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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Antioxidants
ASTAXANTHIN


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Astaxanthin Description
  • Astaxanthin Uses, Health Benefits, & Scientific Evidence
  • Astaxanthin Dosage Information
  • Astaxanthin Safety, Cautions, & Interactions
  • Astaxanthin Supplements & Products




  • ASTAXANTHIN DESCRIPTION

    CAROTENOID PHYTOCHEMICAL

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid. It belongs to a larger class of phytochemicals known as terpenes. Astaxanthin is classified as a xanthophyll and it is a metabolite of zeaxanthin and / or canthaxanthin, containing both hydroxyl and ketone functional groups. Like many carotenoids, astaxanthin is a colorful, lipid-soluble pigment. This color is due to the extended chain of conjugated (alternating double and single) double bonds at the center of the compound. This chain of conjugated double bonds is also responsible for the antioxidant function of astaxanthin (as well as other carotenoids) as it results in a region of decentralized electrons that can be donated to reduce a reactive oxidizing molecule.

    Astaxanthin is found in microalgae, yeast, salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, crayfish, crustaceans, and the feathers of some birds. It provides the red color of salmon meat and the red color of cooked shellfish. Professor Basil Weedon's group was the first to prove the structure of astaxanthin by synthesis in 1975.

    Astaxanthin , unlike several carotenes and one other known carotenoid, is not converted to vitamin A (retinol) in the human body. Like other carotenoids, astaxanthin has self-limited absorption orally and such low toxicity by mouth that no toxic syndrome is known. It is an antioxidant with a slightly lower antioxidant activity in some model systems than other carotenoids. However, in living organisms the free-radical terminating effectiveness of each carotenoid is heavily modified by its lipid solubility, and thus varies with the type of system being protected.

    While Astaxanthin is a natural nutritional component, it can also be used as a food supplement. The supplement is intended for human, animal, and aquaculture consumption. The commercial production of astaxanthin comes from both natural and synthetic sources.

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved astaxanthin as a food coloring (or color additive) for specific uses in animal and fish foods. The European Commission considers it food dye and it is given the E number E161j. Natural astaxanthin is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA, but as a food coloring in the United States it is restricted to use in animal food.

    arctic shrimp antarctic krill
    Pandalus borealis (Arctic shrimp) is colored by astaxanthin, and is used commercially as an astaxanthin source.
    Krill is also used as an astaxanthin source.


    NATURAL SOURCES OF ASTAXANTHIN

    The following sources are used for the commercial production of Astaxanthin :
    • Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)
    • Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill)
    • Haematococcus pluvialis (MicroAlgae)
    • Pandalus borealis (Arctic shrimp)
    • Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, formerly Phaffia rhodozyma (yeast)

    As a natural source, the following can be found in nature (or a production facility) with the approximate Astaxanthin concentrations:

    Source
    Astaxanthin Concentration (ppm)
       Salmonids
    ~ 5
       Plankton
    ~ 60
       Krill
    ~ 120
       Arctic Shrimp (P. Borealis)
    ~ 1,200
       Phaffia Yeast
    ~ 10,000
       Haematococcus Pluvialis
    ~ 40,000


    Currently, the primary natural source for Astaxanthin is the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. It seems to accumulate the highest levels of Astaxanthin in nature; Commercially more than 40 grams of Astaxanthin can be obtained from one kg of dry biomass. It has the advantage of the population doubling every week, which means scaling up is not an issue. However, it does require some expertise to grow the algae with a high astaxanthin content. Specifically, the microalgae is grown in two phases. First, in the green phase, the cells are given an abundance of nutrients to promote proliferation of the cells. In the subsequent red phase, the cells are deprived of nutrients and subjected to intense sunlight to induce encystment (carotogenesis), during which the cells produce high levels of Astaxanthin as a protective mechanism against the environmental stress. The cells, with their high concentrations of Astaxanthin , are then harvested.

