animated goddess mdbs banner animated goddess


MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Antioxidants
VITAMIN E


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Antioxidant Overview
  • Vitamin E Description
  • Vitamin E Dietary Sources
  • Vitamin E Health Benefits
  • Vitamin E Uses & Scientific Evidei
  • Vitamin E Dosage Informaition.
  • Vitamin E Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Vitamin E Products




  • ANTIOXIDANT OVERVIEW

    FREE RADICAL FIGHTER

    Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that protect and repair cells from damage caused by free radicals. Many experts believe this damage plays a part in a number of chronic diseases, including hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), cancer, and arthritis. Free radicals can also interfere with your immune system. So, fighting off damage with antioxidants helps keep your immune system strong, making you better able to ward off colds, flu, and other infections.

    Antioxidants are compounds that neutralize the cellular-damaging effects of free radicals. Free radicals are produced naturally in your body, but when you exercise hard, your body pumps out more free radicals. Environmental factors such as pollution, the sun, cigarette smoke, and herbicides can also spawn free radicals. The danger is that free-radical damage may lead to cancer. Antioxidants interact with and stabilize free radicals and may prevent some of the damage that free radicals otherwise might cause. As an active person, more antioxidants may help you slow the aging process, ward off cancer and stress, and promote good health.





    vitamin E


    VITAMIN E DESCRIPTION

    FAT-SOLUBLE ANTIOXIDANT

    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and is a powerful biological antioxidant that prevents the oxidation of lipids (fats). Fat oxidation has been implicated in the process that leads to atherosclerosis. Vitamin E is fat soluble and, since cell membranes are composed of lipids, it effectively prevents the cell's protective coatings from becoming rancid as a result of the assault of free radicals. Antioxidants such as Vitamin E act to protect your cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Free radicals can cause cell damage that may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Studies are underway to determine whether Vitamin E might help prevent or delay the development of those chronic diseases. Vitamin E also improves oxygen utilization, enhances immune response, plays a role in the prevention of cataracts caused by free radical damage, and may reduce the risk of coronary artery disease.

    Tocotrienols are part of the Vitamin E group, and like the E vitamin, it is a potent antioxidant. Tocotrienols help maintain a healthy cardiovascular system by protecting it against the hardening of the arteries (artherosclerosis), and preventing the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, which is also believed to be a trigger to atherosclerosis. Tocotrienols can be found in the oil portion of rice, bran, palm fruit, barley, and wheat germ. Taking Tocotrienols supplements can help prevent atherosclerosis, and lower cholesterol. Recent test tube and animal research suggests that Tocotrienols may be effective in protecting against cancer, and in particular, breast and skin cancer. Tocotrienols supplements are available in capsules and tablets and is an ingredient in many products. The standard dosage is 140 to 360 mg per day. Tocotrienols is not an essential nutrient, so there is no deficiency state. There have been no known side effects with Tocotrienol.

    Vitamin E is important in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. It improves circulation, is necessary for tissue repair, and is useful in treating premenstrual syndrome and fibrocystic disease of the breast. It promotes normal blood clotting and healing, reduces scarring from some wounds, reduces blood pressure, aids in preventing cataracts, improves athletic performance, and relaxes leg cramps. It also maintains healthy nerves and muscles while strengthening capillary wall. In addition, it promotes healthy skin and hair, and helps to prevent anemia and retrolental fibroplasia, an eye disorder that can affect premature infants.

    As an antioxidant, Vitamin E prevents cell damage by inhibiting the oxidation of lipids (fats) and the formation of free radicals. It protects other fat-soluble vitamins from destruction by oxygen, and aids in the utilization of vitamin A and protects it from destruction by oxygen. It retards aging and may prevent age spots as well. New evidence suggests that zinc is needed to maintain normal blood concentrations of vitamin E. Selenium enhances vitamin E uptake. These two nutrients should be taken together and these two nutrients work together in the body. Natural sources of vitamin E include nuts, soybeans, spinach, sunflower seeds, asparagus, and sweet potatoes.

    Vitamin E deficiency may result in damage to red blood cells and destruction of nerves. Signs of deficiency can include infertility (in both men and women), menstrual problems, neuromuscular impairment, shortened red blood cell life span, spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), and uterine degeneration. Low levels of Vitamin E in the body have been linked to both bowel cancer and breast cancer. Epidemiological links have been identified between the increase in the incidence of heart disease and the increasing lack of Vitamin E in the diet due to our reliance on over-processed foods.

    Vitamin E is actually a family of eight different but related molecules that fall into two major groups: the tocopherols and the tocotrienols. Within each group, there are alpha, beta, gamma, and delta forms. Each form has its own biological activity, the measure of potency or functional use in the body. Of all eight of these molecules, it is the alpha-tocopherol form that is the most potent and active form of Vitamin E in humans. The natural form of vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) is superior to the synthetic version (dl-alpha-tocopherol).


    vitamin E family structure



    THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF VITAMIN E
    By Dr. George Obikoya
    Information Source Website: www.vitamins-nutrition.org/vitamins/different-vitamin-e.html


    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin that helps to neutralize potentially damaging free radicals in our body. It exists in eight different forms, alpha-tocopherol being the most active form of vitamin E in humans and a powerful biological antioxidant. The natural, and preferred form to take is d (not dl) alpha tocopherol. Each form has its own biological activity, the measure of potency or functional use in the body. The tocopherol and tocotrienol subfamilies are each composed of alpha, beta, gamma and delta vitamins having unique biological effects.

    Vitamin E is thought to help in some skin conditions, male infertility, heart disease prevention, Alzheimer's disease, type 1 diabetes, circulatory problems, arthritis, premenstrual symptoms, and aging. It is also used as an antioxidant and to enhance immune system functioning in the elderly.

    The tocopherols are a closely related group of biologically active compounds that vary only in number and position of methyl groups in the molecule; however, these structural differences influence the biological activity of the various molecules. (In other words, each type of vitamin e is similar, but work in slightly different ways).

