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SOD Metabolic Enzyme
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FREE RADICAL FIGHTERS
Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that protect and repair cells from damage caused by free radicals. Many experts believe this damage plays a part in a number of chronic diseases, including hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), cancer, and arthritis. Free radicals can also interfere with your immune system. So, fighting off damage with antioxidants helps keep your immune system strong, making you better able to ward off colds, flu, and other infections.
Antioxidants are compounds that neutralize the cellular-damaging effects of free radicals. Free radicals are produced naturally in your body, but when you exercise hard, your body pumps out more free radicals. Environmental factors such as pollution, the sun, cigarette smoke, and herbicides can also spawn free radicals. The danger is that free-radical damage may lead to cancer. Antioxidants interact with and stabilize free radicals and may prevent some of the damage that free radicals otherwise might cause. As an active person, more antioxidants may help you slow the aging process, ward off cancer and stress, and promote good health.
SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD) DESCRIPTION
AN IMPORTANT METABOLIC ENZYME
Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme and is one of two important metabolic enzymes. SOD revitalizes cells and reduces the rate of cell destruction. It neutralizes the most common, and possibly the most dangerous, free radicals - superoxide radicals. Superoxide radicals instigate the breakdown of synovial fluid, the lubricant for the body's joints. This leads to friction and, ultimately, inflammation.
SOD works synergistically with the enzyme catalase which is abundant throughout the body. Catalase removes hydrogen peroxide by-products created by SOD reactions.
SOD also aids in the body's utilization of zinc, copper, and manganese. SOD levels tend to decline with age, while free radical production increases. Its potential as an anti-aging treatment is currently being explored.
Irwin Fridovich and Joe McCord discovered the acitivity of Superoxide Dismutase. SOD's were previously known as a group of metalloproteins with unknown function. Chemically speaking, there are several forms of this SOD enzyme. They are proteins cofactored with copper and zinc, or manganese, iron or nickel. There are three major families of SOD, depending on the metal cofactor. The copper/zinc form of SOD, also known as Cu/Zn SOD (which bindes both copper and zinc), Fe and Mn types (which bind either iron or manganese, and the NI type, which bindes nickel. The manganese form of SOD is known as Mn SOD. Each of these enzymes works to protect a particular part of the cell. Cu/Zn SOD exerts its antioxidant properties in the cytoplasm of cells (the watery fluid that surrounds all the other cellular components). It protects the cytoplasm where free radicals are produced as a result of various metabolic activities by neutralizing them. Mn SOD is active in protecting the mitochondria of the cells where energy is produced and which contain the cells' genetic information. The production of cellular energy also leads to the creation of free radicals.
- Copper & Zinc: Most commonly used by eukaryotes. The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). For example, Cu-Zn-SOD available commercially is normally purified from the bovine erythrocytes: The Cu-Zn enzyme is a homodimer of molecular weight 32,500. The bovine Cu-Zn protein was the first SOD structure to be solved, in 1975. It is an 8-stranded "Greek key" beta-barrel, with the active site held between the barrel and two surface loops. The two subunits are tightly joined back-to-back, primarily by hydrophobic and some electrostatic interactions. The ligands of the copper and zinc are six histidine and one aspartate side-chains; one histidine is shared between the two metals.
- Iron or Manganese: Used by prokaryotes and protists, and in mitochondria.
- Iron: E. coli and many other bacteria also contain a form of the enzyme with iron (Fe-SOD); some bacteria contain Fe-SOD, others Mn-SOD, and some contain both. (For the E. coli Fe-SOD). Fe-SOD can be found in the plastids of plants. The 3D structures of the homologous Mn and Fe superoxide dismutases have the same arrangement of alpha-helices, and their active sites contain the same type and arrangement of amino acid side-chains.
- Manganese: Chicken liver (and nearly all other) mitochondria, and many bacteria (such as E. coli), contain a form with manganese (Mn-SOD): for example, the Mn-SOD found in human mitochondria. The ligands of the manganese ions are 3 histidine side-chains, an aspartate side-chain and a water molecule or hydroxy ligand, depending on the Mn oxidation state (respectively II and III).
- Nickel: Prokaryotic. This has a hexameric structure built from right-handed 4-helix bundles, each containing N-terminal hooks that chelate a Ni ion. The Ni-hook contains the motif His-Cys-X-X-Pro-Cys-Gly-X-Tyr; it provides most of the interactions critical for metal binding and catalysis and is, therefore, a likely diagnostic of NiSODs.
Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase.
Structure of the yeast Cu, Zn enzyme SOD (Sod_Cu).
Iron/Manganese Superoxide Dismutases, Alpha-Hairpin Domain.
