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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Antioxidants
OPC

Oligomeric Proanthocyanidin


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Antioxidant Overview
  • OPC Description
  • OPC Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • OPC Supplement Products




  • ANTIOXIDANT OVERVIEW

    FREE RADICAL FIGHTER

    Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that protect and repair cells from damage caused by free radicals. Many experts believe this damage plays a part in a number of chronic diseases, including hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), cancer, and arthritis. Free radicals can also interfere with your immune system. So, fighting off damage with antioxidants helps keep your immune system strong, making you better able to ward off colds, flu, and other infections.

    Antioxidants are compounds that neutralize the cellular-damaging effects of free radicals. Free radicals are produced naturally in your body, but when you exercise hard, your body pumps out more free radicals. Environmental factors such as pollution, the sun, cigarette smoke, and herbicides can also spawn free radicals. The danger is that free-radical damage may lead to cancer. Antioxidants interact with and stabilize free radicals and may prevent some of the damage that free radicals otherwise might cause. As an active person, more antioxidants may help you slow the aging process, ward off cancer and stress, and promote good health.





    OPC / OLIGOMERIC PROANTHOCYANIDIN DESCRIPTION

    A POWERFUL ANTIOXIDANT

    Antioxidants are important protectors of health because they provide electrons that neutralize free radicals (molecules with unpaired electrons which have the power to cause degenerative and life-threatening diseases. Free radicals are produced from normal oxygen metabolism within the body, and from exposure to certain chemicals, environmental pollutants, sunlight, radiation, burns, cigarette smoke, drugs, alcohol, viruses, bacteria, parasites, dietary fats, and more. The antioxidants known today are vitamins C and E, beta carotene, selenium, bioflavonoids and bioflavanols.

    Grape Seed Extract which is high in Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPC's or PCO's) is powerful antioxidant which can reduce the damage done by free radicals, strengthen and repair connective tissue, and promote enzyme activity. OPC's can also help moderate allergic and inflammatory responses by reducing histamine production.

    THE OPC BIOFLAVONOID COMPLEX (PCO)

    OPC is distinct from other plant flavonoids because it is a flavan-3-ol. Flavanols differ from flavonoids in that flavanols are highly water-soluble, absorbable and bioavailable. OPC is quickly and readily distributed throughout the body within minutes to a few hours of oral ingestion. OPC also contains ellagitannins in lesser amounts than red raspberries.

    Bioflavonoids are natural plant components that strengthen and protect living tissue. Proanthocyanidin is one of the names used to describe a powerful bioflavonoid complex known as Procyanidolic Oligomers (PCO) (also called Oligomeric proanthocyanidins - OPCs). Pycnogenol was the name originally given to this complex by Dr. Jacques Masquelier, the first to scientifically discover it and the first to patent an extraction process for it from the bark of maritime pine trees. Pycnogenol is now a trademarked name for OPC products extracted from pine bark.

    OPC extracts have been scientifically studied and medically used in Europe since the 1950s. Scientifically documented, observed benefits include:
    • Enhanced capillary strength and vascular function, which helps the heart and decreases PMS problems, bruising, edema from injury or trauma, varicose veins, leg swelling and retinopathy.
    • Enhanced immune resistance.
    • Increased peripheral circulation, improving vision.
    • Reduced adverse allergic and inflammatory responses.
    • Reduction in skin aging and loss of elasticity.
    The OPC bioflavonoid complex was recently discovered to be 20 times more potent than vitamin C and 50 times more potent than vitamin E as an antioxidant. The advantages of OPC include:
    • It is bioavailable and immediately absorbed from the stomach into the bloodstream.
    • It is distributed to virtually every organ and tissue, and remains in the body for up to 72 hours.
    • Not only does it neutralize free radicals themselves, but it also conserves and regenerates vitamins C and E. Vitamin E is a powerful free radical scavenger, but it is quickly used up. OPC and vitamin C work synergistically to regenerate vitamin E.
    • OPC is one of the few antioxidants that crosses the blood/brain barrier to protect neural tissue.
    • OPC extracts have been proven to be completely safe.

    SOURCES OF OPCs

    The OPC complex is found in many types of foods, but usually only in extremely small amounts. Some of the best sources of OPCs are seasonal fruits such as grapes, blueberries, cherries and plums. The OPCs is found mainly in the peels, skins, or seeds. Food processing and storage is detrimental to OPC availability.