    Phaffia yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous exhibits 100 percent free, non-esterified astaxanthin, which is considered advantageous because it is readily absorbable and need not be hydrolysed in the digestive tract of the fish. In contrast to synthetic and bacteria sources of astaxanthin, yeast sources of astaxanthin consist virtually all in 3R, 3'R form, an important astaxanthin source in nature. Finally, the geometrical isomer, all-E, is higher in yeast sources of astaxanthin, as compared to synthetic sources. This contributes to greater efficacy because the all-E (trans) isomer has greater bio-availability than the cis isomer.

    For obtaining astaxanthin from Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill), there are a number of issues:
      The Krill fishing operation is complex. It is done in Antarctic waters, under extreme weather conditions and far away from ports with substantial operational complexities. Krill's fishing location and the difficult weather conditions in the main fishing area, together with the costs involved in the operation, have contributed to a slow development of the industry. Krill fishing is by far different than any other fishing operation today known. The knowledge to work with it belongs to very few people in the world.

    Astaxanthin is commercially collected from shrimp processing waste. 12,000 pounds of wet shrimp shells can yield a 6 to 8 gallons astaxanthin/triglyceride oil mixture.

    SYNTHETIC SOURCES

    Nearly all commercial astaxanthin for aquaculture is produced synthetically, with an annual turnover of over 200 million dollars and a selling price of roughly 5000 to 6000 dollars per kilo as of July 2012. However, synthetic production of astaxanthin is not preferred in some cases because synthetic astaxanthin contains a mixture of stereoisomers. Astaxanthin is fairly abundant and obtainable from natural sources, and some consumers prefer natural products over synthetic ones.

    An efficient synthesis from isophorone, cis-3-methyl-2-penten-4-yn-1-ol and a symmetrical C10-dialdehyde has been discovered and is used commercially. It combines these chemicals together with an ethynylation and then a Wittig reaction. Two equivalents of the proper ylide combined with the proper dialdehyde in a solvent of methanol, ethanol, or a mixture of the two, yields astaxanthin in up to 88 percent yields.

    METABOLIC ENGINEERING

    The cost of astaxanthin production, high commercial price and lack of a leading fermentation production systems, combined with the shortfalls of chemical synthesis mean that research into alternative fermentation production methods has been carried out. Metabolic engineering offers the opportunity to create biological systems for the production of a specific target compound. The metabolic engineering of bacteria (Escherichia coli) recently allowed production of astaxanthin at greater than 90-percent of the total carotenoids, providing the first engineered production system capable of efficient astaxanthin production. Astaxanthin biosynthesis proceeds from beta-carotene via either zeaxanthin or canthaxanthin. Historically, it has been assumed that astaxanthin biosynthesis proceeds along both routes. However, recent work has suggested that efficient biosynthesis may, in fact, proceed from beta-carotene to astaxanthin via zeaxanthin. The production of astaxanthin by metabolic engineering, in isolation, will not provide a suitable alternative to current commercial methods. Rather, a bioprocess approach should be adopted. Such an approach would consider fermentation conditions and economics, as well as downstream processing (extraction). Carotenoid extraction has been studied extensively, for example, the extraction of canthaxanthin (a precursor to astaxanthin) was studied within an E. coli production process demonstrating that extraction efficiency was increased substantially when two solvents; acetone and methanol, were used sequentially rather than as a combined solution.

    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NATURAL & SYNTHETIC FORMS

    Astaxanthin has two chiral centers, at the 3- and 3'-positions. Therefore, there are three stereoisomers; (3R,3'R), (3R,3'S) (meso), and (3S,3'S). Synthetic astaxanthin contains a mixture of the three, in approximately 1:2:1 proportions. Naturally occurring astaxanthin varies considerably from one organism to another. The astaxanthin in fish is of whatever stereoisomer the fish ingested. The astaxanthin produced by haematococcus pluvialis, which is commonly used in the feed of animals that are in turn consumed by humans, is the (3S,3'S) stereoisomer.





