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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Amino Acids

& Phosphatidyl Serine (PS)

For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.

  • Serine Description
  • Serine Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Serine Dosage Information
  • Serine Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Serine Supplement Products



    Serine is a non-essential amino acid, one of the proteinogenic amino acids and by virtue of the hydroxyl group, is classified as a polar amino acid. Only L-Serine appears naturally in proteins. Serine can be synthesized in the body from other metabolites, including Glycine. It is a constituent of brain proteins and nerve coverings and is also important in the formation of cell membranes, involved in the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines. It is included as a natural moisturizing agent in many cosmetics and skin care preparations. Some derivatives (e.g. ethanolamine) are also important components of the phospholipids found in biological membranes.

    Serine was first isolated and obtained in 1865 from sericin, a silk protein, a particulary rich source. The name Serine is derived froom the Latin for silk, sericum. Serine's structure was established in 1902.

    The biosynthesis of Serine starts with the oxidation of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate and NADN. Reductive amination of this ketone followed by hdrolysis gives serine. Serine hydroxy methltranferase catalyzes the reversible, simultaneous conversions of L-Serin to Glycine (retro-aldol cleavage) and 5,6,7.8-tetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (hydrolysis). The compound may also be naturally produced when UV light illuminates simple ices such as a combination of water, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia, suggesting that it may be easily produced in cold regions of space.

    microscopic serine


    The methyl side chain of serine contains a hydroxy group making this one of two amino acids that are also alcohols. Serine plays a major role in a variety of biosynthetic pathways including those involving pyrimidines, purines, creatine, and porphyrins. Serine is also found at the active site in an important class of enzymes termed "serine proteases" that include trypsin and chymotrypsin. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in polypeptides and proteins, a major function in the digestive process. On a molar basis, serine is incorporated into proteins at a rate of 7.1-percent compared to the other amino acids.



    Serine is important in metabolism in that it participates in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines. It is the precursor to several amino acids including glycine and cysteine, and tryptophan in bacteria. It is also the precursor to numerous other metabolites, including sphingolipids and folate, which is the principal donor of one-carbon fragments in biosynthesis.


    Serine plays an important role in the catalytic function of many enzymes. It has been shown to occur in the active sites of chymotrypsin, trypsin, and many other enzymes. The so-called nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by combining with a residue of serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely.

    As a constituent (residue) of proteins, its side chain can undergo O-linked glycosylation, which may be functionally related to diabetes.

    It is one of three amino acid residues that are commonly phosphorylated by kinases during cell signaling in eukaryotes. Phosphorylated serine residues are often referred to as phosphoserine.

    Serine proteases are a common type of protease.


    D-Serine, synthesized in the brain by serine racemase from L-serine (its enantiomer), serves as both a neurotransmitter and a gliotransmitter by coactivating NMDA receptors, making them able to open if they then also bind glutamate. D-serine is a potent agonist at the glycine site of the NMDA-type glutamate receptor. For the receptor to open, glutamate and either glycine or D-serine must bind to it. In fact, D-serine is a more potent agonist at the glycine site on the NMDAR than glycine itself. D-serine was only thought to exist in bacteria until relatively recently; it was the second D amino acid discovered to naturally exist in humans, present as a signalling molecule in the brain, soon after the discovery of D-aspartate. Had D amino acids been discovered in humans sooner, the glycine site on the NMDA receptor might instead be named the D-serine site.


    Pure D-Serine is an off-white crystalline powder with a very faint funky or dirty aroma. L-Serine is sweet with minor umami and sour tastes at high concentration. D-Serine is sweet with an additional minor sour taste at medium and high concentrations.

  • Wikipedia: Serine


    Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a non-essential amino acid derivative compound is fat-soluble and found in high amounts in the brain, where it contributes to cognitive functioning. PS is manufactured by the body. It is classified as a phospholipid that is necessary to every cell in the body, and is abundant in nerve cells. Phosphatidyl Serine is required for the metabolism of fat, tissue growth and the immune system as it assists in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies. Our brain normally produces enough PS, but as we age, Phosphatidyl Serine production decreases, which can result in a deficiency. PS is found in high amounts in fish and it may improve memory in the elderly and lowers cortisol. Phosphatidyl Serine supplementation has been used to reduce symptoms of depression and Alzheimer's disease. Taking PS can also enhance memory and learning abilities.