    The OPC bioflavonoid complex can also be found in the barks of the lemon tree and the Landis pine tree, as well as the leaves of the hazelnut tree. The highest known concentration (95 percent) of the OPC complex is found in grape seeds, and the second-highest (80 to 85 percent) in pine bark.





    OPC USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

  • ANTI-INFLAMMATORY: One of the first benefits of OPC observed by health practitioners as early as 1950 was its anti-inflammatory action. This is produced in part by the antioxidant effect, and by inhibiting the release and synthesis of certain compounds that promote inflammation, such as histamine, serine protease, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes. OPCs selectively binds to the connective tissue of joints, preventing swelling, helping heal damaged tissue, and lessening pain. OPC binds to both collagen and elastin fibers in connective tissue to reduce their rate of degradation by inflammatory enzymes (Tixier). OPC inhibis excessive metabolizing of nitric oxide, a process linked to inflammation, arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (Fitzpatrick). OPC reduces severity and duration of soft tissue injuries in soccer players treated immediately following injury with 400 mg per day tapering over several weeks to 200 mg per day of OPC from grape seed extract (Parienti).

  • OPC reduces pain, inflammation, swelling, and stiffness in joints made symptomatic from arthritis or injury in several documented ways. OPC is a potent anti-inflammatory that inhibits the release of degradative enzymes including collagenases, proteases, and elastases that damage soft tissues including joint cartilage and synovial joint linings. OPC is a potent antioxidant that inhibits free radical damage and inflammatory response following injury. OPC speeds recovery from acute injury by inhibiting or reducing the formation of soft tissue edema secondary to acute inflammation. OPC reduces symptoms of chronic joint stiffness and restores functional mobility by improving elasticity of connective tissues. OPC speeds up healing by increasing circulation to joints.

  • ANTI-HISTAMINE: The anti-histamine action of OPC is mediated by an inhibiting effect on the enzyme histidine decarboxylase which is responsible for the production of histamine. This is enhanced by OPC's ability to block hyaluronidase, the enzyme that facilitates the release of histamine into body tissues.

  • ANTI-ALLERGIC: This action is related to the antihistamine effect, as well as OPC's ability to strengthen cell membranes of basophils and mast cells, which contain the allergic chemicals, thus preventing over-reaction or hypersensitivity to pollens and food allergens. Many allergy sufferers have reported significant relief using grape seed extract.

  • ANTI-ULCER: Ulcers induced or aggravated by stress are known to be related to excessive secretion of histamine in the stomach lining. OPCs help heal ulcers by reducing histamine secretion and by binding to and protecting connective tissue in mucous membranes. OPC reduces symptoms in gastric ulcers (Saito).

  • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: OPC improved venous insufficiency in 80 percent of patients treated for just 10 days with 100 mg of OPC. Itching, heaviness and pain disappeared with rapid reduction of the swelling in lower limbs. Symptom improvement correlated with objective changes in videocapillaroscope examination of blood flow (Constantini). OPC reduces peripheral edema in several studies involving over 4,000 patients (Henreit). OPC increases capillary resistance, resulting in lower systolic blood pressure (Lagrue).

  • Experimental studies have recently discovered that oxidation of LDL cholesterol is a key factor leading to hardening of the arteries and heart disease. Patients taking grape seed extract OPC have reported reduced blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

    The antioxidant effect of Vitamin E has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of this oxidation - and OPC has been shown to be 50 times more potent than vitamin E. OPC has also been shown to prevent the stickiness of blood platelets that can lead to blood clots and strokes. OPC inhibits damage to blood vessels and inhibits abnormal blood clotting, both of which are related to heart disease.

    Recent studies have shown that drinking wine has a protective effect against heart disease (considered the solution to the mystery of how the French population can indulge in a high-fat diet and have one of the world's lowest incidences of heart disease). And in February of 1995, a study published in Circulation, the Journal of the American Heart Association, showed that six glasses of grape juice were as effective as two glasses of wine in preventing heart disease. This study offers convincing evidence that OPC from grapes, rather than the alcohol, provide wine's protective benefits to the circulatory system.

