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Nutrition Basics


(Agrimonia Eupatoria)

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  • Agrimony Description
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  • agrimony flowering plant



    Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria and/or Agrimonia procera) is also known as Common Agrimony, Church Steeples, Cockeburr, Burr Marigold, Cocklebur, Harvest Lice, Philanthropos, Rat's Tail, Stickwort, Sticklewort, and White Tansy. Agrimony belongs to the Rose order of plants. This pretty plant is dark green with numerous soft hairs with spikes of tiny yellow flowers with egg-shaped petals on spikes emanating from hairy stems. It has fruit with hooked bristles at the top. It is in flower from June to August. Agrimony exudes a distinctive, spicy pleasant scent that is often compared to apricots but is not as sweet. The flowers are Hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees and Flies. The soft hairs aid in the plant's seed pods sticking to any animal or person coming in contact with the plant. In the Language of Flowers Agrimony means thankfulness or gratitude. A. eupatoria is a foodplant for the caterpillars of the snout moth Endotricha flammealis.

    Today this plant can be found in most of Europe, including Britain, South to North Africa and East to Iran. Agrimony is often found near hedges and fences throughout England. During the Elizabethan period herbalists began referring to the plant as philanthropos, perhaps because of its beneficent properties as a medicine, or perhaps because its seeds stick to the clothing of passers by, giving them the "gift" of next year's plants. The Greeks also used this herb for treating gallbladder, liver, and kidney conditions. Country folk have for decades used this herb for medicinal remedies. North American Indians used it to treat fevers. Native Americans mainly used two types, Agrimony eupatoria and Agrimony gryposepal. The Cherokee used it to normalize bowels, treat fever, ease hunger pangs in children and build up the blood. Other uses included treating snake bites, jaundice, gout, and worms. When applied topically, the Agrimony leaves can help draw out thorns and splinters, stop cuts from bleeding, and help heal eczema, skin wounds, and sores.


    The name Agrimony is from Argemone, a word given by the Greeks to plants which were healing to the eyes. The name Eupatoria refers to Mithridates Eupator, King of Pontus in Northern Turkey who was a renowned concocter of herbal remedies. The magic power of Agrimony is mentioned in an old (very old) English medical manuscript:
      'If it be leyd under a man's head,
      He shal sleepyn as he were dead:
      He shal never drede ne wakyn
      Till fro under his head it be takyn.'

    Tradition holds that when placed under a person's head it will induce a deep sleep that will last until it is removed. (remember this was in a very old manuscript). One of the old writers recommends that it be taken with a mixture of pounded frogs and human blood, a remedy for all internal hemorrhages. Agrimony has been stated to have medical and magical properties since the time of Pliny the elder. Common folklore held that it could cure musket wounds, and ward off witchcraft. The English called it "all-heal" and by the 19th Century, it was used regularly for athlete's foot and other skin diseases. Agrimony was one of the most famous vulnerary (used for or useful in healing wounds) herbs. The Anglo-Saxons called it Garclive, taught that it would heal wounds, snake bites and warts. According to Nicholas Culpepper (1652), the plant is astrologically ruled under Jupiter and the sign of Cancer.

    In the time of Chaucer, when we find its name appearing in the form of Egrimoyne, it was used with Mugwort and vinegar for 'a bad back' and 'alle woundes. It formed an ingredient of the famous arquebusade water as prepared against wounds inflicted by an arquebus, or hand-gun, and was mentioned by Philip de Comines, in his account of the battle of Morat in 1476. In France, the eau de arquebusade is still applied for sprains and bruises, being carefully made from many aromatic herbs. It was at one time included in the London Materia Medica as a vulnerary herb, but modern official medicine does not recognize its virtues, though it is still fully appreciated in herbal practice as a mild astringent and tonic, useful in coughs, diarrhea and relaxed bowels. By pouring a pint of boiling water on a handful of the dried herb - stem, leaves and flowers - an excellent gargle may be made for a relaxed throat, and a teacupful of the same infusion is recommended, taken cold three or four times in the day for looseness in the bowels, also for passive losses of blood. It may be given either in infusion or decoction. The 9th-century text Bald's Leechbook advised the use of Agrimony as a cure for male impotence - saying it should be boiled in milk, and that it could excite a man who was "insufficiently virile" - it also states that when boiled in Welsh beer it would have the opposite effect.