The structure of human mitochondrial manganese SOD (Sod_Fe-N), which reveals a novel tetrameric interface of two 4-helix bundles.
Iron/Manganese Superoxide Dismutases, C-Terminal Domain.
The structure of human mitochondrial manganese SOD (Sod_Fe-C), which reveals a novel tetrameric interface of two 4-helix bundles.
Nickel-containing Superoxide Dismutase.
Structure of nickel-containing SOD (Sod_Ni).
In higher plants, SOD isoenzymes have been localized in different cell compartments. Mn-SOD is present in mitochonria and peroxisomes. Fe-SOD has been found mainly in chloroplasts but has also been detected in peroxisomes, and CuZn-SOD has been localized in cytosol, chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and apoplast.
Three forms of SOD are present in humans, in all other mammals, and most chordates. SOD1 is located in the cytoplasm. SOD2 in the mitochondria, and SOD3 is extracellular. The first is a dimer (consists of two units), whereas the others are tetradimers (four units). SOD1 and SOD3 contain copper and zinc, whereas SOD2, the mitochondrial enzyme, has manganese in its active center. the genes are located on chromosomes 21, 6, and 4, respectively (21q22.1, 6q25.3 and 4p15.3-p15.1).
Superoxide is one of the main reactive oxygen species in the cell. Consequently, SOD serves a key antioxidant role. The physiological importance of SODs is illustrated by the severe pathologies evident in mice genetically engineered to lack these enzymes. Mice lacking SOD2 die several days after birth, amid massive oxidative stress. Mice lacking SOD1 develop a wide range of pathologies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, an acceleration of age-related muscle mass loss, an earlier incidence of cataracts and a reduced lifespan. Mice lacking SOD3 do not show any obvious defects and exhibit a normal lifespan, though they are more sensitive to hyperoxic injury. Knockout mice of any SOD enzyme are more sensitive to the lethal effects of superoxide generating drugs, such as paraquat and diquat.
Drosophila lacking SOD1 have a dramatically shortened lifespan, whereas flies lacking SOD2 die before birth. SOD knockdowns in C. elegans do not cause major physiological disruptions. Knockout or null mutations in SOD1 are highly detrimental to aerobic growth in the yeast Sacchormyces cerevisiae and result in a dramatic reduction in post-diauxic lifespan. SOD2 knockout or null mutations cause growth inhibition on respiratory carbon sources in addition to decreased post-diauxic lifespan.
Several prokaryotic SOD null mutants have been generated, including E. Coli. The loss of periplasmic CuZnSOD causes loss of virulence and might be an attractive target for new antibiotics.
SOD ROLE IN DISEASE
Mutations in the first SOD enzyme (SOD1) can cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a form of motor neuron disease). The most common mutation in the U.S. is A4V, while the most intensely studied is G93A. The other two isoforms of SOD have not been linked to any human diseases, however, in mice inactivation of SOD2 causes perinatal lethality and inactivation of SOD1 causes hepatocellular carcinoma. Mutations in SOD1 can cause familial ALS (several pieces of evidence also show that wild-type SOD1, under conditions of cellular stress, is implicated in a significant fraction of sporadic ALS cases, which represent 90 percent of ALS patients), by a mechanism that is presently not understood, but not due to loss of enzymatic activity or a decrease in the conformational stability of the SOD1 protein. Overexpression of SOD1 has been linked to the neural disorders seen in Down syndrome.
In recent years it has become more apparent that in mice the extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3, ecSOD) is critical in the development of hypertension. In other studies, diminished SOD3 activity was linked to lung diseases such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Superoxide dismutase is also not expressed in neural crest cells in the developing fetus. Hence, high levels of free radicals can cause damage to them and induce dysraphic anomalies (neural tube defects).
SOD has powerful anti-inflammatory activity. It is a highly effective experimental treatment of colonic inflammation in colitis and may be important new therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. SOD is also effective in the treatment of urinary tract inflammatory disease in humans. An SOD-mimetic agent, TEMPOL, is currently in clinical trials for radioprotection and to prevent radiation-induced hair loss. TEMPOL and similar SOD-mimetic nitroxides multiple actions in diseases involving oxidative stress. SOD may reduce free-radical damage to the skin such as reducing fibrosis following radiation for breast cancer. These studies are considered tentative as there are not adequate controls in the study including a lack of randomization, double-blinding, or placebo. Superoxide dismutase is known to reverse fibrosis, perhaps through reversion of myofibroblasts back to fibroblasts.
SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD) USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Many molecules are unstable. This means that they do not have an even number of electrons to pair with, so they are always searching for another electron to "steal" and become stable. This process can result in unwanted damage in the body. Free radicals are known as "free" because they float around the body until they become stable changing the structure of other molecules. There is more than one molecule free radicals can steal an electron from, causing severe damage and many degenerative diseases related with old age. Antioxidants help reduce the damage cause by free radicals.
Superoxide dismutase is one of the most powerful enzymes with antioxidation capabilities that have been discovered. SOD has antioxidant properties and is involved in the prevention of cellular damage cause by free radicals. Antioxidants are the body's defense mechanism and work as an internal army against oxidative stress. Not all antioxidants are the same. The most common antioxidants include vitamins A, E, C, Zinc and Selenium. These are known as consumable antioxidants because they are used on a one to one ratio - one antioxidant for every free radical in the body. These common antioxidants are not as powerful as SOD. SOD is a catalytic enzyme that is not used up everyday like many consumable antioxidants.
In addition to protecting cells from destruction, SOD also helps our bodies utilize zinc, copper and manganese. Studies are being conducted as the potential of SOD as an anti-aging treatment.
Indications for use include abscesses, age spots, aging, AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, arsenic poisoning, arthritis, breast cancer, bronchitis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chlamydia, edema, environmental toxin poisoning, food poisoning, gout, hay fever, hepatitis, herpes simplex virus, inflammatory diseases, lumbago, microaneurisms, retinal edema, retinal vascular leakage, rheumatoid arthritis.
SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD) DOSAGE INFORMATION
Superoxide Dismutase is an enzyme that helps performed various processes in our body and acts as powerful antioxidant. Research has assured us that antioxidants are key to help maintain optimal health, as they protect the body from the effects cause by free radicals. Free radicals are atoms and molecules that contain a single unpaired electron in the outer shell. Most free radicals are highly reactive and are closely associated with oxidative damage.
SOD occurs naturally in barley grass, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, wheatgrass, and most green plants. It is also available in supplement form. SOD supplements in pill form must be enteric coated - that is, coated with a protective substance that allows the pill to pass intact through the stomach acid into the small intestines to be absorbed.
For best results, read and follow product label directions regarding the recommended daily supplemental intake of SOD. Consider injections (under a health care provider's supervision).
SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD) SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS
Superoxide dismutase is rapidly degraded by gastric acids when ingested and is relatively unabsorbed even when enterically coated. Injectable form may have antioxidant properties.
There are no known safety issues associated with taking SOD supplementation.
SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD) SUPPLEMENTS & RELATED PRODUCTS
QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS
SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD) SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS
A potent antioxidant that destroys free radicals, which damage body cells and cause premature aging. Consider injections (under a health care provider's supervision).
HerbsPro: SOD (Superoxide Dismutase), Source Naturals, 2000 Units, 235 mg, 90 Tabs (7378)
HerbsPro: SOD (Superoxide Dismutase), Source Naturals, 2000 Units, 235 mg, 180 Tabs (7379)
HerbsPro: GliSODin, Vegetarian SOD, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 100 mg, 30 VCaps (100748)
HerbsPro: GliSODin, Vegetarian SOD, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 100 mg, 60 VCaps (100749)
GliSODin Vegetarian SOD are the first orally effective, vegetarian form of superoxide dismutase (SOD) from cantaloupe melon that is enclosed in gliadin, a wheat protein extract. GliSODin uses a proprietary process integrating SOD with gliadin to help protect SOD from degradation in the digestive tract. Available in easy-to-swallow vegetable capsules for maximum assimilation and absorption.
HerbsPro: GliSODin, Now Foods, 100 mg, 90 VCaps (68230)
GliSODin is the first orally effective form of SOD. GliSODin's patented matrix of melon-derived SOD and gliadin, a wheat protein, protects it from degradation in the digestive tract, while promoting its uptake by the body. SOD is a key cellular antioxidant that is instrumental in neutralizing the potent superoxide radical, thereby constituting an important system for the protection of cells and tissues against degeneration by free radicals. GliSODin has been shown in clinical and non-clinical studies to modulate the activity of SOD, as well as the two other essential cellular antioxidants, Glutathione and Catalase. A clinical study has further demonstrated GliSODin's ability to protect against oxidative stress and DNA damage.
HerbsPro: GliSODin, Vegetarian, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 250 mg, 30 VCaps (100750)
HerbsPro: GliSODin, Vegetarian, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 250 mg, 60 VCaps (100751)
GliSODin Vegetarian SOD 250 mg Vcaps are the first orally effective, vegetarian form of superoxide dismutase (SOD) from cantaloupe melon that is enclosed in gliadin, a wheat protein extract. GliSODin uses a proprietary process integrating SOD with gliadin to help protect SOD from degradation in the digestive tract. Available in easy-to-swallow vegetable capsules for maximum assimilation and absorption.