    The active tocopherols are named in order of their potency. Thus alpha-tocopherol is the most active. Some metabolites of alpha-tocopherol, for example, alpha-tocopherolquinone, and alphatocopheronolactone have activity in some mammals such as rats and rabbits although not in humans and these metabolites do not support all the functions attributed to vitamin E. In other words, stick with the tocopherols.

    The Vitamin E group also is necessary for normal mammal (including human) growth; without these tocopherols, our fertility is compromised and we may have children that develop abnormalities of the central nervous system, muscles, and organs, especially the liver.

    Most of the stored Vitamin E is found in body fat, although large amounts also occur in the uterus of females and the testis of males. The various forms of vitamin E are stored in tissues in different amounts; alpha-tocopherol is stored in higher concentrations than the other forms.

    Many people do not know that there are several different forms of Vitamin E. Why is this important to know? The different forms of vitamin E are truly disctinct and have different levels of effectiveness. Each form functions differently in the body and only one form truly represents natural Vitamin E - the d-alpha-tocopoheryl form.

    There are several distinct forms of Vitamin E in dietary supplements vying for your attention. While tocotrienols, the form of Vitamin E that features an unsaturated side chain, is becoming more popular, tocopherols (mainly alpha-tocopherol) still remain the most widely used and researched form. Tocopherol supplements usually feature either alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocopheryl acetate or alpha-tocopheryl succinate, the latter two thought to confer enhanced stability.

    You can getVitamin E in synthetic form as dl-alpha tocopheryl. This is the cheapest and least effective form of Vitamin E. The chemically produced dl-alpha-tocopher(y)l acetate or succinate, identified by the letter "l" after "d", was originally used as the industry standard for research. This was because it showed higher blood levels than the natural forms, alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherols, spelled with an "o" instead of a "y" to identify them as natural forms. Alpha-tocopherol can be derived from natural sources or can be synthetically produced. Natural-source alpha-tocopherol is a single stereoisomer and is also designated by the prefix "RRR." The synthetic form is a mixture of eight stereoisomers identified by the prefix "dl-" or "all-rac."

    Natural-source d-alpha-tocopherol (as opposed to dl) has been shown to have a higher biopotency than the dl-rac form. The currently accepted ratio is 1.36:1 (d:dl). A recent proposal has been made to the National Academy of Sciences to change this biopotency factor to 2:1 based on the results of more recent research studies. But some researchers challenge this idea believing it is based on incomplete conclusions extrapolated from the studies.

    The fact that Vitamin E works at the mitochondrial rather than cellular level, and does not work at the blood level is proof that synthetic Vitamin E is an ineffective form. Furthermore, diabetics usually show high blood levels of Vitamin E because their heavily sclerosed circulatory system does not permit synthetic Vitamin E to reach the mitochondria level. Indeed, only natural form vitamin E has been discovered in brain tissue. Synthetic Vitamin E also causes side effects including heart palpitations even at relatively low dosage.

    Esterified Vitamin E is d-alpha tocopheryl. Originally alpha-tocopherol was erroneously thought to be the only active factor of the Vitamin E group: alpha, beta, delta, and gamma. We now know better. Alpha, beta, gamma, delta tocopherol, can all be esterified (converted) into a single acid ester.

    However, esterified Vitamin E is very resistant to destruction by oxidation even in the presence of minerals or at high temperatures but this destroys its antioxidant properties, although not its ability to prevent clot formation in our blood vessels. Mixed Tocopherols or d-alpha tocopherol are recommended for both Vitamin E's antioxidant and anti-thrombotic effects.

    A good multivitamin is the foundation of health and nutrition. Take a look at our scientific reviews of many of the popular brands for factors such as ingredients, areas of improvement, quality level, and overall value.


    REFERENCES:

    1. Hoppe PP, Krennrich G. Bioavailability and potency of natural-source and all-racemic a-tocopherol in the human: a dispute. Euro J of Nutr 2000;39:183-93.





    vitamin E food sources


    VITAMIN E SOURCES

    VITAMIN E FOODS

    Vegetable oils, nuts, and green leafy vegetables are the main dietary sources of Vitamin E. Fortified cereals are also an important source of vitamin E in the United States. The table of selected food sources of vitamin E suggests foods that contain vitamin E.

    Vitamin E is found in the following food sources: cold-pressed vegetable oils, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. Significant quantities of this vitamin are also found in brown rice, cornmeal, dulse, eggs, kelp, desiccated liver, milk, oatmeal, organ meats, soybeans, sweet potatoes, watercress, wheat, and wheat germ.

    Herbs that contain Vitamin E include Alfalfa, Bladderwrack, Dandelion, Dong Quai, Flaxseed, Nettle, Oat Straw, Red Raspberry Leaf, and Rose Hips.

    vitamin E foods & oils


    TABLE OF SELECTED FOOD SOURCES OF VITAMIN E

    As the 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state, "Different foods contain different nutrients. No single food can supply all the nutrients in the amounts you need". The following table lists selected sources of Vitamin E. As the tables indicate, vegetables oils, nuts, and green leafy vegetables are good dietary sources of Vitamin E. Including these foods in your diet will help you meet your daily need for Vitamin E, but it is still important to moderate total fat intake as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    Food manufacturers fortify many foods with vitamins and minerals. It is important to read the nutrition facts panel of the food label to determine whether a food provides Vitamin E. If you want more information about building a healthful diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid.


