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CATECHINS ANTIOXIDANT DESCRIPTION
Catechins are a type of antioxidant found in the greatest abundance in the leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis.
In smaller amounts, catechins are found in other foods such as red wine, chocolate, berries, and apples. Their health benefits of have been under close examination since the 1990s, due to the strong association of tea with long life and health in many ancient cultures. The varieties found in the leaves of the tea plant are also known as catechin polyphenols. They are part of a molecular family called flavonoids, which are plant secondary metabolites. This means they are not essential for the growth of the plant, but are important for its good health.
Medical research has uncovered evidence that catechins are beneficial for the good health of humans as well as plants. In laboratory tests, those present in tea leaves have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. In addition to this, they are able to prevent the activity of free radicals, the molecules that cause cellular damage that can lead to cancer.
Unfortunately, results of catechin-related studies in humans have not been conclusive. Some studies show that tea drinkers have a reduced risk of certain types of cancer, but other studies have shown no evidence that drinking tea has beneficial health effects. This means it is difficult to say for sure how helpful the antioxidants in tea really are.
For example, a study of 18,000 Chinese men found that men who drank tea frequently had a 50-percent lower risk of developing stomach cancer as compared to men who did not drink tea frequently. On the other hand, a study conducted with approximately 120,000 men and women in the Netherlands investigated the link between tea drinking and the frequency of stomach cancer and found no evidence that tea provided any protection.
One important fact that has been uncovered about catechins is that there are more in Green Tea than in Black Tea. All types of tea leaves, whether green or black, undergo the same initial preparation processes, but black tea leaves are also allowed to ferment and oxidize. It is thought that these extra preparation steps reduce the amount of antioxidants, making green tea leaves a better source. This may be one explanation for the differences in the studies in China and the Netherlands; green tea is a dietary mainstay in China, but is perhaps less so in most other parts of the world. This means it is possible the people in the Netherlands study drank mostly black tea, which contains fewer catechins and may therefore provide less protection.
Fermentation is the term used within the tea industry for oxidation, so this has nothing to do with microbial growth (as fermentation is known for). During the oxidation the catechins form long chains (theaflavins and thearubigins), so that explains the reduced amount of catechins in black tea. But there are studies indicating that the TF and TR have health benefits like catechins.
FOODS HIGH IN CATECHINS
Phytochemicals are natural, biologically active compounds found in plants. One class of phytochemicals, called flavonoids, contains over 4,000 compounds with many potential health benefits. Catechins are a type of flavonoid found in certain foods; several forms exist, but all are potent antioxidants that may help protect you from potentially damaging chemicals called free radicals.
There are five different types of catechins, according to the University of California at Davis, but all share a similar chemical structure that makes them able to stabilize free radicals. These unstable chemicals are formed as by-products of normal digestion or after you encounter environmental toxins such as cigarette smoke and some industrial chemicals. They also develop in your skin and eyes when you are exposed to sunlight. Free radicals can damage parts of your cells, including DNA and cellular membranes. Over time, a build up of free radicals can accelerate aging and raise your risk of developing cancer and other potentially serious diseases.
TEA: Brewed green tea is an especially rich source of catechins, with over 120 milligrams per 100 grams, which is equivalent to about 3.5 ounces of liquid. Black tea also contains catechins, although somewhat less than green tea, with about 25 milligrams in 100 grams. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center says that regular consumption of green tea may lower your risk of developing high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. In addition, a review paper published in 2005 in "Life Sciences" concluded that drinking green tea may improve your general health as well as lower your risk of developing cancer and neurological diseases. However, tea contains caffeine, which may cause sleeplessness and other problems. Discuss its use with your health care provider before consuming it regularly.
Green Tea Information & Products Black Tea Information & Products
COCOA: Cocoa also contains catechins, as do cocoa-derived products such as chocolate. The amount of catechins in chocolate, however, depends on its concentration of cocoa. For example, 100 grams of dark chocolate provides about 50 milligrams of catechins, while a similar amount of milk chocolate contains about 8 milligrams. According to the University of California, consuming chocolate or cocoa may benefit your cardiovascular system and improve your health in general. A review of clinical trials published in "Nutrition and Metabolism" concluded that flavonoids such as catechins in chocolate may be protective against coronary heart disease and stroke, although the authors say that larger trials are needed to confirm this.