    ASTAXANTHIN USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    BENEFITS

    Astaxanthin is a naturally-occurring carotenoid found in algae, shrimp, lobster, crab and salmon. Carotenoids are pigment colors that occur in nature and support good health. Beta carotene, for example, is orange. Astaxanthin has been dubbed the "king of the carotenoids". It is red, and is responsible for turning salmon, crab, lobster and shrimp flesh pink. In the animal kingdom, Astaxanthin is found in the highest concentration in the muscles of salmon. Scientists theorize Astaxanthin helps provide the endurance these remarkable animals need to swim upstream. For humans, Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant with broad health implications and unlike other antioxidants, such as beta carotene, zeaxanthin, vitamin E, C, D and selenium, Astaxanthin never becomes pro-oxidant in the body.

    Astaxanthin has been discussed by Dr. Mehmet Oz and Dr. Joe Mercola and recommended by many other health experts. Krill supplements contain trace amounts of Astaxanthin, not nearly what you need to achieve therapeutic benefits. The best source of Astaxanthin comes from Haematococcus Pluvialis microalgae. Here are some reasons to take Astaxanthin supplements:
      1. ASTAXANTHIN CAN HELP RELIEVE PAIN & INFLAMMATION

      Astaxanthin is a potent anti-inflammatory and pain reliever, blocking different chemicals in your body that make you feel pain. Astaxanthin reduces the inflammatory compounds that drive many chronic diseases. Even though it is 100 percent natural, Astaxanthin works like some prescription analgesics, but without the risk of addiction, GI bleeds or heartburn. More specifically, Astaxanthin blocks COX 2 enzymes just like Celebrex, the blockbuster drug prescribed for osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain and monthly dysmenorrhea. In fact, Astaxanthin works well with Celebrex, so Astaxanthin can be taken with Celebrex if your health care provider approves the use of dietary Astaxanthin. Astaxanthin relieves minor aches and pains from yoga, dance, hiking, kayaking and any other exercise you may be involved in.

      Natural Astaxanthin not only affects the COX 2 pathway, it suppresses serum levels of nitric oxide, interleukin 1B, prostaglandin E2, C Reactive Protein (CRP) and TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor alpha), and all of this has been proven. Natural Astaxanthin was shown to reduce CRP by more than 20 percent in only eight weeks; there is not a prescription drug that does that. The American Heart Association claims CRP is a key indicator of heart disease.

      2. ASTAXANTHIN HELPS FIGHT FATIGUE

      Astaxanthin provides excellent recovery from exercise. Just like salmon making the heroic upstream swim, Astaxanthin can help athletes do their best. Pure natural Astaxanthin is indicated for recovery of muscles, better endurance, enhanced strength and improved energy levels.

      3. ASTAXANTHIN SUPPORTS EYE HEALTH

      Astaxanthin has the unique ability to cross through a barrier and reach your retina. Well-designed clinical trials have shown that Astaxanthin helps diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, eye strain and fatigue and seeing in fine detail. There are well-designed positive human clinical trials supporting eye health.

      4. ASTAXANTHIN ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY CLEANS UP CELLS

      Astaxanthin is in a class of its own when it comes to its antioxidant activities. It filters into every cell of the body. Its unique molecular lipophilic and hydrophilic properties allow it to span the entire cell, with one end of the astaxanthin molecule protecting the fat-soluble part of the cell and one end protecting the water-soluble part of the cell. Natural Astaxanthin is exceptionally powerful in singlet-oxygen quenching. A 2007 study analyzed several popular antioxidants and their antioxidant power. This study found Astaxanthin was 6,000 times stronger than vitamin C, 800 times stronger than CoQ10, 550 times stronger than green tea catechins and 75 times stronger than alpha lipoic acid.

      5. ASTAXANTHIN FOR SKIN CARE & SUNSCREEN PROTECTION

      Astaxanthin has been shown to protect the body's largest organ - the skin. The studies are clear and consistent and show excellent results for helping with skin moisture levels, smoothness, elasticity, fine wrinkles, and spots or freckles. Astaxanthin reduces damage caused by ultraviolet radiation from the sun. If you get a sunburn, which causes inflammation, astaxanthin penetrates the skin cells and reduces UVA damage. Consider it as an internal sunscreen.

