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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Herbs
AMUR CORK TREE

(Phellodendron Amurense)


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Amur Cork Tree Description
  • Amur Cork Tree Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Amur Cork Tree Dosage Information
  • Amur Cork Tree Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Amur Cork Tree Supplements & Products




  • amur corktree


    AMUR CORK TREE DESCRIPTION

    THE POOR MAN'S CURE-ALL

    Amur Cork Tree is also known as Phellodendron amurensis; Phellodendron amurense; Phellodendron chinense; Cortex Phellodendri, Huang Bai, Huang Bo, Pinyin, Pinyin, and Barkhat Amurskiy. The name Cork comes from the Greek word "phellos" and "dendron" means tree. Amurense is the river Amur that forms the boundary between Manchuria and the Soviet Union. Amur Cork Tree is also called "Chinese Cork Tree," and in China it is known as the poor man's cure-all. Amur Cork Tree is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. The Ainu people used this plant, called shikerebe-ni, as a painkiller. Recently, Phellodendron has attracted scientific attention because of the phytochemicals it produces.
    • Berberine has antibacterial and anti-fungal properties.
    • Jatrorrhizine may be anti-mutagenic.
    • Phellodendrine has promise as an immune suppressant.
    • Palmatine may be a vasodilator.

    The phytochemical descriptions are included for informational purposes only and not for treatment purposes. The research at this stage is very preliminary.

    amur corktree autumn foliage


    Traditionally, the bark is the principal part of the plant used medicinally, although oil from the fruit is also used. The species grows in Northern China, and in the Khabarovsk and Primorskiy regions of Russia. It is hardy to zone 4, probably the warmer parts of zone 3, as well. Amur Cork Tree is a medium sized deciduous tree growing from 30 to 45 feet tall. Generally the trees are significantly wider than they are tall with broad spreading branching, a short main trunk and several large main branches. The trees frequently become almost flat-topped with maturity with picturesque branching. The summer foliage leaves are a lustrous dark green and are opposite and pinnately compouond. There are 5 to 11 leaflets per leaf. The leaves are 10 to 15 inches long. The leaflets are 2.5 to 4.5 inches long. The curshed foliage gives off a turpentine odor. The autumn foliage appears yellow in color, not especially showy and short-lived. The flowers are dioecious, with male and female plants. The flowers are small and greenish-yellow and not ornamentally significant. It blooms in late May and early June. The pea-sized fruits change from green to black and are only on female plants, held in clusters and are aromatic when crushed. The bark is conspicuouly ridged and furrowed, light gray in color, soft and cork-lik to the touch and attractive in a subtle way.

    Phellodendron Amurense is a species of tree in the family Rutaceae and is commonly called the Amur Cork Tree. It is native to eastern Asia, northern China, Manchuria, Korea, Ussuri, Amur, and Japan. The tree is often used as a shade tree for its picturous form and interesting bark. It is easily transplanted and tolerant of may soils and pHs. It prefers the full sun and is tolerant of drought and pollution. A very pest-free tree perhaps is not as tolerant and tough as has been reported. The fruit can be a bit of a litter problem with female plants, so it is best to plant male trees. The tree needs room to accomodate the width. It tends to self sow, making it a problem in some regions. The Amur Cork tree is considered invasive in many parts of North America. Already identified as a significant forest invader in the mid-Atlantic region, Phellodendron amurense is an emerging species of concern in New England, and is identified as invasive or having invasive tendencies by state and private conservation authorities. The State of Massachusetts lists it as a noxious weed. This species has demonstrated an invasive tendency in Connecticut, meaning it may escape from cultivation and naturalie in minimally managed areas. Because the fruit is plentiful and high in sugars, Amur cork-tree attracts birds and mammals which help disperse its seeds. Because of its phytochemical profile and because the seedlings grow thickly, Phellodendron can out-compete other species. By suppressing reproduction of native hardwoods, Amur cork-tree can come to dominate native forests under favorable conditions. As a relatively new species of concern, its invasion biology and response to control is not well understood.