    OPC 100 mg given to smokers two hours after smoking inhibited clotting of platelets more effectively and faster than 500 mg of aspirin. A 200 mg dose of OPC was even more effective with effects lasting a week after the OPC was stopped (Watson, Putter).

  • CANCER PREVENTION: Although not a cure for cancer, experimental evidence has been available for a long time showing that antioxidants greatly reduce the incidence of all types of cancer. One study showed that the risk of developing cancer is 11.4 times greater for those with low levels of the antioxidants vitamin E and selenium. OPC is a more potent antioxidant, and also protects cellular DNA from oxidative damage and cell mutations which can lead to cancer. OPC inhibits growth of cancer cells in the laboratory while simultaneously enhancing the growth and viability of normal human gastric mucosal cells (Ye).

  • Huynh, et al., showed that Pycnogenol inhibits nitrogen- containing compounds from causing cancer in the gastro-intestinal tract of rats. Nitrogen compounds are known to increase risk in humans for both gut and lung cancers. Nelson, et al., found that Pycnogenol protected DNA single and double strands from breaking in the presence of oxygen free radical species. This breakage of genetic material is thought to be a possible factor in carcinogenesis (creation of cancer). Jang, et al., review the properties of the chemical trans- Resveratrol (or Resveretrol) found recently in red wine and the skin of grapes. Cancer studies at the University of Illinois found Resveratrol prevented cancer from starting in normal cells, stopped already cancerous cells from growing, and caused already cancerous cells to revert back to normal. Grape skin contained the highest amount of Resveratrol of over 1000 plants studied. The OPC in EIF comes from red grapes grown in the Rhone Valley of France that have a comparatively higher content of Resveratrol. Resveratrol was tested in cultured cells from mice with induced cancer. There have been no studies in humans. This does not mean Resveratrol does not fight cancer, but there is more evidence to support its role in reducing heart disease than cancer. Epidemiological studies do present strong evidence for a reduced risk of both cancer and heart disease in populations consuming higher than normal amounts of red wine on a daily basis (two to four glasses per day). Packer, et al., cite many references that support cancer- protective properties of flavonoids and polyphenols including OPC. Flavonoids in numerous studies inhibit the growth of tumor cells by various mechanisms including antioxidant properties, inhibition of enzymes that facilitate cellular metabolism, and ability to inhibit telomerase, an enzyme essential for promoting rapid growth of tumor cells.

  • TEETH & GUMS: Dentists and their patients have reported that OPC provides healing and preventive benefits to the teeth and gums, evidently through its anti-inflammatory effects, free radical deactivation, and connective tissue protection.

  • EYES: Clinical studies have shown that antioxidants can halt cataract progression. OPC has a strong affinity for the portion of the retina that is responsible for visual acuity. It prevents free radical damage and reinforces the collagen structures of the retina. In clinical trials of patients with various types of retinal disease, including macular degeneration, all patients given OPC showed significant improvement following therapy. Health professionals monitoring the effects of OPC have reported that it also has helped in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. OPC reduces diabetic retinal bleeding and improves vision within a few weeks on as little as 100 mg per day (Froantin).

  • Diabetics experienced reduced diabetic retinopathy and improved retinal appearance and clinical visual acuity after taking as little as 100 mg of OPC per day for six weeks. OPC may enhance peripheral circulation and reduce symptoms of diabetic neuropathy.

  • SKIN CARE: OPC products help protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation damage that leads to wrinkles and skin cancer. Because it stabilizes collagen and elastin, OPC can help improve the elasticity and youthfulness of the skin. OPC strengthens the connective tissue of the skin and fat chambers. People taking grape seed extract OPC have noticed that it helps tonify their skin and reduce cellulite, stretch marks, and old scars. There is speculation that cellulite may be a sign of bioflavonoid deficiency.

  • OPC reduces post-surgical swelling and pain and speeds soft tissue recovery when elective facial surgery patients were pre- treated before and after surgery (Baruch). OPC binds to protein tissue such as collagen, producing a wide range of benefits to health and anti-aging. OPC binds to the collagen in blood vessel walls, making capillaries stronger and more elastic, improving circulation, and reducing blood pressure. Since joint capsules, ligaments, and tendons are also made up of collagen, OPC typically improves joint elasticity and range of motion. Since skin is also predominantly collagen, OPC is billed in France as the internal cosmetic, making skin more elastic, softening wrinkles, and giving skin over time a more youthful appearance.