Chocolate Information & Products
OTHER SOURCES: Many other foods provide catechins in measurable quantities. Good examples include blackberries, with about 40 milligrams in 100 grams, and raspberries and cherries, which contain about 6 and 8 milligrams, respectively, in a similar amount. Apples and pears also contain catechins, with 7 and 4 milligrams, respectively, in 100 grams. Among vegetables, beans are good sources of catechins. For example, 100 grams of fava beans provide about 20 milligrams of catechins. Red table wine is an excellent source of several flavonoids, including catechins, with about 10 milligrams of these compounds in 100 grams, or 3.5 ounces of liquid.
CATECHINS ANTIOXIDANT USES, HEALTH BENEFITS, & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
SOME FACTS ABOUT CATECHINS
Catechins are phytochemical compounds found in high concentrations in a variety of plant-based foods and beverages. Based on their structure, catechins are classified as flavanols and include the following compounds: catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate. High concentrations of catechin can be found in red wine, broad beans, black grapes, apricots and strawberries. Epicatechin concentrations are high in apples, blackberries, broad beans, cherries, black grapes, pears, raspberries, and chocolate. Finally, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate are found in high concentrations in both black and green tea.
CATECHIN CONTENT OF SOME FOODS FOOD CATECHIN
EPICATECHIN GALLATE, &
Apples 0.9 6.1 0.6 Blackberries 37.1 4.7 0.8 Black Grapes 10.1 8.7 2.8 Brewed Black Tea 1.5 2.1 23.1 Brewed Green Tea 2.6 8.3 114.3 Cherries 1.3 7.0 0.4 Cocoa 0.0 26.2 0.0 Dark Chocolate 12.0 41.5 0.0 Fava Beans 8.2 7.8 4.7 Milk Chocolate 2.1 6.3 0.0 Pears 0.3 3.8 0.8 Raspberries 1.6 4.1 1.0 Red Table Wine 7.0 3.3 0.1
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF CATECHINS
Consumption of catechins has been associated with a variety of beneficial effects including increased plasma antioxidant activity (ability of plasma to scavenge free radicals), brachial artery dilation (blood vessel expansion), fat oxidation, and resistance of LDL to oxidation.
Red wine, chocolate, and tea are all high in catechins, in addition to a variety of other polyphenolic compounds. Below is a summary of the research on the effects of consuming these foods:
Studies have investigated the relationship between consumption of red wine and susceptibility to chronic diseases such as lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cardiovascular disease.
Cardiovascular Disease: Consumption of red wine is associated with a reduction in endothelin-1 (a molecule involved in blood pressure regulation), a reduction in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury (an injury to the heart when blood is returned to the organ after a period of restriction), increased HDL, decreased platelet aggregation (clumping), increased fibrinolysis (breakdown of a clot), and increased antioxidant activity. Lung Cancer: In one recent investigation, consumption of red wine was associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in comparison to those who did not consume any red wine. Prostate Cancer: In middle aged men, a 6 percent decrease in risk of prostate cancer has been observed for every glass of red wine consumed per week.
In light of this research, the American Heart Association does not recommend consumption of alcohol to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and the American Cancer Society recommends limiting consumption of alcoholic beverages. If adults choose to drink alcoholic beverages, the Dietary Guidelines 2005 recommends they do so in moderation. Moderation is considered 1 drink (defined as 12 ounces of beer, 4 ounces of wine, 1.5 ounces of 80-proof spirits, or 1 ounce of 100-proof spirits) per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men.
Some short term research suggests that 100 percent purple grape juice may be an alcohol free alternative to red wine for those interested in both the cardiovascular and anticancer effects of this beverage; however a reduction in development of chronic disease and mortality due to consumption of grape juice has yet to be confirmed. If you do choose to consume purple grape juice, remember to follow the Dietary Guidelines and limit juice consumption by choosing whole fruit for the majority of your daily fruit servings.
Kuna Indians, an island dwelling population that consumes high levels of cocoa (more than 5 cups per day), have low rates of elevated blood pressure or hypertension. Furthermore, epidemiological research of elderly men suggests that consumption of cocoa containing foods is associated with a reduced risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease and all other causes.