    agrimony plant


    From the long, black and somewhat woody perennial root, the erect cylindrical and slightly rough stem rises 1 or 2 feet, sometimes more, mostly unbranched, or very slightly branched in large specimens. The common agrimony grows as a deciduous, perennial herbaceous plant and reached heights of up to 100 centimeters (about 3 feet 3.5 inches). Its roots are deep rhizomes, from which spring the stems. It is characterized by its typical serrated edged pinnate leaves.

    agrimony leaf

    The leaves are numerous and very rich in outline, those near the ground are often 7 or 8 inches long, while the upper ones are generally only about 3 inches in length. They are pinnate in form, i.e. divided up to the mid-rib into pairs of leaflets. The graduation in the size and richness of the leaves is noticeable: all are very similar in general character, but the upper leaves have far fewer leaflets than the lower, and such leaflets as there are, are less cut into segments and have altogether a simpler outline. The leaflets vary very considerably in size, as besides the six or eight large lateral leaflets and the terminal one, the mid-rib is fringed with several others that are very much smaller than these and ranged in the intervals between them. The main leaflets increase in size towards the apex of the leaf, where they are 1 to 1.5-inches long. They are oblong-oval in shape, toothed, downy above and more densely so beneath.

    agrimony flower spike

    The flowers, though small, are numerous, arranged closely on slender, terminal spikes, which lengthen much when the blossoms have withered and the seed-vessels are maturing. At the base of each flower, which is placed stalkless on the long spike, is a small bract, cleft into three acute segments. The flowers, about 3/8-inch across, have five conspicuous and spreading petals, which are egg-shaped in form and somewhat narrow in proportion to their length, slightly notched at the end and of a bright yellow color. The stamens are five to twelve in number. The flowers face boldly outwards and upwards towards the light, but after they have withered, the calyx points downwards. It becomes rather woody, thickly covered at the end with a mass of small bristly hairs, that spread and develop into a burr-like form. Its sides are furrowed and nearly straight, about 1/5-inch long, and the mouth, about as wide, is surmounted by an enlarged ring armed with spines, of which the outer ones are shorter and spreading, and the inner ones longer and erect. The single flower has an urn-shaped curved flower cup, the upper edge has several rows of soft, curved hook-shaped bristles, 1 to 4 millimeters long. Agrimony flowers between June to September.

    agrimony flower

    The hermaphrodite flower has fivefold radial symmetry. There are five sepals present . There are five yellow, rounded petals. The petals and the five to 20 stamens rise above the tip of the flower cup . The two medium-sized carpels in the flower cups are sunk into, but not fused with it. The flowers with their abundant pollen supply attract hoverflies, flies and honey bees. The pollinated flowers develop fruits with burs. These attach to passing grazing animals such as cattle, sheep and deer and are spread over a large area.

    The whole plant is deep green and covered with soft hairs, and has a slightly aromatic scent; even the small root is sweet scented, especially in spring. The spikes of flowers emit a most refreshing and spicy odor like that of apricots. The leaves when dry retain most of their fragrant odor, as well as the flowers, and Agrimony was once much sought after as a substitute or addition to tea, adding a peculiar delicacy and aroma to its flavor. Agrimony is one of the plants from the dried leaves of which in some country districts is brewed what is called 'a spring drink,' or 'diet drink,' a compound made by the infusion of several herbs and drunk in spring time as a purifier of the blood. In France, where herbal teas or tisanes are more employed than here, it is stated that Agrimony tea, for its fragrancy, as well as for its virtues, is often drunk as a beverage at table.