    Amur Cork Tree has yellowish green flowers that smell like turpentine when bruised. The bark is the part of the tree that is used medicinally. It has strong, bitter actions and detoxicant, alterative, antibacterial, anti-rheumatic, aphrodisiac, bitter stomachic, holagogue, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycemic, ophthalmic, skin, vasodilator, and tonic properties.





    amur corktree


    AMUR CORK TREE USES, HEALTH BENEFITS, & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    MEDICINAL USES

    Amur Cork Tree is used as a remedy for meningitis and as an eyewash for conjunctivitis. It is also useful in treating acute diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice, vaginal infections, acute urinary tract infections, enteritis, boils, abscesses, night sweats and skin diseases. Amur Cork Tree is used intramuscularly for upper respiratory tract infections. This tree is also used to lower fevers, reduce blood pressure and blood sugar levels, and treat bloody urine and kidney problems.

    It has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine (TCM) for the treatment of meningitis, bacillary dysentery, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and liver cirrhosis.

    Amur Cork Tree is used orally to treat abdominal pain, diarrhea, gastroenteritis and urinary tract infections. Berberine has been shown to be effective for the treatment of bacterially-induced diarrhea and ocular trachoma, and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Phellodendron amurense may protect cartilage against osteoarthritis progression. It may prove to be a potentially important chemopreventive agent for lung cancer.

    Phellodendron amurense is able to inhibit prostatic contractility suggesting that it may be useful in the treatment of urological disorders caused by prostatic urethral obstruction such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Nexrutine (bark extract from Phellodendron amurense) may have potential to prevent prostate tumor development.

    Proprietary extracts of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense may help overweight/obese people.

    Compounds in the leaves (quercetin, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactoside and kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside) demonstrated significant free radical scavenging activity comparable to vitamin E.

    ESSENTIAL OIL CHEMISTRY

    Fruit oil contains myrcene (62.3 to 70.3 percent) and beta-caryophyllene (6.8 to 10.5 percent).
    Leaf oil contains beta-elemol (18.5 percent) and (Z)-beta-ocimene (12.6 percent).
    Flower oil contains (Z)-beta-ocimene (9.5 percent), beta-elemol (9.4 percent), myrcene (7.8 percent) and nonacosane (7.7 percent).
    Amurensin, a tert-amyl alcohol derivative of kaempferol 7-O-glucoside, can be found in P. amurense.

    Amur cork tree fruit oil is a pressed oil extracted from the fruit of Phellodendron amurense, the Amur Cork Tree. The bark of the tree is an important herbal medicine in China. The oil has insecticidal properties similar to pyrethrum. The oil contains a variety of biologically active substances, including flavonoids (diosmin), alkaloids (berberine, yatroriccin, palmatine), saponins and coumarins. Medicinal applications of the oil include treatment of pancreatitis, reduction of cholesterol and sugar in blood and the treatment of various skin diseases.


    REFERENCES

    From Wikipedia.org: Phellodendron Amurense
    1. Phellodendron amurense information from NPGS/GRIN.
    2. Batchelor, John; Miyabe, Kingo (1893). Ainu economic plants. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan (R. Meiklejohn & Co) 51: 198-240.
    3. Bruce Marlin: Phellodendron amurense.
    4. Hsu, K. J. Chinese Traditional Medicine; Chinese Pharmaceutical Science and Technology Publication Co.: Beijing, 1996; p 802.
    5. Gray, A. I.; Bhandari, P.; Waterman, P. G. Phytochemistry 1988, 27, 1805-1808.
    6. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Page 252
    7. Kim J.-H., Huh J.-E., Baek Y.-H., Lee J.-D., Choi D.-Y., Park D.-S. Effect of Phellodendron amurense in protecting human osteoarthritic cartilage and chondrocytes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 134 (2) (pp 234-242), 2011.
    8. James M.A., Fu H., Liu Y., Chen D., You M. Dietary administration of berberine or Phellodendron amurense extract inhibits cell cycle progression and lung tumorigenesis. Molecular Carcinogenesis. 50 (1) (pp 1-7), 2011.
    9. Xu Y., Ventura S. Extracts of bark from the traditional Chinese herb Phellodendron amurense inhibit contractility of the isolated rat prostate gland. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 127 (1) (pp 196-199), 2010.
    10. Ghosh R., Graham H., Rivas P., Tan X.J., Crosby K., Bhaskaran S., Schoolfield J., Banu J., Fernandes G., Yeh I.-T., Kumar A.P., Phellodendron amurense bark extract prevents progression of prostate tumors in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate: Potential for prostate cancer management. Anticancer Research. 30 (3) (pp 857-866), 2010.
    11. Garrison R., Chambliss W.G. Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on weight management: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 12 (1) (pp 50-54), 2006.
    12. Leu C.-H., Li C.-Y., Yao X., Wu T.-S. Constituents from the leaves of Phellodendron amurense and their antioxidant activity. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 54 (9) (pp 1308-1311), 2006.
    13. Lis A., Boczek E., Gora J. (2004). Chemical composition of the essential oils from fruits, leaves and flowers of the Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.). Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (6): 549-553.
    14. Masao Hasegawa and Teruo Shirato (1953). Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75 (22): 5507-5511.