Cardiovascular Disease: Consumption of chocolate or cocoa has been associated with a variety of cardiovascular benefits including decreased LDL oxidation, decreased platelet aggregation, increased antioxidant capacity, decreased oxidative stress (an imbalance in the ratio of antioxidants to free radicals), increased HDL concentration, increased levels of prostacyclin (a signaling molecule involved in the prevention of blood clot formation), decreased levels of leukotriene (a signaling molecule involved in inflammation and allergic reactions), increased nitric oxide, improved endothelial function, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, improved insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin resistance, decreased free radical induced hemolysis (breakdown or red blood cells), improved brachial artery dilation, and decreased LDL cholesterol. Furthermore, in one recent investigation, consumption of approximately 30 calories of dark chocolate daily for eighteen weeks was associated with decreased blood pressure.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 recommends that the average person (who consumes 2,000 calories per day) consume 1,733 calories of nutrient dense foods (fat-free or lowfat foods from the six core food groups of grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat and beans, and oils) and only 267 discretionary calories (added fats and sugars). In light of current chocolate research, it may be beneficial to include a small piece of dark chocolate (equal to 30 calories) as part of the daily discretionary calorie allotment.
ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF CHOCOLATE CHOCOLATE TYPE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY
(mmol Tolox Equivalents)
(Per 100 g)
Dark (Semisweet) Chocolate
(Per 100 g)
(Per 100 kcals)
(Per 100 g)
(Per 100 kcals)
Tea has been consumed by Asian populations for thousands of years and is purported to have numerous beneficial effects on health. Research has investigated the relationship between tea and a variety of topics including cardiovascular disease, cancer, weight management, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and bone density.
Cardiovascular Disease: Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of tea is inversely associated with myocardial infarction (heart attacks). Green or black tea flavonoids have been found to have vasculoprotective (protection of blood vessels), antioxidative, antithrombogenic (prevention of blood clot formation), anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering properties, which may be responsible for the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, it is not known if all these actions also occur in the body when tea is consumed. Therefore, researchers still do not have a true understanding of the mechanism behind the cardioprotective effects of tea consumption. Cancer: According to the American Cancer Society, consumption of green tea has been associated with a reduced risk of skin, esophagus, stomach, colon, pancreas, lung, bladder, prostate, and breast cancer in experimental models. Unfortunately, the results from human research do not currently support the findings from these cell and animal studies. Therefore, consumption of tea solely for cancer prevention is not supported. Weight Management: Despite promising findings in experimental systems, there is limited long-term human evidence to support the consumption of green tea for weight loss. Type II Diabetes: Current research investigating the relationship between consumption of flavonoid rich food and risk of type 2 diabetes has not found a significant relationship between tea consumption and risk of this chronic disease. Alzheimer's Disease: Current epidemiological research investigating Alzheimer's Disease does not support a protective effect of tea consumption. Bone Density: In a recent investigation with elderly women (70 to 85 years old), black and green tea consumption was associated with a higher hip bone mineral density at the end of the study and, during the five year course of the study, with a lower hip bone mineral density loss. The findings from this investigation were in support of previous research.
Current research supports an inverse relationship between consumption of tea and risk of cardiovascular disease and loss of bone mineral density. In light of these findings, replacing a daily cup of coffee or caffeinated soda with a cup of unsweetened black or green tea may prove to be beneficial to overall health, but no specific recommendations regarding tea consumption can be made at this time.
1. Williamson G, Manach C. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:243S-255S.
2. Nutrient Data Laboratory US Department of Agriculture. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2007.
3. Peregrin T. Wine--a drink to your health? J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:1053-4.
4. Ruano-Ravina A, Figueiras A, Barros-Dios JM. Type of wine and risk of lung cancer: a case-control study in Spain. Thorax 2004;59:981-5.
5. Schoonen WM, Salinas CA, Kiemeney LA, Stanford JL. Alcohol consumption and risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men. Int J Cancer 2005;113:133-40.
6. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculutre, 2005.
7. Willett WC. Ask the doctor. For the health of my heart and arteries, how does regular consumption of red wine compare with grape juice or the equivalent in grapes? Harv Heart Lett 2007;17:7.
8. Park YK, Park E, Kim JS, Kang MH. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans. Mutat Res 2003;529:77-86.
9. Steinberg FM, Bearden MM, Keen CL. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103:215-23.
10. N KH. Vascular action of cocoa flavanols in humans: the roots of the story. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2006;47 Suppl 2:S99-102; discussion S119-21.
11. Buijsse B, Feskens EJ, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Cocoa intake, blood pressure, and cardiovascular mortality: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:411-7.
12. Ding EL, Hutfless SM, Ding X, Girotra S. Chocolate and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2006;3:2.
13. Taubert D, Roesen R, Lehmann C, Jung N, Schomig E. Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial. Jama 2007;298:49-60.
14. Scalbert A, Manach C, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. Dietary polyphenols and the prevention of diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 005;45:287-306.
15. Stangl V, Lorenz M, Stangl K. The role of tea and tea flavonoids in cardiovascular health. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006;50:218-28.