    The plant is subject to a considerable amount of variation, some specimens being far larger than others, much more clothed with hairs and with other minor differences. It has, therefore, by some botanists, been divided into two species, but the division is now scarcely maintained. The larger variety, having also a greater fragrance, was named Agrimonia odorata.

    agrimony burrs

    The long flower-spikes of Agrimony have caused the name of 'Church Steeples' to be given the plant in some parts of the country. It also bears the title of 'Cockeburr,' 'Sticklewort' or 'Stickwort,' because its seed-vessels cling by the hooked ends of their stiff hairs to any person or animal coming into contact with the plant. It was, Gerard informs us, at one time called Philanthropos, according to some old writers, on account of its beneficent and valuable properties, others saying that the name arose from the circumstance of the seeds clinging to the garments of passers-by, as if desirous of accompanying them, and Gerard inclines to this latter interpretation of the name.

    The whole plant yields a yellow dye: when gathered in September, the color given is pale, much like that called nankeen; later in the year the dye is of a darker hue and will dye wool of a deep yellow. As it gives a good dye at all times and is a common plant, easily cultivated, it seems to deserve the notice of dyers.

    Sheep and goats will eat this plant, but cattle, horses and swine leave it untouched.

    Agrimony contains a particular volatile oil, which may be obtained from the plant by distillation and also a bitter principle. It yields in addition 5 percent of tannin, so that its use in cottage medicine for gargles and as an astringent applicant to indolent ulcers and wounds is well justified. Owing to this presence of tannin, its use has been recommended in dressing leather. Agrimony chemistry includes volatile oils, flavonoids, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, tiliroside, triterpene glycosides including euscapic acid and tormentic acid, phenolic acids, and 3 to 21 percent tannins.


    The plant is found abundantly throughout England, on hedge-banks and the sides of fields, in dry thickets and on all waste places. In Scotland it is much more local and does not penetrate very far northward. Agrimony has an old reputation as a popular, domestic medicinal herb, being a simple well known to all country-folk. It belongs to the Rose order of plants, and its slender spikes of yellow flowers, which are in bloom from June to early September, and the singularly beautiful form of its much-cut-into leaves, make it one of the most graceful of our smaller herbs.

    Agrimony is a slow and sometimes problematic germinator. Two methods: One is to start indoors following a period of 4 to 8 weeks stratification; the other is to soak seed in a small bowl of warm water (put on a heating mat) before sowing. When seedling are large enough, harden off and plant in sunny to partial sunny position in the garden. Likes regular watering. If you are new to seed starting of perennials, best to pass this one up.


    There are several other plants, not actually related botanically to the Common Agrimony, that were given the same name by the older herbalists because of their similar properties. These are the Common Hemp Agrimony, Eupatorium Cannabinum (Linn.) called by Gerard the Common Dutch Agrimony, and by Salmon, in his English Herbal (1710), Eupatorium Aquaticum mas, the Water Agrimony - also the plant now called the Trifid Bur-Marigold, Bidens tripartita (Linn.), but by older herbalists named the Water Hemp, Bastard Hemp and Bastard Agrimony. The name Bastard Agrimony has also been given to a species of true Agrimony, Agrimonium Agrimonoides, a native of Italy, growing in moist woods and among bushes. A. gryposepala, the plant's North American relative, also has traditional medical uses.



    Astringent tonic, diuretic. Agrimony has had a great reputation for curing jaundice and other liver complaints. Gerard believed in its efficacy. He says: 'A decoction of the leaves is good for them that have naughty livers': and he tells us also that Pliny called it a 'herb of princely authoritie.' Dioscorides stated that it was not only 'a remedy for them that have bad livers,' but also 'for such as are bitten with serpents.' Dr. Hill, who from 1751 to 1771 published several works on Herbal medicine, recommends 'an infusion of 6 ounces of the crown of the root in a quart of boiling water, sweetened with honey and half a pint drank three times a day,' as an effectual remedy for jaundice. It gives tone to the system and promotes assimilation of food.