    Serine and Phosphyatidyl Serine is found in meats and dairy products, wheat gluten, peanuts as well as soy products. Serine production requires adequate amounts of Vitamin B-3 (Niacin), Vitamin B-6, and Folic Acid (Vitamin B-9). If Phosphatidyl Serine supplements are taken, it is important to read and follow product label directions.


    Although Serine provides a number of health benefits, its primary use in our body is to facilitate the performance of the central nervous system (CNS), in addition to the general functioning of the brain. Serine is rapidly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. Serine is an integral component of phospholipids, which are important constituents of cellular membranes. Serine is a constituent of brain proteins and nerve sheaths and is important in brain and hervous system health. Without abundant available Serine, these coverings turn out to be lean or totally vanish, as a result of which the nerves are incapacitated and unable to transmit signals to the different body parts.

    In addition, Serine also facilitates the creation of immunoglobulin and antibodies, which are both indispensible for a robust immune system. This amino acid is needed to produce Tryptophan, which is utilized to produce Serotonin. Tryptophan is necessary for the manufacture of Serotonin, Niacin, and Malatonin. It may be noted here that Serotonin is employed by the brain to control the mood, and nervousness and depression are related to the absence or either Tryptophan or Serotonin in our body.

    The presence of Folic Acid as well as Vitamins B-3 and Vitamin B-6 is essential to make it possible for the human body to produce Serine. These amalgams are naturally present in peanuts, foods based on soy, dairy products, wheat gluten and meat. On the other hand, taking diets that contain high amounts of processed foods may result in a dearth of this amino acid. While you may purchase Serine supplements in tablet as well as powdered forms, this non-essential amino acid is most commonly available in the form of a blended supplement, for instance, a dietetic sports beverage. Frequently, Serine is also incorporated in the form of a natural moisturizing ingredient in several skin care as well as cosmetic preparations.

    Only in exceptional instances, the body may possibly suffer from a natural abundance of serine. In fact, it is a hereditary condition that prevents the occurrence of bio-synthesis of L-serine. This condition is generally common in children having symptoms like seizures and psycho-motor retardation. The signs of this health problem are apparent in the form of a neurological condition and several children are usually not examined for deficiency of L-serine. Usually, a simple test of the spinal fluid is sufficient to find out if this problem is the basic reason for the symptoms.

    Tryptophan and serotonin deficits are related to several health conditions, including insomnia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, confusion and nervousness as well as fibromyalgia (a disease distinguished by weariness and unrelenting pain in the muscles as well as in tissues adjoining the joints).

    Serine is used in various ways in the food industry, including:
    • Dairy: Milk coagulation, flavor development.
    • Baking: Gluten development.
    • Fish & Seafood Processing: Fishmeal, enhanced oil recovery, aquaculture.
    • Animal Protein Processing: Improved digestibility, reduced allergenicity, improved flavor, meat tenderization.
    • Plant Protein Processing: Improved digestion, solubility & processing, flavor, generation of bio-active peptides.
    • Yeast Hydrolysis: Flavor compounds.

    D-serine is manufactured in the brain from L-serine by use of the enzyme serine racemase. D-serine serves as a neuronal small signaling molecule by activating N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate (NMDA) receptors, allowing them to open and bind to the amino acid glutamate (glutamic acid). D-serine is a potent agonist at the glycine site of the NMDA-type glutamate receptor in the brain.


  • Fibromyalgia: Individuals with fibromyalgia are reported to have lower than normal tryptophan levels. As serine is a precursor to tryptophan, increasing serine levels in the body is a proposed supportive measure in treating individuals with chronic fatigue or fibromyalgia.
  • Schizophrenia: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week crossover trial gave 39 risperidone- or olanzapine-treated schizophrenia patients D-serine (30 mg/kg/day) in addition to their antipsychotic medication. The individuals receiving D-serine showed marked improvement in the symptoms of schizophrenia when compared to placebo. Another clinical study found that a dose of 60 mg/kg/day of D-serine was effective in decreasing the symptoms of schizophrenia.


