitpation, and is a strong antioxidant for the liver. Artichoke leaf is an antioxidant, hepatic, and blood cleanser. Do not take if you have gall stones or bile duct occlusion.

    STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS

    Starwest Botanicals: Artichoke Leaf, Organic, Cut & Sifted, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Artichoke Leaf Powder, 1 lb.


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Artichoke Standardized Extract, Natures Way, 60 Caps (17714)
    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) has been helpful medicinally since the beginning of the 20th Century to improve digestion. Research has focused on the constituent, caffeoylquinic acid and it's ability to increase bile production in the liver. An increase in bile production assists the body in blood fat metabolism.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Power, Natures Herbs, 100 mg, 60 Caps (17378)
    Artichoke Power contains standardized extract of Artichoke (Cynara scolymnus), which supports liver health and regeneration, kidney, and gallbladder function, removal of toxins from the liver, improvement in liver or bile duct disease (including cirrhosis), lowering cholesterol levels, inhibiting cholesterol synthesis, alleviating indigestion, and is particularly suggested for individuals with a history of obesity, alcohol use or drug use.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Extract, Standardized, Enzymatic Therapy, 160 mg, 45 Tabs (12848)
    Artichoke extract has a long, successful history of liver support. Supports liver function, Enhances healthy bile flow.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke, Oregon Wild Harvest, 300 mg, 90 VCaps
    An herbal supplement, a traditional herbal bitter made with whjole organic fruit.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Extract, Now Foods, 450 mg, 90 VCaps (71690)
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Extract, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 45 Tabs (62798)
    Artichoke extract stimulates bile production, promoting fat digestion and metabolism. By stimulating bile, it supports liver and gallbladder function and may help relieve occasional indigestion. Medical experts theorize that it may also inhibit activity of the cholesterol production enzyme HMG CoA Reductase to balance LDL cholesterol and trigylceride production in the liver for cardiovascular support. Source Naturals Artichoke Extract-500 is standardized to 5 percent cynarins for maximum potency.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Extract, Planetary Herbals, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (62732)
    Artichoke extract is used throughout Europe to support liver and gallbladder function and relieve occasional indigestion. It works partly by increasing bile production, which may support increased fat metabolism. Planetary Formulas Artichoke Extract is standardized to 5 percent cynarin and 15 percent chlorogenic acids for assured potency of these important compounds.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Extract, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 90 Tabs (62799)
    Artichoke extract stimulates bile production, promoting fat digestion and metabolism. By stimulating bile, it supports liver and gallbladder function and may help relieve occasional indigestion. Medical experts theorize that it may also inhibit activity of the cholesterol production enzyme HMG CoA Reductase to balance LDL cholesterol and trigylceride production in the liver for cardiovascular support. Source Naturals Artichoke Extract-500 is standardized to 5 percent cynarins for maximum potency.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Extract, Planetary Herbals, 500 mg, 120 Tabs (62733)
    Artichoke extract is used throughout Europe to support liver and gallbladder function and relieve occasional indigestion. It works partly by increasing bile production, which may support increased fat metabolism. Planetary Formulas Artichoke Extract is standardized to 5 percent cynarin and 15 percent chlorogenic acids for assured potency of these important compounds.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Extract, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 180 Tabs (62800)
    Artichoke extract stimulates bile production, promoting fat digestion and metabolism. By stimulating bile, it supports liver and gallbladder function and may help relieve occasional indigestion. Medical experts theorize that it may also inhibit activity of the cholesterol production enzyme HMG CoA Reductase to balance LDL cholesterol and trigylceride production in the liver for cardiovascular support. Source Naturals Artichoke Extract-500 is standardized to 5 percent cynarins for maximum potency.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke-500 Standardized Extract, Jarrow Formulas, 500 mg, 180 Caps (13152)
    Artichoke 500 Extract is standardized to contain 5 percent chlorogenic acid and 5 percent cynarin. Clinical research has documented the following beneficial properties of artichoke extract: Liver Function: Protects glutathione levels. Stimulates liver activity by promoting circulation within the liver. Cardiovascular Function: Inhibits oxidation of LDL cholesterol and increases healthful levels of HDL (protective) cholesterol. Digestion: Stimulates synthesis of bile, a product of the liver that supports detoxification and the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients.
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Leaf Extract, Life Extension, 500 mg, 180 VCaps (91877)
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Leaf, Life Extension, 500 mg, 180 VCaps
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Tea, Only Natural, 20 Tea Bags (95452)
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Extract, Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz. (31295)
    HerbsPro: Artichoke Extract, Herb Pharm, 4 fl. oz. (32302)