    ASTAXANTHIN SOURCES

    Wild Pacific salmon, especially sockeye salmon, have the highest Astaxanthin content. However you would have to eat about 6 ounces (165 grams) daily to get a 3.6 milligram dose. Since studies show that doses greater than that provide anti-inflammatory benefits, a dietary supplement of Astaxanthin may be recommended. Shop wisely, because you want to make sure that your particular brand has undertaken all the special precautions to harvest it properly, purify it, encapsulate it and protect its potency right up to the expiration date on the bottle. You can find Astaxanthin supplements by many makers at health food stores nationwide and from our merchants below.

    ASTAXANTHIN FOOD SUPPLEMENT USES

    Astaxanthin is used as a feed supplement for salmon, crabs, shrimp, chickens and egg production. Regardless of the source, astaxanthin provides some important benefits beyond coloration. It also has been found to be essential for proper growth and survival.

    FOR SEAFOOD & ANIMALS

    The primary use of synthetic astaxanthin today is as an animal feed additive to impart coloration, including farm-raised salmon and egg yolks. Synthetic carotenoid pigments colored yellow, red or orange represent about 15 to 25 percent of the cost of production of commercial salmon feed. Today, almost all commercial astaxanthin for aquaculture is produced synthetically from petrochemical sources. While it constitutes a tiny portion of salmon feed (50 to 100 parts per million), astaxanthin represents a major share of the cost, up to 20 percent.

    Class action lawsuits have been filed against some major grocery store chains for not clearly labeling the salmon "color added". The chains followed up quickly by labeling all such salmon as "color added". "...law-firm Smith & Lowney persisted with the suit for damages, but a Seattle judge dismissed [the case], ruling that enforcement of the applicable food laws was up to government and not individuals."

    FOR HUMANS

    The primary use for humans is as a food supplement. Research shows that, due to Astaxanthin's potent antioxidant activity, it may be beneficial in cardiovascular, immune, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Some research supports the assumption that it may protect body tissues from oxidative and ultraviolet damage through its suppression of NF-KB activation.

    ROLE IN THE FOOD CHAIN

    It has been speculated that gulls are "flushed" pink when molting, especially in areas with farm-raised salmon. However, not enough is known about the relationship between astaxanthin and plumage. For example, cardinals seem to produce astaxanthin from carotenoids when molting, even when fed primarily seed with natural yellow dye.

    Lobsters, shrimp, and some crabs turn red when cooked because the astaxanthin, which was bound to the protein in the shell, becomes free as the protein denatures and unwinds. The freed pigment is thus available to absorb light and produce the red color.

    REGULATIONS

    In April 2009, the US FDA approved astaxanthin as an additive for fish feed only as a component of a stabilized color additive mixture. Color additive mixtures for fish feed made with astaxanthin may contain only those diluents that are suitable. The color additives astaxanthin, ultramarine blue, canthaxanthin, synthetic iron oxide, dried algae meal, Tagetes meal and extract, and corn endosperm oil are approved for specific uses in animal foods. Haematococcus algae meal (21 CFR 73.185) and Phaffia yeast (21 CFR 73.355) for use in fish feed to color salmonoids were added in 2000. In the European Union, astaxanthin-containing food supplements derived from sources that have no history of use as a source of food in Europe, fall under the remit of the Novel Food legislation, EC (No.) 258/97. Since 1997, there have been five novel food applications concerning products that contain astaxanthin extracted from these novel sources. In each case, these applications have been simplified or substantial equivalence applications, because astaxanthin itself is recognized as a food component in the EU diet.


    Information was obtained from Wikipedia.org; Astaxanthin. For references, visit their web page.