    Food
    International Units
    %DV*
        Wheat germ oil, 1 Tbsp
    26.2
    90
        Almonds, dry roasted, 1 oz
    7.5
    25
        Safflower oil, 1 Tbsp
    4.7
    15
        Corn oil, 1 Tbsp
    2.9
    10
        Soybean oil, 1 Tbsp
    2.5
    8
        Turnip greens, frozen, boiled, 1 cup
    2.4
    8
        Mango, raw, without refuse, 1 fruit
    2.3
    8
        Peanuts, dry roasted, 1 oz
    2.1
    8
        Mixed nuts w/ peanuts, oil roasted, 1 oz
    1.7
    6
        Mayonnaise, made w/ soybean oil, 1 Tbsp
    1.6
    6
        Broccoli, frozen, chopped, boiled, 1/2 cup
    1.5
    6
        Dandelion greens, boiled, 1/2 cup
    1.3
    4
        Pistachio nuts, dry roasted, 1 oz
    1.2
    4
        Spinach, frozen, boiled, 1/2 cup
    0.85
    2
        Kiwi, 1 medium fruit
    0.85
    2

    * DV = Daily Value. DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains a lot or a little of a specific nutrient. The DV for Vitamin E is 30 International Units (or 20 mg). The percent DV (%DV) listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels tells adults what percentage of the DV is provided by one serving. Percent DVs are based on a 2,000-calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. Foods that provide lower percentages of the DV will contribute to a healthful diet.

    REFERENCES

    National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, in conjunction with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in the Office of the Director of NIH.





    VITAMIN E HEALTH BENEFITS

    CELL DAMAGE PREVENTION

    Vitamin E is important in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. It improves circulation, is necessary for tissue repair, and is useful in treating premenstrual syndrome and fibrocystic disease of the breast. It promotes normal blood clotting and healing, reduces scarring from some wounds, reduces blood pressure, aids in preventing cataracts, improves athletic performance, and relaxes leg cramps. It also maintains healthy nerves and muscles while strengthening capillary wall. In addition, it promotes healthy skin and hair, and helps to prevent anemia and retrolental fibroplasia, an eye disorder that can affect premature infants.

    As an antioxidant, Vitamin E prevents cell damage by inhibiting the oxidation of lipids (fats) and the formation of free radicals. It protects other fat-soluble vitamins from destruction by oxygen, and aids in the utilization of vitamin A and protects it from destruction by oxygen. It retards aging and may prevent age spots as well.

    Vitamin E deficiency may result in damage to red blood cells and destruction of nerves. Signs of deficiency can include infertility (in both men and women), menstrual problems, neuromuscular impairment, shortened red blood cell life span, spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), and uterine degeneration. Low levels of Vitamin E in the body have been linked to both bowel cancer and breast cancer. Epidemiological links have been identified between the increase in the incidence of heart disease and the increasing lack of Vitamin E in the diet due to our reliance on over-processed foods.

    VITAMIN E & ANTIOXIDATION

    The majority of vitamin E's benefits stem from its antioxidant qualities. That means it combines with oxygen and destroys free radicals. It protects polyunsaturated fats and other oxygen-sensitive compounds such as vitamin A from being destroyed by damaging oxidation reactions. Vitamin E's antioxidant properties are also important to cell membranes. For example, vitamin E protects lung cells that are in constant contact with oxygen and white blood cells that help fight disease. But the benefits of vitamin E's antioxidant role may actually go much further. There is significant evidence vitamin E can protect against heart disease and may slow the deterioration associated with aging. Critics scoffed at such claims in the past, but an understanding of the importance of vitamin E's antioxidant role may be beginning to pay off. However, as with betacarotene, the effect of vitamin E in preventing heart disease may be both timing-sensitive and dose sensitive. Vitamin E also acts as an antioxidant in foods. The vitamin E in vegetable oils helps keep them from being oxidized and turning rancid. Likewise, it protects vitamin A in foods from being oxidized. This makes vitamin E a useful food preservative.

    VITAMIN E THERAPEUTC VALUE

    As an antioxidant with a powerful punch, vitamin E helps prevent cancer, heart disease, strokes, cataracts, and possibly some of the signs of aging.

  • Cardiovascular Health:Vitamin E protects artery walls and keeps the "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from being oxidized. Oxidation of LDL cholesterol marks the beginning of clogged arteries. Vitamin E also keeps the blood thin by preventing blood platelets from clumping together. High levels of vitamin E in the body decrease the risk of a non-fatal heart attack or stroke in most people.

  • Cancer Prevention: A dynamic cancer fighter, vitamin E protects cells and DNA from damage that can turn cancerous. It reduces the growth of tumors while enhancing immune function and preventing precancerous substances from being turned into carcinogens. Studies with mice show that vitamin E applied to the skin may help prevent skin cancer resulting from exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

  • Fibrocystic Breast Disease: Women who suffer from fibrocystic breast disease can often find relief with vitamin E supplementation. Fibrocystic breast disease is characterized by painful breasts, sometimes with benign lumps or swelling, starting several days before the menstrual period. Researchers are not sure why vitamin E helps this condition, but numerous studies indicate that it does.
  • Diabetes Management: Vitamin E can be beneficial to people with diabetes. It enhances the action of insulin and improves blood glucose metabolism by reducing oxidative stress.

  • Nervous System Health: Vitamin E keeps the nervous system healthy by protecting the myelin sheaths that surround nerves. It also appears to prevent mental degeneration due to aging, possibly including Alzheimer disease.

  • Exercise Support: Athletes need to get adequate amounts of vitamin E. The body's own metabolism creates free radicals during excessive aerobic exercise. Vitamin E reserves make sure these free radicals do not get out of hand and cause trouble. Vitamin E therapy also treats claudication-pains in the calf muscles that occur at night or during exercise.

  • Neonatal Benefits: Premature babies receive vitamin E to reduce or prevent oxygen damage to the retina of the eye as a result of artificial ventilation.

  • Pollution Damage Reduction: Ongoing animal studies suggest that vitamin E may limit lung damage caused by air pollution. It appears that vitamin E can reduce the activity of such common air pollutants as ozone and nitrogen dioxide

  • Wound Healing: Vitamin E applied to cuts may very well increase the healing rate because it minimizes oxidation reactions in the wound and also keeps the wound moist.

  • Menopausal Symptom: Many women report that vitamin E helps reduce hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause.