    Agrimony is also considered a very useful agent in skin eruptions and diseases of the blood, pimples, blotches, etc. A strong decoction of the root and leaves, sweetened with honey or sugar, has been taken successfully to cure scrofulous sores, being administered two or three times a day, in doses of a wineglassful, persistently for several months. The same decoction is also often employed in rural districts as an application to ulcers.

    In North America, it is said to be used in fevers with great success, by the Indians and Canadians. In former days, it was sometimes given as a vermifuge, though that use; of it is obsolete. In the Middle Ages, it was said to have magic powers, if laid under a man's head inducing heavy sleep till removed, but no narcotic properties are ascribed to it. Green (Universal Herbal, 1832) tells us that 'its root appears to possess the properties of Peruvian bark in a very considerable degree, without manifesting any of its inconvenient qualities, and if taken in pretty large doses, either in decoction or powder, seldom fails to cure the ague.'

    Culpepper (1652) recommends it, in addition to the uses already enumerated, for gout, 'either used outwardly in an oil or ointment, or inwardly, in an electuary or syrup, or concreted juice.' He praises its use externally, stating how sores may be cured 'by bathing and fomenting them with a decoction of this plant,' and that it heals 'all inward wounds, bruises, hurts and other distempers.' He continues: 'The decoction of the herb, made with wine and drunk, is good against the biting and stinging of serpents . . . it also helpeth the colic, cleanseth the breath and relieves the cough. A draught of the decoction taken warm before the fit first relieves and in time removes the tertian and quartian ague.' It 'draweth forth thorns, splinters of wood, or any such thing in the flesh. It helpeth to strengthen members that are out of joint.'

    Agrimony has both tonic and diuretic properties and has been widely used to treat jaundice and other liver complaints. This plant helps stop bleeding and encourages clotting so it promotes wound healing. It is also used to help treat skin eruptions and diseases of the blood, pimples, blotches, etc. Agrimony tones the mucus membranes of the digestive system, thereby reducing acidity and gastric ulcers. Because this herb counters the high uric acid levels, it can be used for rheumatism and gout. In China and Europe, it is used to stop bleeding with heavy menstrual flow, blood in the urine, and it is used externally for wounds and cuts. Some use Agrimony as a mouth wash or gargle for sore throats and inflamed gums. It is also used to treat asthma and coughs. There is such a variety of things this herb can be used for, here is a general list below:
    • Anti-inflammatory.
    • Anti-parasitic and antibacterial properties.
    • Astringent.
    • Blood purifier.
    • Cardiovascular Conditions: Enlargement of Heart, stomach and lungs.
    • Combine with corn silk to treat cystitis and urinary incontinence.
    • Diuretic.
    • Encourages clot formation.
    • Gastrointestinal conditions.
    • Mildly antiviral.
    • Stimulates bile flow.
    • Tissue healer.
    • Wash from infusions to clean wounds, sores, eczema, and varicose ulcers.
    • Weak infusion as eyewash for conjunctivitis.



    Agrimony comes in various forms and is an ingredient in many products. To use a tincture, take 6 to 12 drops (1 to 3 ml) under the tongue up to 3 times a day. A fluid extract dose may consiste of 10 to 60 drops. To make an infusion, take 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls of dried herb and leaves in 1 cup of boiling water and steep for 10 to 15 minutes. Drink 3 times a day. For other formulations read and follow product label directions.

    Agrimony Constituents: Tannins and flavonoids. A volatile essential oil can be distilled from the stem.

    Parts Used: Dried, above-ground parts of the plant, harvested shortly before or during summer flowering.

    Typical Preparations: Herb powder in slurry or decoction, herbal tea, or essential oil.



    Agrimony contains tannins, therefore exceeding recommended doses could lead to constipation and other digestive problems. Some people may experience photo dermatitis, a skin rash that occurs after taking the herb and going into the sunlight. Do not use if you are on anti-coagulants or any drugs for the treatment of high or low blood pressure. Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney diseases is not known.