    ASTAXANTHIN DOSAGE INFORMATION

    ASTAXANTHIN SUPPLEMENTS

    Astaxanthin is a red-pink pigment found in various seafoods, and also in the feathers of flamingos and quails. It is structurally similar to Beta-Carotene (Pro-Vitamin A) but has some chemical differences which may be safer.

    It seems to be able to improve many blood parameters that could be beneficial to heart disease. At doses of 6 to 8 mg daily, it can decrease the oxidation of LDL cholesterol and prevent it from becoming artherogenic (artery clogging). It can increase general blood flow and reduce blood sugar in diabetics and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (humans not studied yet) with no effect on these measures in normal healthy persons.

    Additionally, it is also a potent anti-inflammatory and has more anti-oxidant capabilities than vitamin A itself. Various sources of astaxanthin (food, bacterial, synthetic) may have different bioavailabilities and mixture of isomers. Astaxanthin is fat soluble, and should be taken with food. Its absorption is enhanced in the presence of fatty acids. Astaxanthin is absorbed from the intestines via micelles made from dietary fatty acids, which is similar to all other carotenoid structures and thus requires coingestion with fatty acids (to make the micelles) to absorbed appreciable levels of astaxanthin.

    RECOMMENDED DOSAGE

    Astaxanthin appears to be recommended in the dosage range of 6 to 8 mg daily, which is low enough that an enriched salmon oil or Krill Oil supplement may contain adequate levels. Doses of up to 20 to 50 mg astaxanthin have been tolerated, although the exact toxicity and upper limit is not known.

    Despite the above recommendations, the ideal dose of astaxanthin is currently not known. Due to being a carotenoid, and related to the metabolism of Vitamin A (a fat soluble vitamin) it would be prudent to take astaxanthin alongside a meal.





    ASTAXANTHIN SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    ASTAXANTHIN SAFETY & TOXICOLOGY

    Consumption of 6mg daily of Astaxanthin for a prolonged period does not seem to adversely affect any blood parameter in humans according to one study a dose which effectively improves blood rheology. In vitro studies with higher dosages have suggested a very high therapeutic threshold, but interventions with more than 6 mg have yet to be conducted for a prolonged period of time. A study known as the Xanthin study is currently being undertaken to assess whether 8 mg daily is effective in post-kidney transplantation patients. A dose that has been shown to be safe and effective in a study lasting 8 weeks.

    One human study noted no side effects with 21.6 mg daily for two weeks or 20 mg for 12 weeks as well as a single dose of 48 mg is well tolerated (except for red coloration of the feces, seen as due to the pigmentation of astaxanthin and medically benign).

    FALSE POSITIVES

    Similar to how Beet Root, via consumption of the Betalains molecules, can cause feces to turn a reddish hue following oral supplementation it seems that high doses of astaxanthin (48 mg acutely) can cause feces to turn a reddish hue. This is also seen with 20 mg over a period of weeks, albeit not in all subjects. This is seen as medically benign, but may be confused for colonic bleeding.