  • NERVOUS SYSTEM: Some health care providers have reported that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have improved while taking OPC. MS is a syndrome of progressive destruction and hardening of the myelin sheath that surrounds the nerves. Current research indicates that MS may be caused by an allergic or autoimmune reaction. Many studies have demonstrated that patients with MS have reduced activity levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase.

  • The ability of OPC to reduce the progressive symptoms of MS may be due to its potent antioxidant and anti-allergic qualities. Plus, OPC has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, where it may protect the brain's nervous tissue from oxidation. This effect may explain why patients taking OPC often report improved mental clarity.

    OPC may be the ultimate anti-aging nutrient. OPC improves the appearance of skin. OPC increases circulation to the brain and enhances cognitive functions such as memory and mood. OPC reduces joint stiffness associated with wear and tear of aging.OPC is a potent antioxidant that slows aging by inhibiting the damaging effects of free radicals.

  • LUNGS: Asthma and emphysema have also been found to benefit from the use of OPCs. Asthma is largely caused by an allergic reaction within the bronchial tubes that leads to bronchial constriction and excessive mucous excretion. Due to its ability to inhibit histamine and other inflammatory chemicals, OPC has been found effective in the treatment of asthma.

  • Grape Seed Extract OPC has also been found to reduce the coughing, wheezing, weakness, mucus and recurring respiratory infections usually associated with emphysema. Apparently, OPC reduces the inflammation and damage to the air sacs of emphysema patients.

  • MALE INFERTILITY: OPC corrects some forms of infertility in males by increasing the number of structurally normal sperm, a more cost effective treatment than expensive fertility drugs (Roseff).

  • ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY: OPC is one of nature's most powerful antioxidants, inhibiting superoxide and hydroxyl forms of oxygen free radicals more effectively than either Vitamin C or E (Bagchi). OPC inhibits lipid peroxidation of blood fats more effectively than Vitamin E (Bagchi). Resveratrol, a chemical found in the skin of grapes, was shown to protect lipid and protein membranes against copper- induced oxidation (Fremont). OPC protects the lining of blood vessel walls from free radical damage (Rong).
    Examples of free radical scavenging activities of OPC include: traps hydroxyl and superoxide radicals; inhibits or delays onset of lipid peroxidation; chelates free iron molecules and inhibits iron-induced lipid peroxidation; reduces free radical production by inhibiting the enzyme xanthine oxidase; and inhibits degradative enzymes that produce free radicals through soft tissue damage (hyaluronidase, elastase, collagenase, protease).

    OPC from grape seed extract contains the most potent antioxidant activity of the various polyphenols studied. In one study rat blood vessel walls were exposed to free radicals and the ability of grape seed extract, pine bark, and bilberry to protect the blood vessel walls from damaged was measured. Grape seed extract provided the best arterial wall defense against the damaging effects of free radicals and on an absolute scale, was 22 percent stronger than pine bark extract and 15 percent greater than bilberry extract (Jonadet).

    OPC is a potent scavenger of free radicals. It is one of nature's most potent antioxidants. OPC contains multiple electron donor sites (hydroxyl sites) that allow it to bind to unstable molecules called free radicals by donating its hydrogen atoms. OPC also recycles other antioxidants such as Vitamin C and glutathione by removing the free radicals they bind with and freeing them up to interact again with other free radicals.

  • ACETAMINOPHEN OVERDOSE: OPC inhibits acetaminophen-induced liver death in lab mice (Ray).

  • PMS SYMPTOMS: OPC reduced symptoms of PMS in over 60 percent of patients treated with 200 mg of OPC for three months and in 80 percent of patients treated for six months (Amsellem).





  • OPC DOSAGE INFORMATION

    OPC works best when taken at saturation levels of at least one milligram per pound of body weight per day.
    A person weighing 200 pounds would take 100 mg twice daily for a total daily dose of 200 milligrams.

    Therapeutic levels, 300 to 600 mg of OPC per day, are frequently prescribed by European health care practitioners for medical conditions they think might respond to OPC.

