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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Herbs
ARROWROOT

(Maranta Arundinacea)


"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Arrowroot Description
  • Arrowroot Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Arrowroot Dosage Information
  • Arrowroot Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Arrowroot Supplements & Products




  • arrowroot plant and root


    ARROWROOT DESCRIPTION

    A CORNSTARCH ALTERNATIVE

    Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) is also known as Araruta, West Indian Arrowroot, Obedience Plant, Bermuda Arrowroot, Araru, Ararao, Maranta, Maranta Starch, Maranta Indica, Maranta Ramosissima or hulankeeriya.

    Arrowroot powder is the dried root of the arrowroot plant. It is valued chiefly for its thickening properties, and is often used in thickening clear sauces and glazes and jellies. The Arrowroot powder offered from Mountain Rose Herbs comes from India.

    Arrowroot is a starch obtained from the rhizomes (rootstock) of several tropical plants. traditionally Maranta arundinacea, but also Florida Arrowroot from Zamia pumila, and tapioca from Cassava (Manihot esculenta), which is often labelled as Arrowroot. Japanese Arrowroot, Pueraria lobata, is also called Kudzu and is used in similar ways.

    arrowroot flower


    Maranta arundinacea is a large, perennial herb found in rainforest habitats. It is cultivated for the starch obtained from the rhizomes / rootstock which is called Arrowroot. The name Arrowroot lead many Ayurveda practitioners to use root stock of this plant instead of Curcuma angustifolia, a precious medicinal plant. Arrowroot is a perennial plant growing to about 2 feet tall. It h as small white flowers and fruits approximately the size and shape of currants. The rootstocks are dug when the plant is one year old, and often exceed 1 foot in length and 0.75 inches in diameter. They are yellowish-white, jointed and covered with loose scales. Maranata arundinacea is native to South America, the Caribbean and Mexico. The plant is naturalized in Florida, but is chiefly cultivated in the West Indies, especially Jamaica and St. Vincent, Australia, Southeast Asia, and South and East Africa.

    arrowroot plant leaves


    Arrowroot is dried and the rootstock is ground into a powder, which is primarily used as a thickener in the kitchen, much like cornstarch. It is an excellent thickening agent and has about twice the thickening power of regular flour. Unlike cornstarch, however, Arrowroot is completely flavorless and will not impart a starchy taste into puddings or other dishes that it is used to thicken. Another reason that Arrowroot is called for in recipes is that it is extremely digestible, moreso than regular wheat flour. It can be used in cookies and crackers as a substitute for part of the flour, and Arrowroot Biscuits can be found in stores that are often said to soothe the stomach. It is also a very popular ingredient in gluten-free baking. Still, it is primarily used as a thickener. To use it, it must be mixed with some cold water before being added to a hot liquid to prevent clumping.

    arrowroot tubers


    STARCH EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Arrowroot tubers contain about 23 percent starch. They are first washed, and then cleaned of the paper-like scale. The scales must be carefully removed before extracting the starch because they impart a disagreeable flavor. After removing the scale, the roots are washed again, drained and finally reduced to a pulp by beating them in mortars or subjecting them to the action of a wheel rasp. The milky liquid thus obtained is passed through a coarse cloth or hair sieve and the pure starch, which is insoluble, is allowed to settle at the bottom. The wet starch is dried in the sun or in a drying house. The result is a powder, the "arrowroot" of commerce, that is quickly packed for market in air-tight cans, packages or cases.

    Arrowroot starch has in the past been quite extensively adulterated with potato starch and other similar substances. Pure arrowroot, like other pure starches, is a light, white powder (the mass feeling firm to the finger and crackling like newly fallen snow when rubbed or pressed), odorless when dry, but emitting a faint, peculiar odor when mixed with boiling water, and swelling on cooking into a perfect jelly, which can be used to make a food that is very smooth in consistency, unlike adulterated articles, mixed with potato flour and other starches of lower value, which contain larger particles.





    arrowroot powder


    ARROWROOT USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    ARROWROOT USE IN COOKING

    Arrowroot used to be very popular in British cuisine, and Napoleon supposedly said the reason for the British love of arrowroot was to support the commerce of their colonies. It can be consumed in the form of biscuits, puddings, jellies, cakes, hot sauces, and also with beef tea, milk or veal broth. Kudzu arrowroot (Pueraria lobata) is used in noodles in Korean and Vietnamese cuisine. In the Victorian era it was used, boiled with a little flavoring added, as an easily digestible food for children and people with dietary restrictions. With today's greater understanding of its limited nutritional properties, it is no longer used in this way. In Burma, arrowroot tubers, which are called artarlut, are boiled or steamed and eaten with salt and oil.