    ASTAXANTHIN SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

  • Astaxanthin Antioxidant Supplement Products


  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


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    ASTAXANTHIN ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring carotenoid that is closely related to Beta-Carotene and Lutein. Because of its unique structure Astaxanthin provides a wide range of antioxidant benefits. Astaxanthin may play a key rolse in the protection of cell membranes against free radical attack, as well as support of the immune system and cardiovascular health.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Source Naturals, 2 mg, 30 Softgels (69815)
    Astaxanthin is a natural extract from cultivated microalgae, which has a high level of astaxanthin, a strong antioxidant. It searches for a number of types of free radicals that is more than any other antioxidant. It also works together with other antioxidants. It also assists in protecting cell and mitochondrial membranes.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Source Naturals, 2 mg, 60 Softgels (6100)
    Astaxanthin is a natural extract from cultivated microalgae, which has a high level of astaxanthin, a strong antioxidant. It searches for a number of types of free radicals that is more than any other antioxidant. It also works together with other antioxidants. It also assists in protecting cell and mitochondrial membranes.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Source Naturals, 2 mg, 60 Tabs (31255)
    Astaxanthin is a natural extract from cultivated microalgae, which has a high level of astaxanthin, a strong antioxidant. It searches for a number of types of free radicals that is more than any other antioxidant. It also works together with other antioxidants. It also assists in protecting cell and mitochondrial membranes.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Source Naturals, 2 mg, 120 Softgels (69816)
    Astaxanthin is a natural extract from cultivated microalgae, which has a high level of astaxanthin, a strong antioxidant. It searches for a number of types of free radicals that is more than any other antioxidant. It also works together with other antioxidants. It also assists in protecting cell and mitochondrial membranes.
    HerbsPro: Best Astaxanthin, Doctors Best, 3 mg, 60 Softgels (92854)
    Best Astaxanthin featuring BioAstin supplies natural astaxanthin, an exceptionally valuable carotenoid nutrient, along with other naturally occurring carotenoids. Astaxanthin is an ultrapotent antioxidant with unique effects on cell membranes that manage important life functions. This action is linked to benefits for the circulation and for vision, immunity, and overall well-being. Doctors Best is pleased to offer this breakthrough nutrient at clinical potency.
    HerbsPro: Best Astaxanthin, Doctors Best, 3 mg, 180 Softgels (92861)
    Best Astaxanthin featuring BioAstin supplies natural astaxanthin, an exceptionally valuable carotenoid nutrient, along with other naturally occurring carotenoids. Astaxanthin is an ultrapotent antioxidant with unique effects on cell membranes that manage important life functions. This action is linked to benefits for the circulation and for vision, immunity, and overall well-being. Doctors Best is pleased to offer this breakthrough nutrient at clinical potency.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 4 mg, 30 VSoftgels (100731)
    Astaxanthin 4 mg Vegetarian Softgels provide a pharmaceutical-grade, vegetable-based astaxanthin in a complex of other important carotenoids like beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and lutein from marine algae (Haematococcus pluvialis) that is sustainably sourced. Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid that provides the pink-to-red pigments found in plants and fish. Available in easy-to-swallow vegetarian softgels for a truly vegetarian formula from the inside and out.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Futurebiotics, 4 mg, 30 Softgels (88549)
    Astaxanthin is one of a group of natural pigments known as carotenoids and is considered nature's super antioxidant, helping to boost natural antioxidant defenses in the body. Futurebiotics Astaxanthin is a multifunctional antioxidant derived exclusively from whole microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis. Each softgel provides a full 4 mg of pure, natural Astaxanthin to help protect against free radicals. Due to the unique structure of Astaxanthin, it has the ability to pass the blood-brain barrier, which allows it to deliver antioxidant benefits directly to the brain and central nervous system. Astaxanthin is many times more powerful as an antioxidant than beta-carotene or vitamin E.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin-V, Astavita, 4 mg, 30 Caps (76863)
    Astavita's Astaxanthin is harvested from the best source of astaxanthin in the world: the deep red microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. Astaxanthin is an example of evolution at work. Normally, the microalgae that swim about freely in pools of water are green. However, when the water pools dry out and the algae are exposed to intense sunlight, they begin producing large quantities of bright red astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant that protects the algae from UV radiation, allowing them to survive - even in the harshest of conditions. Benefits include Muscle Recovery and Physical Endurance. Relieve Eye Fatigue. Improve Skin Condition. Over All Increase in Well Being. Astaxanthin is the strongest antioxidant.