    Maintenance levels of 100 mg per day are recommended for healthy, younger individuals taking OPC along with other supplements for nutritional insurance.





    OPC SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    OPC has no known side effects such as mutagenecity, carcinogenecity, cellular toxicity or allergic reactions in over fifty years of clinical and laboratory research.

    Toxicity studies in animals indicate OPC has an extremely high LD50. This means that humans would have to take literally hundreds of thousands of milligrams daily to be adversely effected.

    OPC is safe to take during pregnancy and breast feeding, unless combined with other herbal ingredients that may be contraindicated during pregnancy.


    REFERENCES

  • Amsellem M et al. Endotelon in the treatment of venolymphatic problems in premenstrual syndrome. Multicentered study on 165 patients. Tempo Medical 282: Nov 1987.
  • Bagchi D et al. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed extract proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology 95: 179-189, 1997.
  • Baruch J. Effet de 'Endotelon dans les oedemes post-chirurgicaux. Resultats d'une etude en double aveugle contre placebo sur trente-dewx patientes. Ann Chir Plast Estbet 29: 4, 1984.
  • Chen G et al. Ability of m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid to induce the ornithine decarboxylase marker of skin tumor promotion and inhibition of this response by gallotannins, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, and their monomeric units in mouse epidermis in vivo. Anticancer Res 15(4): 1183- 1189, 1995.
  • Constantini A et al. Clinical and capillaroscopic evaluation of chronic uncomplicated venous insufficiency with procyanidins extracted from vitis vinifera. Minerva Cardioangiol 47(1-2): 39-46, 1999.
  • Fitzpatrick DF et al. Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 32(4): 509-515, 1998.
  • Froantin M. Les oligomeres procyanidoliques dans le traitement de la fragilite capillaire et de la retinopathie chez les diabetiques. A propos de 26 cas. Med Int 16(11): 432-434, 1981.
  • Groult N et al. Study of the effect of procyanidole oligomers on cultured mesenchymatous cells. Size and shape of cells and nuclei. Quantitative morphological study. Path Biol 39(4): 277-282, 1991.
  • Hagerman AE et al. The specificity of proanthocyanidin-protein interactions. J Biol Chem 256(9): 4494-4497.
  • Henreit JP. Veno-lymphatic insufficiency. 4,729 patients undergoing hormonal and procyanidole oligomer therapy. Phlebologie 46: 313-325, 1993.
  • Huynh HT et al. Effects of intragastrically administered Pycnogenol on NNK metabolism in F344 rats. Anticancer Res 19: 2095-2099, 1999.
  • Huynh HT et al. Effects of pycnogenol on the microsomal metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK as a function of age. Cancer Lett 132(1-2): 135-139, 1998.
  • Jonadet M et al. Anthocyanosides extracted from Vitis vinifera, Vaccinium myrtillus and Pinus maritimus. I. Elastase-inhibiting activities in vitro. II. Compared angioprotective activities in vivo. J Pharm Belg 38(1): 41-46, 1983.
  • Lagrue G et al. A study of the effects of procyanidole oligomers on capillary resistance in hypertension and in certain nephropathies. Sem Hop Paris 57: 1399-1401, 1981.
  • Liviero L et al. Antimutagenic activity of procyanidins from Vitis vinifera. Fitother 65: 203-209, 1994. Maffei Facino R et al. Free radical scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidins from Vitis vinifera. A mechanism for capillary- protective action. Drug Res 44: 592-601, 1994.
  • Mangiapane H et al. The inhibition of the oxidation of low density lipoprotein by (+)-catechin, a naturally occurring flavonoid. Biochemical Pharmacology 43(3): 445-450, 1992.
  • Masquelier J et al. Stabilization of collagen by procyanidolic oligomers. Acta Therap. 7: 101-105, 1981.
  • Meunier MT et al. Free radical scavenger activity of procyanidolic oligomers and anthocyanosides with respect to superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation. Plant Med Phytother 23(4): 267-274, 1989.
  • Nelson AB et al. Pycnogenol inhibits macrophage oxidative burst, lipoprotein oxidation and hydroxyl radical induced DNA damage. Drug Develop Ind Med 24: 1-6, 1998.
  • Nuttall SL et al. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect. J Clin Pharm Ther 23(5): 385-389, 1998.
  • Packer L et al. Antioxidant activity and biological properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Rad Biol Med 27(5-6): 704-724, 1999.
  • Parienti JJ et al. Post-traumatic edema in athletes: controlled study of Endotelon. Gaz. Med. de France 90(3): 1, 1983.
  • Plumb GW et al. Antioxidant properties of catechins and proanthocyanidins: effect of polymerisatin, galloylation and glycosylation. Free Radic Res 29(4): 351-358, 1998.
  • Putter M et al. Inhibition of smoking-induced platelet aggregation by aspirin and pycnogenol. Thromb Res 15(4): 155-156, 1999.
  • Rao AV and MT Yatcilla. Bio-absorption and in vivo antioxidant properties of BioVinŽ polyphenols: A human intervention study. Submitted to J of Medicinal Plants, July 2, 1999.
  • Ray SD et al. A novel proanthocyanidin IH636 grape seed extract increases in vivo Bcl-X1 expression and prevents acetaminophen-induced programmed and unprogrammed cell death in mouse liver. Arch Biochem Biophys 369(1): 42-58, 1999.
  • Rong Y et al. Pycnogenol protects vascular endothelial cells from t-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidant injury. Biotechnol Ther 5(3-4): 117-126, 1994.
  • Saito M et al. Anti-ulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. J Agric Food Chem 46: 1460-1464, 1998.
  • Tixier JM et al. Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding of pycnogenols to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases. Biochem Pharmacol 33(24): 3933-3939, 1984.
  • Virgili F et al. Procyanidins extracted from Pinus maritima (Pycnogenol): scavengers of free radical species and modulators of nitrogen monoxide metabolism in activated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Free Radic Biol Med 24: 1120-1129, 1998.
  • Ye X et al. The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH 636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochem 196(1-2): 99-108, 1999.