    amur corktree fruit


    AMUR CORK TREE DOSAGE INFORMATION

    SUPPLEMENTS

    Amur Cork Tree comes in various forms and is an ingredient in many products. It is best if Amur Cork Tree is taken under the care of a qualified healthcare provider. For products that contain Amur Cork Tree, read and follow product label directions.

    For herbal granules (from Sun Ten), dissolve one gram herb in a cup of hot water to make a tea drink. 1 to 3 times daily. Complete directions, ingredients, supplement facts, storage information and cautions are listed on each bottle.

    Chinese herbal tradition prescribes herbs in combination. Dosage also depends on body weight and health condition. Because of this tradition it is usually recommended that you consult a licensed herbal practitioner to determine specific dosage for any herb. Fixed dosage quantities or methods of ingestion is usually not recommended on some of the packages.





    AMUR CORK TREE SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    SAFETY CONCERNS

    Amur Cork Tree has strong actions and should be used with caution.

    It is not for use by pregnant or nursing women.
    Safety in young children or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known.

    Consult with a qualified health care practitioner for proper dosage and use.





    AMUR CORK TREE SUPPLEMENTS & RELATED PRODUCTS

  • Amur Cork Tree (Phellodendron Amurense) Herbal Products


  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


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    AMUR CORK TREE HERBAL PRODUCTS

    CHINESE HERBS DIRECT PRODUCTS

    Chinese Herbs Direct: Huang Bai (Amur; Phellodendron Amurense Bark), 5:1 Extract Powder, 100 Grams
    The net weight of the Extract Powder is listed with the herb name. Each gram of 5:1 Concentrated Extract Powder is equivalent to approximately 5 grams of raw herb powder (i.e. a 100 gram bottle of 5:1 Concentrated Extract Powder would be equivalent to 500 grams of Herb Powder).
    Chinese Herbs Direct: Huang Bai (Amur; Phellodendron Amurense Bark), Whole Herb, 500 Grams
    Whole Herbs consist of the actual whole, raw herb (i.e. fruit, stem, root, flower, mineral, etc.) and are not processed into powders, pills, capsules or formulas. Whole Herbs do not include dosage information, as they are intended for professional herbalists and those customers who have the experience and knowledge necessary to safely prepare their own formulas.
    Chinese Herbs Direct: Huang Bai (Amur; Phellodendron Amurense Bark), Herbal Powder, 500 Grams
    Herbal Powders consist of the whole herb powder only, and are not further concentrated or processed into tablets, pills, or formulas. Herbal Powders do not include dosage information, as they are intended for professional herbalists and those customers who have the experience and knowledge necessary to safely prepare their own formulas.
    Chinese Herbs Direct: Relora, Source Naturals, 250 mg, 45 Tabs
    Relora is a patent-pending plant extract of Phellodendron amurense and Magnolia officinalis that may help to relieve stress and minimize stress-induced eating. Weight gain can be associated with emotional over-eating for people with stressful lifestyles. Preliminary research suggests that Relora may help regulate cortisol levels in the body that are associated with stress-related weight gain. The bark of Magnolia officinalis has been used in traditional Chinese herbalism for centuries for stress reduction and muscle tension.
    Chinese Herbs Direct: Relora, Source Naturals, 250 mg, 90 Tabs
    Relora is a patent-pending plant extract of Phellodendron amurense and Magnolia officinalis that may help to relieve stress and minimize stress-induced eating. Weight gain can be associated with emotional over-eating for people with stressful lifestyles. Preliminary research suggests that Relora may help regulate cortisol levels in the body that are associated with stress-related weight gain. The bark of Magnolia officinalis has been used in traditional Chinese herbalism for centuries for stress reduction and muscle tension.