HerbsPro: GliSODin Power (SOD), Source Naturals, 250 mg, 30 Tabs (70078)
HerbsPro: GliSODin Power (SOD), Source Naturals, 250 mg, 60 Tabs (70079)
HerbsPro: Endothelial Defense With GliSODin, Life Extension, 60 VCaps (94381)
This formula supplies two potent nutrients to support endothelial health: standardized pomegranate and an orally active form of superoxide dismutase (SOD).Both of these components (pomegranate, SOD) have been clinically shown to help with blood flow and age-related changes in endothelial function. Superoxide Dismutase / Gliadin Complex (GliSODin) - 500 mg, Pomella Pomegranate (Punica granatum0 Extract Standardized to 30% Punicalagins - 400 mg, Pomegranate 5:1 Extract - 100 mg.
HerbsPro: SODzyme With GliSODin & Wolfberry, Life Extension, 90 VCaps (91891)
Internally produced antioxidants including the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase are the bodys primary defense against free-radical assault, offering up to thousands of times more protection against certain dangerous free radicals than dietary antioxidants. The bodys supply of youthful antioxidant enzymes rapidly decreases with age.Fortunately, SODzyme with GliSODin & Wolfberry combines three advanced ingredients to help replenish the bodys supply of SOD, vastly enhancing its natural antioxidant defenses. The first nutrient is SODzyme, a proprietary plant-based extract. In a study of 12 middle-aged volunteers who took 2,000 mg of SODzyme daily for two weeks, SODzyme boosted serum SOD levels by 30% on average, and reduced toxic hydrogen peroxide by 47%. The second ingredient contained in this formula is GliSODin, a patented, plant-derived form of SOD. In an animal study, small amounts of orally administered GliSODin raised blood levels of SOD by 89% and increased catalase levels by 171%! The third ingredient provided is a standardized wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) fruit extract. Wolfberry is found to have the highest ORAC values of all fruits, and is effective in scavenging superoxide radicals and in preventing their formation. When given to patients aged 6480, wolfberry increased blood levels of SOD by 48% and lowered dangerous blood lipid peroxides by 65% in only 10 days!
Amazon: SOD Cream, Superoxide Dismutase (25,000 PIU per oz)
SOD Cream (Superoxide Dismutase) is the most powerful enzyme produced by our body. It is a powerful anti-oxidant that scavenges free radicals from our body. As we age, S.O.D.'s ability to perform this important function is reduced. S.O.D. regulates collagen and elastin formation to keep skin strong, smooth, and supple. S.O.D Cream with Vitamins A & E has been found to have a tremendous effect on the replacement of this vital, naturally occurring enzyme. S.O.D. Cream with Vitamins A & E supports the rebuilding process with skin oxidation, reduces facial wrinkles, reduces scar tissue, heals burns, lightens dark skin spots and protects from harmful UV rays from the sun. Includes twist-lock pump.
Amazon: Natural SOD (Superoxide Dismutase), Puritan's Pride, 250 mg, 50 Caplets
SOD is an important natural enzyme that revitalizes cells and provides antioxidant support for the well-being of the body.
Amazon: GliSODin Power, Source Naturals, 250 mg, 60 Tabs
Superoxide Dismutase (S.O.D.). Glisodin Power is an innovative bioavailable from of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the most important enzyme in the body for protecting the body's cells and tissues from free radical damage. Scientific research shown that Glisodin supports the body's own production of superoxide dismutase. Glisodin Power is 100% vegetarian and is comprised of gliadin, a wheat protein extract, which is bound to superoxide dismutase derived from cantaloupe. The gliadin protects the SOD from degradation in the digestive tract and also promotes its absorption. Suitable for vegetarians. Contains no yeast, dairy, egg, or soy. Contains no sugar, starch, salt, preservatives, or artificial color, flavor or fragrance.
Amazon: S.O.D. 2000 Plus, Solaray, 400 mg, 100 Count
S.O.D. is antioxidant that protects the cells by attacking a common free radical, superoxide.
Amazon: S.O.D. (Superoxide Dismutase), Douglas Lab, 2,000 M.F.U., 100 Caps
S.O.D. is antioxidant that protects the cells by attacking a common free radical, superoxide.
Amazon: S.O.D., Source Naturals, 180 Tablets
S.O.D., or superoxide dismutase, is the general name given to a class of enzymes that make up an important antioxidant system in the body. They neutralize free radicals (harmful by-products of cellular respiration), particularly the superoxide radical, the most common free radical in the human body.
Nutrition Basics: Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Antioxidant Information Nutrition Basics: Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Supplement Information
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