    Phosphatidyl serine (PS) is one of the key human brain phospholipids and is essential for normal neuron structure and function. Phosphatidyl serine, along with other essential fatty acids, may also play a critical role in cognitive function, including maintaining concentration and memory.

    Phosphatidyl Serine is nutritional suppott for the brain. All we have ever known or will ever feel, begins and ends with the hundreds of billions of nerve cells that form our brain. Without them, there can be no experience; for us, nothing would exist. Our mind and personality, the sense of who we are, emanate from this immensely intricate system of nerves. The brain's remarkable ability to perceive and perform, remember and learn, is severely challenged by today's social and physical environment. These environmental factors accelerate the decline in nerve cell activity that normally occurs with age. Recent clinical research is revealing how previously unrecognized nutrients can strengthen the body's natural defenses against age-related cognitive decline.

    Phosphotidyl Serine is a phospholipid which forms an essential part of every human cell, but it is particularly concentrated in the membranes of nerve cells. Since the electronic messages that communicate and regulate every aspect of our lives travel along nerve cell membranes, the structural integrity of these membranes is imperative to our health. The nerve cell membrane is the site where molecules of sodium and potassium exchange electrons, causing the electrical impulse to be generated. This bio-electric current then travels along the membrane to trigger the release of neurotransmitters. These are the chemical messengers that cross synapses (gaps between nerve cells) to relay information to neighboring nerve cells. This sets other electrical currents in motion- along thousands of other nerve cells. This happens billions of times each second, and is how the brain and nerves coordinate and communicate with the rest of the body.

    Phosphatidyl serine has a very important function in the nerve cell membrane. As a key bio-structural molecule, Phosphatidyl serine provides vital support for the membrane proteins that enable nerve cells to communicate and grow.

    Unlike other cells in the body, nerve cells do not reproduce. Instead, they repair and rebuild themselves, using proteins called Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). Experiments verify that PS enhances the synthesis and reception of NGF, which tend to drop off radically with age. Phosphatidyl Serine supplements enhance the cerebral cortex's output of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter associated with our ability to think, reason, and concentrate. Phosphatidyl Serine also stimulates the synthesis and release of dopamine, related to heightened states of attention.

    The brain's response to stress also appears to be related to Phosphatidyl Serine. When healthy young men were subjected to exercise-induced stress, those taking Phosphatidyl Serine had a lowered stress response. This was measured by blood levels of ACTH, the pituitary hormone that triggers the adrenals to secrete the stress hormone cortisol. Subjects taking Phosphatidyl Serine showed increased levels of brain energy metabolism and scored higher on cognitive tests. Behavioral factors were also measured in elderly subjects; Phosphatidyl Serine positively affected their mood states. Over 23 clinical trials have investigated the effect of Phosphatidyl Serine supplements on more than 1200 human subjects, ages 40 to 93. Consistent and statistically significant results suggest that Phosphatidyl Serine supports brain functions that tend to diminish with age.

  • Nutrition Basics: Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) Information



    Serine used at therapeutic doses ranges between 300 mg and 1,000 mg of the supplement on a daily basis during the entire supplemental period.

    L-Serine deficiency is a rare, inherited, metabolic disorder of L-serine biosynthesis. Children with L-serine deficiency present with congenital microcephaly, then go on to develop severe psychomotor retardation and intractable seizures. The outcome of treatment with oral L-serine ranges from improvement of seizure control and well-being in older children to normal psychomotor development in a child who was diagnosed and treated prenatally with L-serine.

    Children with apparent neurological disorders are rarely, if ever, tested for a metabolic disorder and unlikely to be tested for L-serine deficiency. It is likely that L-serine deficiency is grossly under-diagnosed. A major goal of the Serine Deficiency Foundation is to educate health care providers and parents about the importance of metabolic testing for L-serine deficiency through a simple test of the child’s cerebral spinal fluid.