    Arrowroot makes clear, shimmering fruit gels and prevents ice crystals from forming in homemade ice cream. It can also be used as a thickener for acidic foods, such as Asian sweet and sour sauce. It is used in cooking to produce a clear, thickened sauce, such as a fruit sauce. It will not make the sauce go cloudy, like cornstarch, flour or other starchy thickening agents would.

    The lack of gluten in Arrowroot flour makes it useful as a replacement for wheat flour in baking. Like other pure starches, however, Arrowroot is almost pure carbohydrates and devoid of protein, thus it does not provide a complete substitute for wheat flour.

    Arrowroot thickens at a lower temperature than flour or cornstarch, is not weakened by acidic ingredients, has a more neutral taste, and is not affected by freezing. It does not mix well with dairy, forming a slimy mixture. It is recommended that arrowroot be mixed with a cool liquid before adding to a hot fluid to prevent clumps. The mixture should be heated only until the mixture thickens and removed immediately to prevent the mixture from thinning. Overheating tends to break down arrowroot's thickening property.


    OTHER USES OF ARROWROOT

    Arrowroot is used as an ingredient in talc-free baby powders, foot powders, bath powders, and deodorants. It may be mixed with cornstarch, baking soda, kaolin healing clay or similar substances in these preparations. Be sure to read product labels.

    ARROWROOT HEALTH BENEFITS

  • Arrowroot is very low in calories; 100 fresh roots provide only 65 calories, less than that of potato, yam, cassava, etc. Its chief starch is amylopectin (80 percent) and amylose (20 percent). Its powder is fine, odorless, granular starch that is found utility in food industry as thickener and stabilizing agent.

  • It has relatively more protein than that of other tropical food sources like yam, potato, cassava, plantains, etc.

  • As in other roots and tubers, Arrowroot is free from gluten. Gluten-free starch is used in special food preparations for Celiac Disease patients.

  • Fresh Arrowroot roots indeed are good source of Folates. 100 grams arrowroot provides 338 µg or 84 percent of daily required levels of folates. Folate along with Vitamin B-12 is one of the essential components take part in DNA synthesis and cell division. Good folate diet when given during preconception periods and during pregnancy helps prevent neural-tube defects and other congenital malformations in the offspring.

  • Arrowroot contains very good levels of B-Complex group of vitamins such as niacin, thiamin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and riboflavin. Many of these vitamins take part as substrates for enzymes in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the body.

  • Arrowroot contains moderate levels of some important minerals like Copper, Iron, Manganese, Phosphorous, Magnesium, and Zinc. In addition, it is an excellent source of Potassium (454 mg per 100 grams or 10 percent of RDA). Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that help regulate heart rate and blood pressure.


  • ARROWROOT NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS
    Maranta arundinacea, Raw

    Nutrition Value Per 100 Grams


    (Source: USDA National Nutrient Data Base)
    Principle
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Energy      65 Kcal      3%
         Carbohydrates      13.39 g      10%
         Protein      4.24 g      7.5%
         Total Fat      0.20 g      1%
         Cholesterol      0 mg      0%
         Dietary Fiber      1.3 g      3.5%
    Vitamins
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Folates      338 µg      84%
         Niacin      1.693 mg      10.5%
         Pyridoxine      0.266 mg      20%
         Riboflavin      0.059 mg      4.5%
         Thiamin      0.143 mg      12%
         Vitamin A      19 IU      <1%
         Vitamin C      1.9 mg      3%
    Electrolytes
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Sodium      26 mg      1.5%
         Potassium      454 mg      10%
    Minerals
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Calcium      6 mg      0.6%
         Copper      0.121 mg      13.5%
         Iron      2.22 mg      28%
         Magnesium      25 mg      6%
         Manganese      0.174 mg      7.5%
         Phosphorus      98 mg      14%
         Selenium      0.7 µg      1%
         Zinc      0.63 mg      6%
    Phyto-Nutrients
    Nutrient Value
    Percentage of RDA
         Beta Carotene      11 µg      --
         Alpha Carotene      0 µg      --


    SELECTION & STORAGE

    Commercial Arrowroot is available in the form of its powder (flour) that is generally intended to use as stabilizer/thickener in food industries. When added to boiled water it turns into thin, translucent, odorless jelly. The root itself has found no or minimal use in cooking.

    Fresh tender Arrowroot can be eaten raw and in cooking as you use like any other tubers. However, mature roots are very fibrous and thus, less appetizing.