16. American Cancer Society. Green Tea. 2007.
17. Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:122-9.18. Kovacs EM, Mela DJ. Metabolically active functional food ingredients for weight control. Obes Rev 2006;7:59-78.
19. Nettleton JA, Harnack LJ, Scrafford CG, Mink PJ, Barraj LM, Jacobs DR, Jr. Dietary flavonoids and flavonoidrich foods are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 2006;136:3039-45.
20. Song Y, Manson JE, Buring JE, Sesso HD, Liu S. Associations of dietary flavonoids with risk of type 2 diabetes, and markers of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in women: a prospective study and cross-sectional analysis. J Am Coll Nutr 2005;24:376-84.
21. Dai Q, Borenstein AR, Wu Y, Jackson JC, Larson EB. Fruit and vegetable juices and Alzheimer's disease: the Kame Project. Am J Med 2006;119:751-9.
22. Devine A, Hodgson JM, Dick IM, Prince RL. Tea drinking is associated with benefits on bone density in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1243-7.
CATECHIN DOSAGE INFORMATION
A daily intake of 3 to 5 cups per day (1,200 mL) of green tea will provide at least 250 mg/day of catechins. Green tea extract should not be taken on an empty stomach due to the potential for hepatotoxicity from excessive levels of epigallocatechin gallate.
Anogenital Warts: Topical application of sinecatechins 3 times a day for a maximum of 6 weeks.
Cardiovascular Effect : 400 to 716 mg per day of catechins have been used in trials in divided dosages.
Diabetes: Dosages of epigallocatechin gallate range from 84 to 386 mg per day in trials evaluating glucose homeostasis.
Obesity: Dosage ranges used in trials include 270 to 800 mg/day of epigallocatechin gallate, or 125 to 625 mg/day of catechins.
CATECHINS SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS INFORMATION
Contraindications have not been identified; however, use caution when hepatic failure is present. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises those who are or may become pregnant to avoid caffeine.
Vitamin K present in green tea may antagonize the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Green tea consumption reduces the bioavailability of folic acid and may interfere with the absorption of iron. Green tea may stop bortezomib (Velcade) from working properly. Patients taking bortezomib should not drink green tea or consume any green tea products.
There are no reports of clinical toxicity from daily tea consumption as a beverage. Adverse events include headache, dizziness, and GI symptoms. Hepatotoxicity, including 1 fatality, has been associated with high plasma levels of epigallocatechin gallate or its metabolites.
CATECHIN SUPPLEMENTS & RELATED PRODUCTS
CATECHIN ANTIOXIDANT PRODUCTS
HerbsPro: Green Tea Standardized Extract, Nature's Way, 60 VCaps
An antioxidant premium extract dietary supplement with 250 mg Green Tea dried extract (leaf) 95-percent Polyphenols (75-percent Catechins) and 200 mg Green Tea leaf.
HerbsPro: Green Tea Extract Decaff, Vita Plus, 500 mg, 100 Caps
Derived from the leaf of the plant, Green tea contains substances called polyphenols, which scientists think contribute to its anti-cancer activity. Laboratory studies of one polyphenol, catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), show that it may interfere with several of the processes involved in cell replication. Catechins are antioxidants with the ability to scavange reactiveOxygen species such as superoxide and hydroxyl and peroxylradicals. Catechins have thermogenic (fat burning) capabilities.
HerbsPro: Ultimate Nutrition Ultra Ripped Ephedra Free, 180 Caps
Thermogenesis is the process that increases the metabolic rate. Citrus aurantium delivers a unique combination of five adrenergic amines (synephrine, N-methyltyramine, hordenine, octopamin, and tyramine) to stimulate beta-3 receptors that increase the rate at which fat is released from the body stores (lipolysis) and increase the resting metabolic rate. At the same time garcinia extract, which includes (-) hydroxy citric acid (HCA), increases the production and storage of glycogen while reducing both appetite and weight gain. HCA also causes calories to be burned in an energy cycle similar to thermogenesis. White willow bark extract, standardized for salicin, provides a synergistic action in elevating energy expenditure. Studies have shown that salicin when used in combination with other thermogenic supplements helps promote increased fat oxidation. Green tea supplies natural caffeine and potent polyphenols (catechins), especially epigalloocatechin gallate (EGCG) that activates the central nervous system which elevates the body's ability to burn calories and unwanted fat cells through the thermogenic process. Similar to green tea, Brazilian guarana, another source of natural caffeine, acts synergistically with other ingredients of Ultra Ripped to promote thermogenesis. Ultra Ripped ( ephedra free) capsules are manufactured under the strictest quality control to ensure your satisfaction. Ultra Ripped should be combined with physical activity, exercise and imrpoved diet.