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    HerbsPro: Grapeseed Oil, FoodScience of Vermont, 100 mg, 60 Caps (74923)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed Extract, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 100 mg, 90 VCaps (100732)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed, Now Foods, 100 mg, 100 Caps (68287)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed, Now Foods, 100 mg, 200 Caps (68288)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed Extract, Olympian Labs, 120 mg, 100 Caps (81982)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed Extract, Mega Natural BP, Healthy Origins, 150 mg, 150 Caps (109578)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed Extract, Country Life, 200 mg, 60 VCaps (37202)
    HerbsPro: Proanthodyn Grapeseed Extract, Source Naturals, 200 mg, 60 Caps (75178)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed Extract, Olympian Labs, 200 mg, 100 Caps (74350)
    HerbsPro: Proanthodyn Grapeseed Extract, Source Naturals, 200 mg, 120 Caps (75179)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed Extract, Now Foods, 250 mg, 90 VCaps (68294)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed Extract, Mega Natural BP, Healthy Origins, 300 mg, 150 Caps (88340)
    HerbsPro: Grape Seed Extract, Olympian Labs, 400 mg, 100 Caps (81983)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Grapeseed Pure Carrier Oil, Aura Cacia, 4 fl oz: K
    Kalyx: Grapeseed Oil, Virgin Certified Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 16 fl oz: C
    Kalyx: Grapeseed Oil, Refined, Starwest Botanicals, 16 fl oz: C
    Kalyx: Grapeseed Oil, Virgin Certified Organic, Starwest Botanicals, 1 Gallon: C
    Kalyx: Grapeseed Oil, Refined, Starwest Botanicals, 1 Gallon: C
    Kalyx: Grapeseed Oil, Refined, Starwest Botanicals, 5 Gallons: C
    Kalyx: Grapeseed Oil, Organic, Kalyx Bulk Products, 25 Kg (55 lbs): HP
    Kalyx: Grapeseed Oil, Organic, Kalyx Bulk Products, 200 Kg (440 lbs): HP


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Grapeseed Herbal Supplement Products
    Amazon: Grapeseed Herbal Grocery & Gourmet Food Products

    Amazon.com Books: The Flavonoid Revolution: Grape Seed Extract & Other Flavonoids Against Disease By Michael Colgan, Lesley Colgan