    If you intend to buy the Arrowroot flour, look for branded product displaying authenticity, quality, and pureness. Adulteration with cheap substances such as cornstarch, potato powder, tapioca, etc., is a common practice. Do not buy loose or opened packs. Once at home, store the pack in cool dry place away from moisture and direct sunlight. Do not refrigerate.

    PREPARATION & SERVING METHODS

    To prepare Arrowroot powder, Fine quality tender roots are selected. Wash them thoroughly in cold water. Scrape or peel the outer layer. Beat the tubers in mortar until they become single pulp and milk oozes out is sieved using cheesecloth. The milk obtained thus is then dried under sunlight to obtain fine, white Arrowroot powder.

    In general, Arrowroot flour is added as thickener, colloidal stabilizer, binding agent in liquid-based recipes. It has several advantages over other starch flours. It mixes well in low temperature cooking and gives uniform viscosity to recipes. It has a neutral taste, prevents dextrinization (breaking carbohydrates to dextrins), and can be added to acidic-based recipes. However, it will not get along well with dairy-based recipes as it turns them slimy. One tablespoonful of flour is enough for the thickening one cup of liquid.

  • Arrowroot flour is used in confectionaries as a thickening agent to make cakes, gels, mousse; and in kitchens to prepare soups, sauce, dressings, gravy, etc.
  • Use its flour to give perfect shapes to biscuits, cookies, and pastries while reducing the amount of cholesterol rich solid fats (trans-fats).


  • RESEARCH

  • Effect of Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.) Diet on the selected bacterial population and chemical properties of caecal digesta of Sprague Dawley Rats. International Research Journal of Microbiology, Vol.2(8) pp. 278 to 284, September 2011




    ARROWROOT DOSAGE INFORMATION

    A THICKENING AGENT

    Arrowroot powder is sought after as a thickening agent for gourmet dishes, and is well known for its use in crystal clear fruit glazes and jellies. Because Arrowroot powder thickens at lower temperatures than other vegetable starches, it is far less likely to burn, and it will thicken even in the presence of acidic fruits, making it the thickener of choice for crystal clear fruit glazes.

    Constituents: Starch, fiber, sugar, gum.
    Parts Used: Rhizome.
    Typical Preparations: Dried powder.

    DIRECTIONS FOR USE

    Arrowroot is a wonderful, clear thickener used in gravies, sauces and pie fillings. It is also more easily digested than other thickening agents. Two teaspoons of Arrowroot can be substituted for one tablespoon of cornstarch, or one teaspoon of arrowroot for one tablespoon of wheat flour.

    Mix 1 rounded tablespoon Arrowroot powder into just a little cool water. Add to 1 cup gravy, or other sauce. Stir constantly over high heat, about 10 to 15 minutes. Gravy will thicken suddenly. Once thickening occurs, STOP STIRRING so as not to break down the bonding and thin out the gravy.





    ARROWROOT SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    SAFETY CONCERNS

    Precautions: None.

    Arrowroot is relatively safe or human consumption. It is gluten-free and its powder may be added to baby foods and infant formulas.





    ARROWROOT SUPPLEMENTS & RELATED PRODUCTS

  • Arrowroot Herbal Products


  • QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS



    ARROWROOT HERBAL PRODUCTS

    MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS PRODUCTS

    Mountain Rose Herbs: Arrowroot Powder, Certified Organic, Miscellaneous Bulk Ingredients
    A natural powdered root starch that is white in color and very light in weight from the genus of plant Maranta arundinacea.Our certified organic Arrowroot powder is used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in food preparations (similar to corn starch), as a base for some of your body care formulations, and it is the main foundation for most body powders. Choose from 3 different sizes.


    STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS

    Starwest Botanicals: Arrowroot Powder, Organic, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Arrowroot Powder, 1 lb.


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Baby Powder, Talc-Free, Country Comfort, 3 oz. (39377)
    Baby Powder is a talc free powder containing arrowroot powder, kaolin clay, herbs, orange and lavender oil and is great after baths, diaper changes and may also be used as a foot powder.
    HerbsPro: Deodorant Powder, Honeybee Gardens, 4 oz. (49857)
    A deodorant Powder which is aluminum and talc free. It is a combination of natural deodorizing properties of baking soda with the absorbant properties of cornstarch and arrowroot. The result is a soft, delicately-scented natural powder with the odor fighting capabilities of the toughest deodorants on the market. Ingredients include baking soda, cornstarch, arrowroot, essential oils, fragrance.