HerbsPro: Green Tea Glycerite, Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz.
An herbal dietary supplement providing a rich source of antioxidant catechins and flavonoids. Darjeeling (Camellia sinensis) premium grade in a non-alcoholic, glycerin base.
HerbsPro: Organic Noni Juice, Only Natural, 32 fl. oz.
Only Naturals Noni Only is a liquid dietary supplement certified organic and kosher that may promote overall health, and may provide nutritional support for degenerative type diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes type II. Only Naturals Organic Noni Only comes from fresh-harvested noni fruit from the North and South Pacific Islands, whose climates produce the finest noni in the world. Noni is a tropical fruit commonly used for its health benefits. It contains high levels of phytonutrients, polysaccharides, catechins, flavanoids, beta sistosterol and antioxidants that are traditionally known to support various systems of the body, and promote a healthy lifestyle. Only Natural never adds sugar, or filler juices to Noni Only. Noni Only is 100% preservative free, the way nature intended. Beta-sistosterol is a compound found in plants and fruits like Only Naturals noni fruit juice that is chemically similar in structure to cholesterol; high levels are found in saw palmetto, pumpkin seed, and pygeum. Beta-sistosterol may exert cholesterol-lowering activity; however its main role is related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and may promote prostate health.
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Decaffeinated Green Tea Fat Burner Supplement for Weight-loss (98% Polyphenols, 50% EGCG). Green Tea has been used since ancient times in China for many health concerns including weight loss, supporting healthy aging, and combating the effects of free radical cell damage through its antioxidant properties. The Green Tea Gold Advantage Nutrigold's Green Tea Gold features Pure Value Green Tea, a high quality extract standardized to contain 90% Polyphenols, 80% Catechins, and 50% EGCG. The potency, safety, and integrity of this Green Tea extract is backed by Ethical Naturals' ProfileProven Quality Assurance System. Each vegetarian capsule contains 500 mg of decaffeinated Green Tea Standardized Extract (Camellia sinsensis [leaf] standardized to 98% Polyphenols, 80% Catechins, and 50% EGCG [250 mg]. Contains less than 1% Caffeine).
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One capsule of Now Green Tea Extract with 200 mg EGCg posesses the phytonutrient content equal to about 2 to 3 cups of green tea. Green Tea Extract contains numerous compounds, including Polyphenols and Catechins, that provide potent antioxidant benefits. One Catechin in particular, EGCg, has demonstrated extraordinary free radical quenching power in laboratory studies. In non-clinical studies, EGCg has also been shown to be protective against chemical and environmental assault on tissues and helps to support healthy cell cycle regulation.
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Powerful Antioxidant can assist with weight loss. Safe and no side effects. Lifetime 100% satisfaction. Money Back Guarantee. Potent antioxidant protection contains high concentrations of polyphenols and catechins, which are linked to health benefits ranging from immune response health to cardiovascular health. Additional health benefits include anti-aging support, enhances metabolism, helps healthy weight loss. Flavonoids and phytoestrogens in green tea supports bone mineral density, healthy fat burning process, and energy capacity. The high levels of oligomeric proanthocyanidins, some of the most powerful antioxidants, Green Tea is known to help decelerate the premature ageing process. Promotes relaxation and well-being. Green Tea Extract has Theanine which increases the activity of a neurotransmitter which helps inhibit the nervous system, inducing more relaxed and peaceful state. Known to relieve mental stress and anxiety the natural way. Premium ingredients - each herbal capsule is formulated with highly potent ingredients delivering safe and effective results. 40% Catechins / 60% Polyphenols.
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Top natural thermogenic fat burner for men and women burns belly fat fast with 75% polyphenol catechins. Among the best weight loss supplements that work quick without side effects. Increases energy, get a flatter stomach. Jumpstarts your metabolism almost immediately. Taking one capsule after a meal is like drinking 12 cups of green tea with the exact benefits. •Enjoy the ongoing residual benefits of EGCG - a powerful anti aging antioxidant that has been proven to fight free radicals, increase energy, and promote longevity. It has also been effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels, and inhibiting the abnormal formation of blood clots. Green Tea is one explanation of why Japanese men, 75-percent of whom smoke, have one of the lowest rate of heart disease in the world. Satisfaction Guaranteed.
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