  • Vitamin E & Aging: Though vitamin E can slow down the oxidation of fats that occurs in aging, experimental studies have not shown it to increase the life span of animals. Neither has it been shown to control such signs of aging as wrinkled skin or gray hair. However, the vitamin may indeed delay or prevent some diseases or a loss of function related to aging. Recent studies have reported improved short-term memory in older adults who took supplemental vitamin E. While vitamin E may not make you live longer, it may help you live a little better as you get older.





  • VITAMIN E USES & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY

    Vitamin E deficiency is rare in humans. There are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur. It is seen in persons who cannot absorb dietary fat, has been found in premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3 1/2 pounds), and is seen in individuals with rare disorders of fat metabolism. A vitamin E deficiency is usually characterized by neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction.

    VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY PREVENTION

    Individuals who cannot absorb fat may require a Vitamin E> supplement because some dietary fat is needed for the absorption of vitamin E from the gastrointestinal tract. Anyone diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, individuals who have had part or all of their stomach removed, and individuals with malabsorptive problems such as Crohn's disease may not absorb fat and should discuss the need for supplemental vitamin E with their health care provider. People who cannot absorb fat often pass greasy stools or have chronic diarrhea.

    Very low birth weight infants may be deficient in vitamin E. These infants are usually under the care of a neonatologist, a pediatrician specializing in the care of newborns, who evaluates and treats the exact nutritional needs of premature infants.

    Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism that results in poor absorption of dietary fat and vitamin E. The vitamin E deficiency associated with this disease causes problems such as poor transmission of nerve impulses, muscle weakness, and degeneration of the retina that can cause blindness. Individuals with abetalipoproteinemia may be prescribed special vitamin E supplements by a health care provider to treat this disorder.

    VITAMIN E & HEART DISEASE

    Preliminary research has led to a widely held belief that Vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Researchers are fairly certain that oxidative modification of LDL-cholesterol (sometimes called "bad" cholesterol) promotes blockages in coronary arteries that may lead to atherosclerosis and heart attacks. Vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease by limiting the oxidation of LDL-cholesterol. Vitamin E also may help prevent the formation of blood clots, which could lead to a heart attack. Observational studies have associated lower rates of heart disease with higher vitamin E intake. A study of approximately 90,000 nurses suggested that the incidence of heart disease was 30 to 40 percent lower among nurses with the highest intake of vitamin E from diet and supplements. The range of intakes from both diet and supplements in this group was 21.6 to 1,000 IU (32 to 1,500 mg), with the median intake being 208 IU (139 mg).

    A 1994 review of 5,133 Finnish men and women aged 30 to 69 years suggested that increased dietary intake of vitamin E was associated with decreased mortality (death) from heart disease. But even though these observations are promising, randomized clinical trials raise questions about the role of vitamin E supplements in heart disease. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study followed almost 10,000 patients for 4.5 years who were at high risk for heart attack or stroke. In this intervention study the subjects who received 265 mg (400) IU of vitamin E daily did not experience significantly fewer cardiovascular events or hospitalizations for heart failure or chest pain when compared to those who received a sugar pill. The researchers suggested that it is unlikely that the vitamin E supplement provided any protection against cardiovascular disease in the HOPE study. This study is continuing, to determine whether a longer duration of intervention with vitamin E supplements will provide any protection against cardiovascular disease.

    At appropriate doses, vitamin E has been shown to have virtually the same pharmacological properties as Coumadin (crystalline warfarin sodium - a prescription anticoagulant). This means that appropriately high doses of Vitamin E may be substituted for Coumadin. Vitamin E may be considered safer than warfarin, the generic name of Coumadin. Increase the dose of Vitamin E over a period of weeks. Most people start with 200 IU daily, and eventually get to between 1,200 and 2,400 IU daily. Do it gradually, and here is a way to tell how it is working - Go in to see your health care provider regularly, as you always do, and continue to have him or her check your protime, as s/he always does. If you get the protime numbers s/he wants, s/he will not care how you got them. The more Vitamin E you take, the stronger the Coumadin's effect. You will probably get to the point where your protime is too long, and your health care provider have to cut back on the dosage of Coumadin."

    VITAMIN E & CANCER

    Antioxidants such as Vitamin E help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. Vitamin E also may block the formation of nitrosamines, which are carcinogens formed in the stomach from nitrites consumed in the diet. It also may protect against the development of cancers by enhancing immune function. Unfortunately, human trials and surveys that tried to associate vitamin E with incidence of cancer have been generally inconclusive.

    Some evidence associates higher intake of vitamin E with a decreased incidence of prostate cancer and breast cancer. There is evidence that vitamin E may reduce the size of cysts in women with fibrocystic breast disease, which is a risk factor for breast cancer. However, an examination of the effect of dietary factors, including vitamin E, on incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in over 18,000 women from New York State did not associate a greater vitamin E intake with a reduced risk of developing breast cancer.

    A study of women in Iowa provided evidence that an increased dietary intake of vitamin E may decrease the risk of colon cancer, especially in women under 65 years of age. On the other hand, vitamin E intake was not statistically associated with risk of colon cancer in almost 2,000 adults with cancer who were compared to controls without cancer. At this time there is limited evidence to recommend vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cancer.

    VITAMIN E & CATARACTS

    Cataracts are growths on the lens of the eye that cloud vision. They increase the risk of disability and blindness in aging adults. Antioxidants are being studied to determine whether they can help prevent or delay cataract growth. Observational studies have found that lens clarity, which is to diagnose cataracts, was better in regular users of Vitamin E supplements and in persons with higher blood levels of vitamin E. A study of middle aged male smokers, however, did not demonstrate any effect from vitamin E supplements on the incidence of cataract formation. The effects of smoking, a major risk factor for developing cataracts, may have overridden any potential benefit from the vitamin E, but the conflicting results also indicate a need for further studies before researchers can confidently recommend extra vitamin E for the prevention of cataracts.





    VITAMIN E DOSAGE INFORMATION

    RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE (RDA)

    The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group.