    There are no contraindications for use of up to three grams per day. Taking more than this amount for treating sore throat could aggravate existing constipation.


  • Agrimony Herbal Products

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    A reputation for healing jaundice and other liver problems, Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria) is considered useful for healing diseases of the blood resulting in skin eruptions; helps the kidneys to pass fluid; a tonic for the digestive system to promote assimilation of food; stomach tonic, helpful for acidity and gastric ulcers; toning to the mucus membranes of the digestive system; healing for colitis; used to treat rheumatism and gout because it counters the high uric acid levels; both in China and Europe, this herb is valued for its ability to stop bleeding and is employed in the treatment of excessive menstrual flow, blood in the urine, and externally on wounds and cuts; can also be used as a mouthwash or gargle for sore throats and inflamed gums.


    Starwest Botanicals: Agrimony Herb, Cut & Sifted, Wildcrafted, 1 lb.
    Starwest Botanicals: Agrimony Herb, Cut & Sifted, Organic, 1 lb.


    HerbsPro: Agrimony Flower Essence, Bach Flower Essences, 20 ml
    A homeopathic remedy, Agrimonia Eupatoria Bach Flower Essences for Natural Occurring Nervous Tension.
    HerbsPro: Agrimony Dropper, Certified Organic, Flower Essence Services, 0.25 oz.
    HerbsPro: Agrimony Dropper, Certified Organic, Flower Essence Services, 1 oz.


    Kalyx: Agrimony (Xian He Cao) Granules, Stop Bleeding Herbs, Evergreen, 3.5 oz: V
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Granules (Agrimonia eupatoria; Xion He Cou), Sun Ten, 100 grams (3.5 oz): V (Special Order)
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb 5:1 Extract Powder, Plum Flower, 100 Grams (3.5 oz): V (Special Order)
    Agrimony Bulk Herbs (Agrimonia pilosa; Agrimonia eupatoria var. japonica; Xian He Cao) from Plum Flower Brand.
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Cut & Sifted (Agrimonia eupatoria), Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb (Agrimonia eupatoria), Cut & Sifted, Certified Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 lb: C
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb, Whole (Xian He Cao), Asia Naturals, 1 lb: V
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Whole, Plum Flower, 500 Grams (1.17 lbs): V (Special Order)
    Agrimony Bulk Herbs (Agrimonia pilosa; Agrimonia eupatoria var. japonica; Xian He Cao) from Plum Flower Brand.
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 1 kg (2.2 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 5 kg (11 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 10 kg (22 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 kg (55 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 50 kg (110 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 100 kg (220 lbs): EB
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb Powder, Kalyx Bulk Products, 200 kg (440 lbs): EB

    Liquid Extracts

    Kalyx: Agrimony Non-Alcoholic Extract (Agrimonia eupatoria), Health & Herbs, 2 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Agrimony Extract (Agrimonia eupatoria), Health & Herb, 2 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb (Xian He Cao) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 2 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb (Xian He Cao) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 4 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Agrimony Non-Alcoholic Extract (Agrimonia eupatoria), Health & Herbs, 8 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Agrimony Extract (Agrimonia eupatoria), Health & Herbs, 8 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb (Xian He Cao) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 8 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Agrimony Non-Alcoholic Extract (Agrimonia eupatoria), Health & Herbs, 16 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Agrimony Extract (Agrimonia eupatoria), Health & Herbs, 16 fl oz: HH
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb (Xian He Cao) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 16 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb (Xian He Cao) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 32 fl oz: GL
    Kalyx: Agrimony Herb (Xian He Cao) Single Herb Alcohol Fluid Extract, Golden Lotus, 1 Gallon: GL


    Amazon: Agrimony Flower Essence Herbal Supplement Products
    Amazon: Agrimony Herb Grocery & Gourmet Food Products
    Amazon: Agrimony Herbal Supplement Products
    Amazon: Agrimony Herbal Plants, Seeds & Herbal Garden Products

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