    HerbsPro: Vegan Astaxanthin Super Antioxidant, Deva Vega Vitamins, 4 mg, 30 VCaps (88465)
    Astaxanthin was found to have excellent benefits for the cardiovascular system. By inducing enzymes that metabolize foreign compounds, astaxanthin helps the body to naturally detoxify. One of the most remarkable recent discoveries found that astaxanthin significantly reduced the amount of DNA damage found in humans. Astaxanthin used in this product is natural (not synthetic) and is manufactured from the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis grown in closed culture using ultra-pure water. Vegan Astaxanthin has 4 mg of pure astaxanthin per vegan capsule, which is many times stronger than many other astaxanthin products sold on the market. Deva Vegan Astaxanthin is 100% animal free, and guaranteed for purity, freshness and labeled potency. Remember all Deva Products are 100% vegan, vegetarian and are certified by the Vegan Society, the non-profit organization that actually invented the word vegan.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Astavita, 4 mg, 60 Softgels (110990)
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 4 mg, 60 VSoftgels (100733)
    Astaxanthin 4 mg Vegetarian Softgels provide a pharmaceutical-grade, vegetable-based astaxanthin in a complex of other important carotenoids like beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and lutein from marine algae (Haematococcus pluvialis) that is sustainably sourced. Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid that provides the pink-to-red pigments found in plants and fish. Available in easy-to-swallow vegetarian softgels for a truly vegetarian formula from the inside and out.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Now Foods, 4 mg, 60 Softgels (67737)
    Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring carotenoid that, because of its unique structure, provides a wide range of antioxidant benefits. Because Astaxanthin is able to cross the blood-brain and blood-retina barriers, it can deliver potent antioxidant protection directly to the eye, brain, and nervous system. Zanthin Astaxanthin has been patented for its ability to support retinal and overall ocular health. Scientific studies have also demonstrated that Astaxanthin can help to support a healthy inflammatory response.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Healthy Origins, 4 mg, 60 Softgels (92219)
    Healthy Origins 100% Natural BioAstin Astaxanthin is a carotenoid produced from Haematococcus Pluvialis microalgae. Carotenoids are organic pigments that naturally occur in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. These organic pigments are responsible for giving many plants, fruits, and sea life their vibrant colors. There are over 600 known carotenoids which are broken down into 2 groups: Xanthophylls and Carotenes. One of the most important carotenoids in the Xanthophyll groups is the super antioxidant Astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is the most powerful known natural antioxidant on our planet! Natural Astaxanthin can have up to 550 times the antioxidant activity of Vitamin E and 10 times the antioxidant activity of Beta Carotene.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Jarrow Formulas, 4 mg, 60 Softgels (91320)
    BioAstin Astaxanthin is a natural antioxidant carotenoid derived from the fermentation of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. Clinical studies have demonstrated that Astaxanthin may promote a healthy inflammatory response, supports skin during exposure to sunlight and supports joint and eye health.
    HerbsPro: BioAstin Astaxanthin, Nutrex, 4 mg, 60 Caps (35366)
    BioAstin natural Astaxanthin is a human dietary supplement with powerful antioxidant benefits. Cyanotech produces BioAstin from microalgae and it was the first source of Astaxanthin for human nutrition that has been reviewed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Product contains Vitamin A (as beta carotene) 65 IU, Vitamin E (as d-alpha-tocopherol 50 IU, Natural Astraxanthin 4 mg, and Lutein 40 mcg. BioAstin completed a review by the FDA without objection and was allowed to be sold in the United States as a human dietary supplement. A growing body of scientific literature demonstrates that natural astaxanthin surpasses many of the antioxidant benefits of vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene and other carotenoids. Research has also shown that natural astaxanthin has up to 550 times the antioxidant activity of vitamin E and 10 times the antioxidant activity of beta-carotene. Does Not Contain: Free of yeast, corn, wheat, or soy. Non-GMO, BSE-free.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Futurebiotics, 4 mg, 90 Softgels (94786)
    Astaxanthin is one of a group of natural pigments known as carotenoids and is considered nature's super antioxidant, helping to boost natural antioxidant defenses in the body. Futurebiotics Astaxanthin is a multifunctional antioxidant derived exclusively from whole microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis. Each softgel provides a full 4 mg of pure, natural Astaxanthin to help protect against free radicals. Due to the unique structure of Astaxanthin, it has the ability to pass the blood-brain barrier, which allows it to deliver antioxidant benefits directly to the brain and central nervous system. Astaxanthin is many times more powerful as an antioxidant than beta-carotene or vitamin E.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Healthy Origins, 4 mg, 150 Softgels (92218)