    The 2000 RDAs for vitamin E (5) for adults, in milligrams (mg) and International Units (IUs) are:

    Life-Stage
    Men & Women
    Pregnancy
    Lactation
    Ages 19-Plus
    15 mg* or 22 IU
       
    All Ages
     
    15 mg* or 22 IU
    19 mg* or 28 IU
    *1 mg alpha-tocopherol equivalents = 1.5 IU


    The RDA for vitamin E is based on the alpha-tocopherol form because it is the most active, or usable, form. Unlike other vitamins, the form of alpha-tocopherol made in the laboratory and found in supplements is not identical to the natural form, and is not quite as active as the natural form.

    Results of two national surveys, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988-91) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (1994 CSFII) indicated that the dietary intake of most Americans does not provide the recommended intake for Vitamin E. However, a 2000 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on vitamin E states that intake estimates of vitamin E may be low because energy and fat intake is often under reported in national surveys and because the kind and amount of fat added during cooking is often not known. The IOM states that most North American adults get enough vitamin E from their normal diets to meet current recommendations. However, they do caution individuals who consume low fat diets because vegetable oils are such a good dietary source of vitamin E. "Low-fat diets can substantially decrease vitamin E intakes if food choices are not carefully made to enhance alpha-tocopherol intakes".

    VITAMIN E THERAPEUTIC DOSE RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Usual Adult Dose for Vitamin E Deficiency: Treatment: 60 to 75 units orally once daily. Prevention: 30 units orally once daily.
  • Usual Adult Dose for Tardive Dyskinesia: 600 to 1600 units orally per day.
  • Usual Adult Dose for Sickle Cell Anemia: 450 units orally per day.
  • Usual Adult Dose for Alzheimer's Disease: 1000 units orally twice daily.
  • Usual Adult Dose for Dietary Supplement: Oral liquid formulation (AQUA-E): 200 units (10 mL) orally once daily.
  • Usual Pediatric Dose for Vitamin E Deficiency: 1 unit/kg/day orally of water-miscible vitamin E.
  • Usual Pediatric Dose for Retinopathy Prophylaxis: Prevention of retinopathy of prematurity or Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) secondary to oxygen therapy: 15 to 30 units/kg/day to maintain plasma levels between 1.5 to 2 mcg/mL (may need as high as 100 units/kg/day). Note: AAP considers this use investigational and routine use is not recommended.
  • Usual Pediatric Dose for Cystic Fibrosis: 100 to 400 units/day orally.
  • Usual Pediatric Dose for Dietary Supplement: See Table Below.


  • Pediatric Life-Stage
    Infant
    Child
    Comment
    1 to less than 6 months
    4 units daily
     
    Oral Adequate Intake (AI)
    6 to less than 12 months
    5 units daily
     
    Oral Adequate Intake (AI)
    1 to 3 years
     
    6 units daily
    Oral RDA
    4 to 8 years
     
    7 units daily
    Oral RDA
    9 to 13 years
     
    11 units daily
    Oral RDA
    13 years and Older
     
    15 units daily
    Oral RDA
    *Dosing: 1 unit vitamin E = 1 mg dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate.


    PRECAUTIONS

    Although no longer available in the U.S., vitamin E injectable administered intravenously to premature infants may result in a potentially fatal syndrome consisting of thrombocytopenia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, ascites, and renal, hepatic, and pulmonary dysfunction.

    Oral administration of large doses (200 mg per day) of a hyperosmolar vitamin E preparation to low-birthweight infants has been associated with the development of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    OTHER COMMENTS

    The oral liquid formulation (AQUA-E [R]) is intended to enhance absorption in patients with conditions associated with malabsorption (e.g., Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis ) or for patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules.

    The oral liquid formulation (AQUA-E [R]) may be taken directly or mixed with water or other beverage. It must be shaken well prior to each use and refrigerated after opening.





    VITAMIN E SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    SAFETY CONCERNS

  • The body needs Zinc in order to maintain the proper level of Vitamin E in the blood.

  • If you take both vitamin E and iron supplements, take them at different times of the day. Inorganic forms of iron (such as ferrous sulfate) destroy vitamin E. Organic iron (ferrous gluconate or ferrous fumarate) leaves vitamin E intact.

  • If you are taking an anticoagulant medication (blood thinner), do not take more than 1,200 IU of vitamin E daily. If you suffer from diabetes, rheumatic heart disease, or an overactive thyroid, do not take more than the recommended dose. If you have high blood pressure, start with a small amount, such as 200 IU daily, and increase slowly to the desired amount.

  • HEALTH RISK OF TOO MUCH VITAMIN E

    The health risk of too much vitamin E is low. A recent review of the safety of Vitamin E in the elderly indicated that taking vitamin E supplements for up to four months at doses of 530 mg or 800 IU (35 times the current RDA) had no significant effect on general health, body weight, levels of body proteins, lipid levels, liver or kidney function, thyroid hormones, amount or kinds of blood cells, and bleeding time. Even though this study provides evidence that taking a vitamin E supplement containing 530 mg or 800 IU for four months is safe, the long term safety of vitamin E supplementation has not been tested. The Institute of Medicine has set an upper tolerable intake level for vitamin E at 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) for any form of supplementary alpha-tocopherol per day because the nutrient can act as an anticoagulant and increase the risk of bleeding problems. Upper tolerable intake levels represent the maximum intake of a nutrient that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects in almost all individuals in the general population.





    vitamin E capsules


    VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

  • Vitamin E - Alpha & Mixed Tocopherol Supplement Products
  • Vitamin E - Gamma Tocopherol Supplement Products
  • Tocotrienol Supplement Products


  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


    FTC Advertising & Affilate Disclosure: This website has an affiliate relationship with certain merchants selling products and we recieve commissions from those sales to help support this website. Any products listed here are not listed by any rating system. We do not rate any product or post any feedback about products listed here. We leave this to the individual merchants to provide. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit. All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual.


    VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that fights cellular aging by protecting cell membranes. Also improves circulation and prolongs the life of red blood cells. Use d-alpha-tocopherol form if available.Rids the body of toxic substances when combined with vitamin C and selenium. Start with 100 IU daily and slowly increase to 800 IU daily. If you take blood pressure medication, consult with your health care provider before increasing the dose.

    STARWEST BOTANICALS PRODUCTS

    Starwest Botanicals: Natural Vitamin E Oil Blend, 1 fl. oz.
    A blend of Vitamin E Oil and Soybean Oil. For external use only.
    Starwest Botanicals: Natural Vitamin E Oil Blend, 4 fl. oz.
    A blend of Vitamin E Oil and Soybean Oil. For external use only.
    Starwest Botanicals: Natural Vitamin E Oil Blend, 16 fl. oz.
    A blend of Vitamin E Oil and Soybean Oil. For external use only.
    Starwest Botanicals: Natural Vitamin E Oil Blend, 1 gallon.
    A blend of Vitamin E Oil and Soybean Oil. For external use only.
    Starwest Botanicals: Vitamin E, 400 IU, 100 Softgels
    Vitamin E as d-alpha tocopherol plus d-beta, d-gamma, d-delta tocopherols. 400 IU natural Vitamin E in a softgel capsule. For adults, take one softgel daily, preferably with a meal. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medications, planning any medical procedure or have any medical condition, consult your health care provider before use. Discontinue use and consult your health care provider if any adverse reactions occur. Keep out of reach of children. Store at room temperature.
    Starwest Botanicals: Vitamin E, 400 IU, 500 Softgels
    Vitamin E as d-alpha tocopherol plus d-beta, d-gamma, d-delta tocopherols. 400 IU natural Vitamin E in a softgel capsule. For adults, take one softgel daily, preferably with a meal. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medications, planning any medical procedure or have any medical condition, consult your health care provider before use. Discontinue use and consult your health care provider if any adverse reactions occur. Keep out of reach of children. Store at room temperature.


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Complex, Natural High Gamma, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 60 Liquid Caps (100613)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol & Mixed Tocopherols), Solgar, 100 IU, 100 Softgels (36868)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol & Mixed Tocopherols), Solgar, 200 IU, 100 Softgels (45784)
    HerbsPro: Dry Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Succinate), Solgar, 200 IU, 100 VCaps (36877)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol & Mixed Tocopherols), Solgar, 400 IU, 50 Softgels (45785)
    HerbsPro: Dry Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Succinate), Solgar, 400 IU, 50 Caps (36888)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E, D-Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate, Country Life, 400 IU, 90 Softgels (37568)
    HerbsPro: Natural Vitamin E With Mixed Tocopherols, Deva Vegan, 400 IU, 90 VCaps (86891)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol & Mixed Tocopherols), Solgar, 400 IU, 100 Softgels (36889)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E, Enzymatic Therapy, 400 IU, 100 Softgels (38036)
    HerbsPro: Dry Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Succinate), Solgar, 400 IU, 100 VCaps (36886)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E, D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acid Succinate, Nutricology, 400 IU, 100 Softgels (18314)
    Vitamin E Succinate takes vitamin E's antioxidant action a step further. Succinate feeds directly into the Krebs cycle, our major metabolic pathway for generating energy. This extra dimension from succinate significantly extends the protective properties of vitamin E. Then why not have E as succinate in all antioxidant formulations? Because it is not strictly hypoallergenic. E succinate is prepared from a soy-source vitamin E. However, the amounts of residual soy antigens in this product are very small. For those who do not have a soy sensitivity, Vitamin E succinate offers an exciting new dimension of the Vitamin E effect.
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol), Source Naturals, 400 IU, 100 Softgels (3805)
    HerbsPro: Natural Vitamin E, Healthy Origins, 400 IU, 180 Softgels (49887)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol & Mixed Tocopherols), Solgar, 400 IU, 250 Softgels (36890)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E-400 (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate), Now Foods, 400 IU, 250 Softgels (68088)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol & Mixed Tocopherols), Solgar, 1000 IU, 100 Softgels (36871)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E (Mixed Tocopherols), Bluebonnet Nutrition, 1000 IU, 100 Softgels (100620)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Stick, Reviva, 0.12 oz. (18981)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Oil, Home Health, 0.5 fl. oz. (15719)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Plus Beautifying Oils, Colonial Dames, 1 oz. (99228)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Complex Liquid, Country Life, 2 fl. oz. (37583)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Oil, Derma-E, 14,000 IU, 2 oz. (25114)
    HerbsPro: Aloe & Vitamin E Diaper Rash Ointment, Balmex, 2 oz. Tube (96720)
    HerbsPro: Hawaiian Jasmine & Vitamin E Moisture Cream, Alba Botanica, 3 oz. (61117)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Cream, Colonial Dames, 4 oz. (99979)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Cream, Mill Creek Botanicals, 20,000 IU, 4 oz. (39139)
    HerbsPro: Super Vitamin E Creme, Jason Natural Products, 25,000 IU, 4 fl. oz. (16174)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Moisturizing Creme, Derma-E, 4 oz. (64850)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin-E Soap, Clearly Natural, 4 oz. Each (24920)
    HerbsPro: Vanilla & Vitamin E Moisturizing Body Wash, St Ives Swiss Formula, 13.5 oz. (97214)
    HerbsPro: Vitamin E Moisture Rich Shampoo, Tressemme, 32 oz. (95885)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Vitamin E Oil in Soybean Oil, External Use Only, Starwest Botanicals, 1 fl oz: C
    This oil is a blend of 15,000 I.U D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate per ounce and soybean oil. Kosher Certified. This oil, second distillation D-Alpha vitamin E Vitamin E oil, is cosmetic grade, for external use as a skin conditioner, preservative or antioxidant.
    Kalyx: Vitamin E Oil in Soybean Oil, External Use Only, Starwest Botanicals, 4 fl oz: C
    This oil is a blend of 15,000 I.U D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate per ounce and soybean oil. Kosher Certified. This oil, second distillation D-Alpha vitamin E Vitamin E oil, is cosmetic grade, for external use as a skin conditioner, preservative or antioxidant.
    Kalyx: Vitamin E Oil in Soybean Oil, External Use Only, Starwest Botanicals, 16 fl oz: C
    This oil is a blend of 15,000 I.U D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate per ounce and soybean oil. Kosher Certified. This oil, second distillation D-Alpha vitamin E Vitamin E oil, is cosmetic grade, for external use as a skin conditioner, preservative or antioxidant.
    Kalyx: Vitamin E Oil in Soybean Oil, External Use Only, Starwest Botanicals, 1 Gallon: C
    This oil is a blend of 15,000 I.U D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate per ounce and soybean oil. Kosher Certified. This oil, second distillation D-Alpha vitamin E Vitamin E oil, is cosmetic grade, for external use as a skin conditioner, preservative or antioxidant.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Vitamin E Oil Products
    Amazon: Vitamin E Supplement Products
    Amazon: Vitamin E Skin Care Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Vitamin E Information