    Amazon.com Books: All About Grape Seed Extract By Dallas Clouatre PhD, Jack Callem


  • Nutrition Basics: Grape Seed Extract Antioxidant Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Grape Seed Herbal Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Grapes Herbal Information
  • Aromatherapy: Grape Seed Oil Information



  • PINE HERBAL PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Life Extension 100 mg, 60 VCaps (108446)
    Pycnogenol French Maritime Pine Bark Extract is a natural plant extract containing procyanidins, bioflavonoids, and other health-giving molecules that synergistically support the bodys natural defenses against five major processes that characterize premature aging. Its effectiveness is backed by 40 years of study. Life Extension Pycnogenol French Maritime Pine Bark Extract is designed to counteract premature-aging-related changes by providing support for the following mechanisms: Membrane function: Pycnogenol promotes the integrity and normal characteristics of cell membranes. DNA function: Pycnogenol helps support normal DNA function through antioxidant activity and possibly other mechanisms. Easing inflammation: Pycnogenol helps ease inflammation by normal modulation of inflammatory cytokine molecules. Oxidative stress: Pycnogenol supports the normal functioning of healthy antioxidant systems to help suppress free radicals and protect DNA. Glycation: Pycnogenol supports cellular metabolism of sugar, healthy fasting, and post-meal blood sugar levels already within normal range, and normal sugar absorption in the intestine.
    HerbsPro: OPC-85 Pine Bark Extract, Antioxidant Protection, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 60 Tabs (7263)
    OPC-85 is a potent natural antioxidant derived from the bark of the European coastal pine, pinus maritime. It is the original product of Dr. Jacques masquelier, the researcher who first isolated and identified oligomeric proanthocyanidins, or Opcs. Opcs are powerful plant compounds which have been shown to have exceptional free- radical scavenging activity, and which help preserve the integrity of body tissues.
    HerbsPro: Pine Bark Extract, Multi-System Antioxidant, Source Naturals, 150 mg, 60 Tabs (75190)
    HerbsPro: Full Spectrum Pine Bark Extract, Planetary Herbals, 150 mg, 60 Tabs (75165)
    Pine bark contains complex polyphenols that are among the most potent of any plant. Pine polyphenols are powerful antioxidants, giving benefits to the cardiovascular system and the immune system. They are well known for supporting capillary health. Polyphenols are vigorous free radical scavengers that help the body reduce oxidative stress.
    HerbsPro: Grape Complete With Pine Bark, Country LIfe, 90 VCaps (37199)
    Hypoallergenic / Vegetarian / Kosher helps maintain the structural integrity of capillaries and connective tissue.
    HerbsPro: Pine Bark Extract, Now Foods, 240 mg, 90 VCaps (94313)
    Pine Bark Extract is naturally derived from the inner bark of Chinese Red Pine (Pinus massoniana), a significant tree species of the subtropical forests in China. It is prized for its powerful free radical-scavenging polyphenolic flavonoid constituents, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). In addition, scientific studies indicate that P. massoniana Bark Extract may help to support healthy cellular growth and reproduction. Green Tea Extract with EGCg has been included in this product for its flavonol content to complement the oxidant neutralizing and cell protecting effects of Pine Bark Extract.
    HerbsPro: Pine Flower Essence, Bach Flower Essences, 20 ml (42085)
    Essence of Pine (Pinus sylvestris). The Bach Flower Essences are homeopathically prepared plant and flower based essences. Each one is specially devised to relieve a different emotion and help you to manage the demands of everyday life. Pine is for people who blame themselves for something they feel they have done in the past. They are always apologizing. These people feel undeserving and unworthy.
    HerbsPro: White Pine Extract, Eclectic Institute Inc, 1 fl. oz. (32148)
    HerbsPro: White Pine Extract, Eclectic Institute Inc, 2 fl. oz. (76268)
    HerbsPro: Soothing Pine Cough Drops, Bioforce USA, 16 Lozenges (33893)