    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Corktree Bark (Phellodendron amurensis) Granules, Sun Ten, 100 grams (3.5 oz): V (Special Order)
    Kalyx: Corktree Bark 5:1 Extract Powder, Plum Flower Brand, 100 gm: V (Special Order)
    Kalyx: Corktree Bark Whole: Plum Flower Brand, 500 gm (1.17 lb): V (Special Order)
    Kalyx: Corktree Bark Powdered: Plum Flower Brand, 500 gm (1.17 lb): V (Special Order)
    Kalyx: Phellodendron Amur Cork Tree Bark Whole (Phellodendron Amurense), Asia Naturals, 1 lb: V
    Kalyx: Phellodendron Amur Cork Tree Bark Powder (Phellodendron Amurense), Asia Naturals, 1 lb: V
    Kalyx: Phellodendron Amur Cork Tree Bark Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 2 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Phellodendron Amur Cork Tree Bark Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 4 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Phellodendron Amur Cork Tree Bark Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 8 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Phellodendron Amur Cork Tree Bark Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 16 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Phellodendron Amur Cork Tree Bark Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 32 fl oz: GL


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Cork Tree Bark Supplement Products


    Amazon: Amur Cork Tree (Phellodendron Chinense) Bark Alcohol-Free Liquid Extract, HawaiiPharm, Assorted Sizes

    Wild Harvested Huang Bo, Huang Bai, Amur Cork Tree (Phellodendron Chinense ) dried bark powder from China. Contains no alcohol, GMO, gluten, artificial colors, heavy metals, preservatives, pesticides, fertilizers. Shake well before use. Take 20 to 30 drops, three times a day or as directed by your practitioner. The best way to use liquid herbal glycerites is to put the suggested amount in a glass of water, tea, or juice and drink the entire contents. Glycerites can also be administered directly into the mouth without the assistance of water however some glycerites are unpalatable which is why most people prefer to dilute them into a beverage.



    Amazon: Amur Cork Tree Bark Herb Extract Powder (Phellodendron Chinense; Huang Bai), Plum Flower, 100 grams (3.5 oz)

    One 3.5 ounce bottle (100 grams) of Phellodendron Bark, concentrated extract powder. This powder does contain a small amount of dextrin (corn starch from non-GMO corn) to keep it from clumping. The manufacturer is in the process of changing the labeling of this product line. This concentrated powder may or may not be marked as a 5:1 ratio. It is commonly known as Corktree bark, and Amur Cork Tree. The Botanical name is Phellodendron Chinense Bark. Huang Bai is the Pin Yin name. Phellodendron bark has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine as an herb that clears heat. It is beneficial to reducing damp-heat, and draining fire and Kidney fire. Phellodendron bark enters the Kidney and Bladder channels. This deals with a huge array of symptoms. Consult an herbalist or acupuncturist for guidance. Allergy info: Prepared in a pharmacy that handles gluten, soy, wheat, cuttlefish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, and sesame seeds.



    Amazon: Amur Cork Tree Bark Bulk Herb (Phellodendron Chinense; Huang Bai), Cut & Sifted, Plum Flower, 1 lb

    Another common name is Amur cork tree. Huang Bai is the Pin Yin name. Phellodendron Chinense is the botanical name. Huang Bai translates literally into English as yellow fir. The pieces average from 2 to 4 inches long, and uniformly 1/8 inch wide and 1/16 inches thick. They look much like uncooked, short, flat fettucine noodles. Phellodendron bark has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine as an herb that clears heat. It is beneficial to reducing damp-heat, and draining fire and Kidney fire. Phellodendron bark enters the Kidney and Bladder channels. This deals with a huge array of symptoms. Consult an herbalist or acupuncturist for guidance. This is an authentic Plum Flower Brand registered trademark product. It will come in a factory sealed package with genuine Plum Flower labeling, as shown in the photo.


  • Nutrition Basics: Amur / Cork Tree (Phellodendron Amurense) Herbal Information






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