  • GAMMA E TOCOPHEROL PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Gamma E Tocopherol With Sesame Lignans, Life Extension, 30 Softgels (91870)
    HerbsPro: Gamma E 400 Complex, Source Naturals, 30 Softgels (62819)
    HerbsPro: High Gamma E Natural Vitamin E Complex, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 30 LiquidCaps (100612)
    HerbsPro: Gamma E Tocopherol / Tocotrienols, Life Extension, 60 Softgels (91823)
    HerbsPro: Gamma E Tocopherol With Sesame Lignans, Life Extension, 60 Softgels (91850)
    HerbsPro: Gamma E 400 Complex, Source Naturals, 60 Softgels. (62820)
    HerbsPro: Advanced Gamma E, Now Foods, 60 Softgels (67682)
    HerbsPro: High Gamma E Natural Vitamin E Complex, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 60 LiquidCaps (100613)
    HerbsPro: Gamma E Tocopherols, Now Foods, 90 Softgels (109006)
    HerbsPro: Gamma E 300, Gamma Tocopherol, Jarrow Formulas, 120 Softgels (51602)
    HerbsPro: Gamma E 400 Complex, Source Naturals, 120 Softgels (62821)
    HerbsPro: Advanced Gamma E, Now Foods, 120 Softgels (67681)
    HerbsPro: Natural Gamma E, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 120 Softgels (89413)
    HerbsPro: Natural Gamma E, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 300 Softgels (89414)


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Gamma E Tocopherol Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Vitamin E Information



  • TOCOTRIENOLSUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Tocotrienol Antioxidant Complex, Source Naturals, 30 Softgels (6681)
    HerbsPro: Rice Tocotrienols, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 30 Softgels (100627)
    Rice Tocotrienol Softgels provide a highly advanced lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrient complex of vitamin E compounds. These natural vitamin E compounds are extracted from rice and provide a full spectrum of natural d-alpha tocopherol and tocotrienols, including alpha, delta and gamma forms in easy-to-swallow softgels for maximum assimilation and absorption.
    HerbsPro: Rice Tocotrienols, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 60 Softgels (100628)
    Rice Tocotrienol Softgels provide a highly advanced lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrient complex of vitamin E compounds. These natural vitamin E compounds are extracted from rice and provide a full spectrum of natural d-alpha tocopherol and tocotrienols, including alpha, delta and gamma forms in easy-to-swallow softgels for maximum assimilation and absorption.
    HerbsPro: Tocotrienols With Sesame Lignans, Life Extension, 60 Softgels (91852)
    Tocotrienols have shown superior action in maintaining arterial health. This wonder nutrient is so effective because of its structure of double bonds in the isoprenoid side chain, making it a great scavenger of free radicals. Sesame lignans have been added to help block or inhibit the enzyme that breaks down tocotrienols, allowing tissue levels of tocotrienols to build up in the body.This translates into much greater antioxidant protection, decreasing destructive free radicals. Research has shown that tocotrienols display potent neuroprotective properties.
    HerbsPro: Super-Absorbable Tocotrienols, Life Extension, 60 Softgels (91961)
    The adult scalp loses about 100 hairs every day which will grow back in 5 to 6 weeks as a result of normal hair cycling. However, starting at the age of 40, hair follicles shrink, causing hair to grow back thinner, or worse, not at all. This devastating hair loss is experienced by half the population. While the prevention and treatment is complex, using a supplement with tocotrienols can be pivotal in addressing the various physiological mechanisms that lead to thinning hair. Super-Absorbable Tocotrienols combats the underlying causes of hair loss, supporting otherwise healthy hair follicles that genetic disposition, advancing age, high concentrations of DHT (the male hormone dihydrotestosterone), and sebum build-up may cause to weaken, degrade or shrink. Super-Absorbable Tocotrienols a natural, orally administered, bio-enhanced tocotrienol complex can be taken to support youthful hair thickness and growth. Through a revolutionary, patented delivery system, Super-Absorbable Tocotrienols ensures optimal absorption and efficiently delivers the benefits of a unique proprietary complex of phytonutrients (squalene, phytosterols and trace amounts of mixed carotene) naturally extracted together with tocotrienols to support youthful hair growth, hair health and hair density. In an unpublished study involving 30 volunteers who took tocotrienol supplements for eight months, nearly all the subjects showed significant improvement in hair thickness and density.
    HerbsPro: Tocomin Tocotrienol Vitamin E Complete, Olympian Labs, 60 Softgels (74428)
    HerbsPro: Tocotrienol Antioxidant Complex, Source Naturals, 60 Softgels (6682)
    HerbsPro: CoQ-Gamma E Tocotrienols & Carotenoids, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 60 Softgels (79182)
    A unique softgel formulation containing high levels of CoQ10, carotenoids, gamma-tocopherols, and DeltaGold tocotrienols. Developed by Martin Pall, Ph.D. and NutriCology. CoQ-Gamma E is part of an antioxidant supplementation protocol.
    HerbsPro: MaxiLife Rice Tocotrienols, TwinLab, 15 mg, 60 Softgels (19731)
    Maxilife Rice Tocotrienols is the highest quality product derived 100 % from rice bran oil. Absolutely no palm oils derived tocotrienols are present. Gamma tocotrienol is the most biologically active of all tocotrienols. No added sugars, salt, artificial colors or preservatives. Tocotrienols have potent antioxidant prosperities. Gamma tocotrienol is the most biologically active of all the tocotrienols. MaxiLife Rice Tocotrienol soft gels contain the highest levels of gamma tocotrienols.
    HerbsPro: Tocotrienols & E Complex, Now Foods, 60 Softgels (68819)
    As a key counterpart to the tocopherols in Vitamin E, NOW Tocotrienols with Vitamin E is a comprehensive formula, synergistically enriched with Selenium to increase its functionality. Essential to the cardiovascular system, including its help with the prevention of LDL cholesterol oxidation, vitamin E has greater effectiveness when both tocopherols and tocotrienols are present. Formulated by our certified nutritionists, NOW Tocotrienols & Vitamin E is unsurpassed in quality, and an intelligent addition to any heart-healthy lifestyle.
    HerbsPro: Delta-Fraction Tocotrienols, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 50 mg, 75 VCaps (78811)
    Delta-Fraction Tocotrienols contains tocotrienols from annatto beans and is free of tocopherols. Tocotrienols have more powerful antioxidant activity than tocopherols.
    HerbsPro: Delta-Fraction Tocotrienols, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 125 mg, 30 Softgels (77297)
    Delta-Fraction Tocotrienols contains tocotrienols from annatto beans and is free of tocopherols. Tocotrienols have more powerful antioxidant activity than tocopherols.
    HerbsPro: Delta-Fraction Tocotrienols, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 125 mg, 90 Softgels (108781)
    Delta-Fraction Tocotrienols contains tocotrienols from annatto beans and is free of tocopherols. Tocotrienols have more powerful antioxidant activity than tocopherols.
    HerbsPro: CoQ10 With Tocotrienols, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 30 Softgels (38748)
    Tocotrienols are members of the vitamin E family (tocopherols), and complement the properties of tocopherols. Together they are thought of as the most important antioxidants in fats, oils, and cell membranes. Tocotrienols are important regulators of blood lipids, being involved in the regulation of total cholesterol as well as LDL cholesterol.* The molecular structure of tocotrienols is such that it inhibits the liver enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme that is critical to the rate at which cholesterol is synthesized.* Rice bran oil extracts are especially rich in gamma-tocotrienol. Each Capsule Contains: 100 mg of 40:1 Zhu Ling (Polyporus umbellatas) tea concentrate, in a base of 150 mg dried Polyporus umbellatas.
    HerbsPro: CoQ10 With Tocotrienols, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 60 Softgels (38749)
    Tocotrienols are members of the vitamin E family (tocopherols), and complement the properties of tocopherols. Together they are thought of as the most important antioxidants in fats, oils, and cell membranes. Tocotrienols are important regulators of blood lipids, being involved in the regulation of total cholesterol as well as LDL cholesterol.* The molecular structure of tocotrienols is such that it inhibits the liver enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme that is critical to the rate at which cholesterol is synthesized.* Rice bran oil extracts are especially rich in gamma-tocotrienol. Each Capsule Contains: 100 mg of 40:1 Zhu Ling (Polyporus umbellatas) tea concentrate, in a base of 150 mg dried Polyporus umbellatas.
    HerbsPro: CoQ10 With Tocotrienols, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 200 Softgels (38750)
    Tocotrienols are members of the vitamin E family (tocopherols), and complement the properties of tocopherols. Together they are thought of as the most important antioxidants in fats, oils, and cell membranes. Tocotrienols are important regulators of blood lipids, being involved in the regulation of total cholesterol as well as LDL cholesterol.* The molecular structure of tocotrienols is such that it inhibits the liver enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme that is critical to the rate at which cholesterol is synthesized.* Rice bran oil extracts are especially rich in gamma-tocotrienol. Each Capsule Contains: 100 mg of 40:1 Zhu Ling (Polyporus umbellatas) tea concentrate, in a base of 150 mg dried Polyporus umbellatas.


    LIFE EXTENSION PRODUCTS

    Gamma E Tocopherol/Tocotrienols, 60 softgels
    Description The term vitamin E refers to a family of eight related, lipid-soluble, antioxidant compounds widely present in plants. The tocopherol and tocotrienol subfamilies are each composed of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta fractions having unique biological effects.
    LEF: Gamma E Tocopherol with Sesame Lignans, Life Extension, 60 Softgels
    The term vitamin E refers to a family of eight related, lipid-soluble, antioxidant compounds widely present in plants. The tocopherol and tocotrienol subfamilies are each composed of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta fractions having unique biological effects.


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: CoQ10 with Tocotrienols, Nutricology, 30 Softgels: N
    Kalyx: CoQ10 with Tocotrienols, Nutricology, 60 Softgels: N
    Kalyx: CoQ10 with Tocotrienols, Nutricology, 200 Softgels: N
    Kalyx: Tocotrienols With Vitamin E, Nutricology, 75 Softgels: N
    Kalyx: Natural Tocotrienol/Tocopherol Complex 7.5% Beadlets, Kalyx Bulk Products, 10 kg (22 lbs): GF


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Tocotrienol Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Vitamin E Antioxidant Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Vitamin E Supplement Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |






    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







  • Starwest Botanicals




    HerbsPro Supplement Store


    HerbsPro




    Up to 70% Off Bath & Beauty - evitamins


    eVitamins








    Kalyx.com Herbs, Foods, Supplements, Bath & Body


    Chinese Herbs Direct


    Ayurvedic Herbs Direct


    Pet Herbs Direct


    ShareASale Merchant-Affiliate Program








    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




    Top