    Healthy Origins 100% Natural BioAstin Astaxanthin is a carotenoid produced from Haematococcus Pluvialis microalgae. Carotenoids are organic pigments that naturally occur in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. These organic pigments are responsible for giving many plants, fruits, and sea life their vibrant colors. There are over 600 known carotenoids which are broken down into 2 groups: Xanthophylls and Carotenes. One of the most important carotenoids in the Xanthophyll groups is the super antioxidant Astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is the most powerful known natural antioxidant on our planet! Natural Astaxanthin can have up to 550 times the antioxidant activity of Vitamin E and 10 times the antioxidant activity of Beta Carotene.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Solgar, 5 mg, 30 Softgels (36209)
    Astaxanthin is classified as a xanthophyll, which is a carotenoid pigment found in fish and algae. It helps to provide the natural color in these organisms. Astaxanthin is a super antioxidant whose unique structure allows it to exist in both lipid and aqueous environments, enabling it to be active throughout the body. In addition, it helps to fight free radicals in the skin so as to maintain a natural, healthy glow.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Solgar, 5 mg, 60 Softgels (36210)
    Astaxanthin is classified as a xanthophyll, which is a carotenoid pigment found in fish and algae. It helps to provide the natural color in these organisms. Astaxanthin is a super antioxidant whose unique structure allows it to exist in both lipid and aqueous environments, enabling it to be active throughout the body. In addition, it helps to fight free radicals in the skin so as to maintain a natural, healthy glow.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Jarrow Formulas, 10 mg, 30 Softgels (106746)
    BioAstin Astaxanthin is a natural antioxidant carotenoid derived from the fermentation of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. Clinical studies have demonstrated that Astaxanthin may promote a healthy inflammatory response, supports skin during exposure to sunlight and supports joint and eye health.
    HerbsPro: BioAstin Hawaiian Astaxanthin, Nutrex, 12 mg, 25 Caps (94685)
    This new product has the highest potency levels of Astaxanthin per gel cap available on the market today. Astaxanthin is known as natures most powerful antioxidant backed by over 200 scientific studies. This new formula is ideal for athletes, individuals with certain health conditions, or for people whose bodies do not absorb carotenoids like Astaxanthin well.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Natures Life, 12 mg, 30 Softgels (105975)
    HerbsPro: BioAstin Hawaiian Astaxanthin, Nutrex, 12 mg, 50 Caps (94686)
    This new product has the highest potency levels of Astaxanthin per gel cap available on the market today. Astaxanthin is known as natures most powerful antioxidant backed by over 200 scientific studies. This new formula is ideal for athletes, individuals with certain health conditions, or for people whose bodies do not absorb carotenoids like Astaxanthin well.
    HerbsPro: Astaxanthin, Triple Strength, Healthy Origins, 12 mg, 60 Softgels (95656)
    Healthy Origin Natural BioAstin Astaxanthin is a carotenoid produced from Haematococcus Pluvialis microalgae. One Natural Triple Strength Astaxanthin softgel capsule features a total of 12 mg of Astaxanthin, three times the strength of Healthy Origins regular Astaxanthin, BioAstin Astaxanthin.
    HerbsPro: BioAstin Natural Astaxanthin, Nutrex, 120 Gelcaps (80515)
    BioAstin is the most powerful free radical eliminating and singlet oxygen quenching natural antioxidant known to man. It has been shown to be 550 times stronger than Vitamin E and 800 times stronger than CoQ10. BioAstin supports Joint Health,Healthy Tendons, Eye Health, Healthy Immune Function, A Healthy Cardiovascular System, Anti-Aging through Cellular Health, Healthy Skin, Skin during Sun Exposure, A Healthy Oxidative Balance, Increased Energy Levels, The Body in Recovery from Exercise.


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    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
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    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
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    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
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    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
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    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
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    Soybean Oil
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    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
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  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
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  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
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  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
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