    Soothing Pine Cough Drops for fast natural relief for coughs, minor throat irritations and bronchial irritations. Made with fresh wildcrafted pine buds. The natural essential oils contained in Pine Syrup have an anti-inflamatory and anti-spetic action that quickly releives coughs, provides cooling relief for dry mouths and is wonderfully soothing on the throat. Two helpful products from Bioforce. Founded by A. Vogel, famous Swiss naturopath, Bioforce is one of the finest natural product manufacturing companies in the world. Made from the fresh green needles that grow out of pine boughs in the springtime, Pine Syrup, and Cough Drops filled with pine syrup, offers fast natural relief for coughs due to colds and minor bronchial irritations. The natural essential oils contained in Pine Syrup have an anti-inflamatory and anti-spetic action that quickly releives coughs, provides cooling relief for dry mouths and is wonderfully soothing on the throat.
    HerbsPro: Pine Tar Bath & Shower Gel, Grandpa's Brands Company. 8 oz. (63330)
    Pine Tar Bath & Shower Gel has the same great natural moisturizing action as the bar for those who prefer a liquid. Lathers white, rinses clean. A bar in a bottle.
    HerbsPro: Pine Tar Conditioner, Grandpa's Brands Company, 8 oz. (81098)
    The perfect companion to Grandpa's Pine Tar Shampoo. Enriched with pure vegetable Pine Tar oil. Moisturizes hair leaving it soft and manageable. Gentle enough for every day use.
    HerbsPro: Pine Tar Shampoo, Grandpa's Brands Company, 8 oz. (26039)
    Wonder Pine Tar Shampoo helps to cleanse the scalp and wash the hair. Grandpa's Wonder Pine Tar Soap has been a family favorite for generations -since 1878-as an excellent body and toilet soap, as well as a marvelous shampoo for all colors and textures of hair. This quality soap has now been translated into a unique hair shampoo that leaves scalp feeling truly clean. For that extra clean feeling. Helps remove flakes of dandruff, seborrhea and psoriasis.
    HerbsPro: Pine Tar Soap Bar, Grandpa's Brands Company, Medium Size, 3.25 oz. (26034)
    Wonder Pine Tar Soap has a refreshing natural pine tar scent and works as a shampoo, deodorant and is moisturizing to the skin. For generations, whole families have enjoyed the refreshing natural pine tar scent, and the marvelous gliding suds , and the marvelous soap. Grandpa's makes great heaps of snowy white lather in hard or soft water. Use it every day for every bath and toilet purpose. A marvelous shampoo for blondes, redheads, brunette, and for all textures of hair. An invigorating bath soap for tub or shower. Removes body odors, leaves you feeling wonderfully refreshed. A Family Favorite Since 1878.
    HerbsPro: Pine Soap Bar, Pure & Natural, Germicidal Cleanser, Heritage Products, 3.5 oz. (51434)
    Heritage Pine Tar Soap. Pure and Natural Germicidal Cleanser. Feel the extraordinary clean sensation of Pine Tar Soap. The astringent and germicidal properties of pine tar cleanse and stimulate your skin while vegetable oils restore moisture for a healthy glow. Pine oil may be helpful in relieving aches/pains from colds and flu, fighting airborne germs/bacteria, arthritis, asthma, bronchial obstructions, coughs, fevers, respiratory congestion, rheumatism, sinusitis, and urinary tract infections.
    HerbsPro: Pine Incense, Auroshikha Candles & Incense, 10 grams (34766)


  • Nutrition Basics: Pine Herbal Information



  • PYCNOGENOL SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Pycnogenol is possibly the most powerful free radical scavengers. They can pass the blood-brain barrier to protect brain cells.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol (Proanthocyanidin Complex), Source Naturals, 25 mg, 60 Tabs (7336)
    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol, Now Foods, 30 mg, 60 Caps (68644)
    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol, TwinLab, 50 mg, 60 Caps (19837)
    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol, Now Foods, 60 mg, 50 VCaps (68648)
    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol (Proanthocyanidin Complex), Source Naturals, 75 mg, 60 Tabs (7341)
    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol, Healthy Origins, 100 mg, 30 Caps (67292)
    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol (Proanthocyanidin Complex), Source Naturals, 100 mg, 60 Tabs (7333)
    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol, Healthy Origins, 100 mg, 120 VCaps (111978)
    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol Complex (Proanthocyanidin & Vitamin C), Source Naturals, 60 Tabs (7344)


  • Nutrition Basics: Pycnogenol Supplement Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |






    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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