    LIFE EXTENSION PRODUCTS

    LEF: Artichoke Leaf Extract, Life Extension, 500 mg, 180 VCaps
    Artichoke Leaf Extract is made from the long, serrated basal leaves of the plant, which contain the highest concentration of biologically active compounds. These compounds have displayed the ability to maintain healthy digestion and liver function. Chlorogenic acid and cynarin are two of the active compounds found in this extract. Chlorogenic acid positively affects glucose levels in the body in those already within normal range and may support healthy body weight. The compound cynarin, which is found almost exclusively in artichokes, may support digestion and maintain cholesterol levels already within a healthy range. Those who may benefit from these natural compounds may want to add Artichoke Leaf Extract to their supplement regimen. Some people will take one capsule with meals that contain fat to facilitate digestion.

    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Artichoke Foods

    Kalyx: Artichoke Spinach Noodles: Mrs. Millers, 14 oz. Bags (Case of 6); GR
    These noodles are made with the perfect blend of spinach, artichoke and garlic flavors to add a unique taste to your favorite pasta dishes. Pair these noodles with your favorite sauce for a delicious and easy dinner. Each case consists of six 14 ounce packages.


    Artichoke Herbal Powders

    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf, Cut & Sifted, Certified Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Powder, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber 4:1 Powdered Extract, Kalyx Bulk Products, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 5 Kg (11 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber 4:1 Powdered Extract, Kalyx Bulk Products, 5 Kg (11 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber Powder, Kalyx, 10 kg (22 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber 4:1 Powdered Extract, Kalyx Bulk Products, 10 kg (22 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Artichoke Powder Extract, 2.5% Cynarin, Kalyx Bulk Products, 10 kg (22 lbs): NG
    Kalyx: Artichoke Powder Extract, 5% Cynarin, Kalyx, 10 kg (22 lbs): NG
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Cut & Sifted, Certified Organic, Kalyx Bulk Products, 50 lbs (22.73 kg): CO
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Powder European, Kalyx, 25 kg (55 lbs): HP
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 Kg (55 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber 4:1 Powdered Extract, Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 Kg (55 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Artichoke Powdered Extract 4:1 (Cynara scolymus), Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 Kg (55 lbs): GF
    Kalyx: Artichoke Extract 8:1, Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 kg (55 lbs): EM
    Kalyx: Artichoke Powdered Extract 12:1 (Cynara scolymus), Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 kg (55 lbs): GF
    Kalyx: Artichoke Powder Extract 2.5% Cynarin, Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 kg (55 lbs): NG
    Kalyx: Artichoke Standardized Extract Powder (Cynara scolymus), 5% Cynarin, Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 kg (55 lbs): GF
    Kalyx: Artichoke Powder Extract, 5% Cynarin, Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 kg (55 lbs): NG
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 50 Kg (110 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber 4:1 Powdered Extract, Kalyx Bulk Products, 50 Kg (110 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 100 Kg (220 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber 4:1 Powdered Extract, Kalyx Bulk Products, 100 Kg (220 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 200 Kg (440 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Globe Artichoke Tuber 4:1 Powdered Extract, Kalyx Bulk Products, 200 Kg (440 lbs): EB


    Liquid Herbal Extracts

    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 2 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus), Health & Herbs, 2 fl oz: HH
    Artichoke Leaf Non-Alcoholic Extract (Cynara scolymus), Health & Herbs, 2 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 4 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 8 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus), Health & Herbs, 8 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Non-Alcoholic Extract (Cynara scolymus), Health & Herbs, 8 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 16 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus), Health & Herbs, 16 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Non-Alcoholic Extract (Cynara scolymus), Health & Herbs, 16 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 32 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus), Health & Herbs, 32 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 1 Gallon: GL
    Kalyx: Artichoke Liquid Fluid Extract (Cynara scolymus), Kalyx Bulk Products, 1 gallon: GF


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Artichokes & Artichoke Hearts Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: Artichoke Powder Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: Artichoke Extract Health Supplement Products
    Amazon: Artichoke Leaf Products
    Amazon: Artichoke Globe Products



  • Nutrition Basics: Artichoke Herbal Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

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    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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