    TAKEHERB PRODUCTS

    TakeHerb: Arrowroot Powder, Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 4 oz.
    TakeHerb: Arrowroot Powder (Manihot Esculenta), Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb.
    TakeHerb: Wheat Grass Juice Powder With Arrowroot, Pines Wheat Grass, 8 oz.
    This great tasting powder is 80% extracted wheat grass juice and 20% arrowroot, combining the essence of wheat grass with the nutritional sweetness of arrowroot. Offers beta-carotene, calcium, chlorophyll, plus many other nutrients your body needs every day.


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Arrowroot Powder, Frontier Spices, 2.72 oz. Bottle: K
    Kalyx: Arrowroot Root Powder (Maranta arundinacea), Kalyx, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): RF
    Kalyx: Arrowroot (Tapioca) Powder, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Arrowroot (Tapioca) Powder Cert. Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Arrowroot Powder, Kalyx, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Arrowroot Powder, Mincing Overseas Spice Co, 5 lbs.: GR
    Arrowroot is a white powder that looks and feels like cornstarch. Arrowroot has no flavor. Arrowroot is used as a thickening agent for sauces, fruit pie fillings glazes, and puddings. Each case consists of five pounds.
    Kalyx: Arrowroot Powder, Kalyx, 5 kg (11 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) Root Powder, Kalyx, 5 kg (11 lbs): RF
    Kalyx: Arrowroot Powder, Kalyx, 10 kg (22 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) Root Powder, Kalyx, 10 kg (22 lbs): RF
    Kalyx: Arrowroot Powder, Van De Vries Spice, 25 lbs: GR
    Kalyx: Arrowroot (Arrow Root) Powder, Certified Organic, Kalyx, 50 lbs (22.73 kg): CO
    Kalyx: Arrowroot Powder, Certified Organic, Kalyx, 50 lbs (22.73 kg): CO
    Kalyx: Arrowroot Powder, Kalyx, 25 kg (55 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) Root Powder, Kalyx, 25 kg (55 lbs): RF
    Kalyx: Arrowroot Powder, Kalyx, 50 kg (110 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) Root Powder, Kalyx, 100 kg (220 lbs): RF
    Kalyx: Baby Powder, Country Comfort, 3 oz: C
    Baby Powder is a talc free powder containing arrowroot powder, kaolin clay, herbs, orange and lavender oil and is great after baths, diaper changes and may also be used as a foot powder.
    Kalyx: Baby Powder, Country Comfort, 3 oz: K
    Baby Powder is a talc free powder containing arrowroot powder, kaolin clay, herbs, orange and lavender oil and is great after baths, diaper changes and may also be used as a foot powder.
    Kalyx: Deodorant Powder, Honeybee Gardens, 4 oz: HF
    Finally an alternative to sticky liquid or waxy stick deodorant which is aluminum and talc free. They have combined the natural deodorizing properties of baking soda with the superior absorbent properties of cornstarch and arrowroot. The result is a clean soft, delicately-scented natural powder with the odor fighting capabilities of the toughest deodorants on the market.
    Kalyx: Deodorant Powder, After Bath, Honeybee Gardens, 4 oz: K
    Finally a deodorant which is aluminum and talc free! They have combined the natural deodorizing properties of baking soda with absorbent properties of constarch and arrowroot. The result is a soft, delicately-scented natural powder with the odor fighting capabilities of the toughest deodorants on the market.
    Kalyx: Mens Deodorant Powder, Unscented, Honeybee Gardens,- 4 oz: HF
    Finally a Deodorant Powder which is aluminum and talc free. Honeybee Gardens has combined the natural deodorizing properties of baking soda with the absorbant properties of cornstarch and arrowroot. The result is a soft, delicately-scented natural powder with the odor fighting capabilities of the toughest deodorants on the market. Free Of Aluminum and talc.
    Kalyx: Deodorant Powder, Bay Rum, Honeybee Gardens, 4 oz: K
    Functions as an anti-chaffing powder, shaving powder, foot powder, or where ever you need it, powder it. Talc-free. Absorbs excess moisture and soothes skin, keeping you dry and fresh. Finally an alternative to sticky liquid or waxy stick deodorant that is aluminum and talc free. They have combined the natural deodorizing properties of baking soda with the superior absorbent properties of cornstarch and arrowroot. The result is a clean, soft, delicately-scented natural powder with the odor fighting capabilities of the toughest deodorants on the market. A portion of the proceeds from this product are donated to breast cancer research. Talc free, Aluminum free.


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