    Children with L-serine deficiency can manifest the following symptoms, or the following terms might be used to describe their symptoms and signs: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, seizures, epileptic encephalopathy , encephalopathy, cortical visual impairment (limited vision due to brain involvement rather than a primary eye disorder), cortical blindness, spastic quadriparesis (spasticity or stiffness and muscle weakness at the same time), infantile spasms, congenital microcephaly (small head size from birth), muscle weakness, hypotonia, poor head control, poor brain growth, white matter abnormalities (brain), spasticity, megaloblastic anemia, failure to thrive, reflux. In particular, the triad of congenital microcephaly, spastic quadriparesis (cerebral palsy) and seizures should be an important clue to test for this disorder.


    Phosphatidyl Serine, or PS, is a compound similar to a dietary fat which is highly prevalent in human neural tissue. Do not confuse it with Serine. Phosphatidyl Serine is non-stimulatory and goes well with fatty acids due to fat solubility. It does not go well with fat-blockers. It can be synthesized as well as consumed through the diet , but further benefits can be gained through supplementation. It is vital for cognitive function, but is not necessarily needed as the body synthesizes it. However, Phosphatidylserine (PS) supplementation in older individuals seems to improve memory and cognitive capacity.

    A standard dose of phosphatidylserine (PS) is 100 mg, taken 3 times a day to total 300mg daily. This dose seems to be effective as a daily preventative against cognitive decline, and 100 mg once daily may provide some degree of benefit (but may be lesser than 300 mg).

    Studies in children and adolescents for the purpose of attention improvement tend to use 200 mg, and a dose of 200 to 400 mg has been used in adult non-elderly humans with success. Animal evidence tends to use a dose correlating to 550 mg as well.


    The average daily phosphatidylserine (PS) intake from diet in Western countries is estimated to be 130 mg. PS may be found in meat and fish. Only small amounts of PS can be found in dairy products or in vegetables, with the exception of white beans and soy lecithin.
    PS Content in mg/100 g
    Soy Lecithin
    Bovine Brain
    Atlantic Mackerel
    Chicken Heart
    Atlantic Herring
    Offal (Average Value)
    Pork Spleen
    Pork Kidney
    Chicken Leg With Skin, W/O Bone
    Chicken Liver
    White Beans
    Soft-Shell Clam
    Chicken Breast With Skin
    Pork Liver
    Turkey Leg W/O Skin or Bone
    Turkey Breast W/O Skin
    Atlantic Cod
    Whole Grain Barley
    European Hake
    European Pilchard (Sardine)
    Rice (Unpolished)
    Ewe's Milk
    Cow's Milk (Whole, 3.5% Fat)



    People who are using Serine, a dispensable amino acid, ought to be aware of the possible side effects caused by it and take the necessary precautions to avoid them. Although using serine seldom causes any serious side effects, some of the minor side effects of this amino acid may comprise indigestion, queasiness and insomnia or sleeplessness.

    Although toxicity has not been established, it has been found that extremely elevated levels of Serine in the body may result in suppression of the immune system, in addition to psychological symptoms, for instance cerebral allergies. In addition, it is advisable that pregnant women as well as nursing mothers should never take this non-essential amino acid.


    Exceeding the recommended dosages of Phosphatidyl Serine can cause immune suppression and psycholgical symptoms similar to cerebral allergies. Some have experienced nausea after taking PS, however, taking this supplement with food will reduce the nausea. Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known.


  • Amino Acid Complex Supplement Products

  • Serine & Phosphatidyl Serine Products


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    Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a phospolipid compound derived from soy lecithin that plays an essential role in cell membrane compostition and intercellular communication. PS is a major structural component of neural membranes where it assists in the conduction of electrical impulses and facilitates the activity of neurotransmitters involved in learning, memory and mood. It may reduce the risk of dementia in the elderly and support cognitive function.


    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Now Foods, 100 mg, 30 VCaps (68606)
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    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine, Natural Factors, 100 mg, 30 Softgels (83914)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine Complex, Solgar, 100 mg, 30 Tabs (36693)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Jarrow Formulas, 30 Softgels (13145)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 100 mg, 30 Softgels (100797)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Natures Way, 30 Caps (18040)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine DHA Optimized, Source Naturals, 30 VCaps (75375)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine With Ginkgo, Now Foods, 100 mg/60 mg, 50 Softgels (68609)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Now Foods, 100 mg, 60 VCaps (68607)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Natures Way, 60 Caps (18041)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine, Natural Factors, 100 mg, 60 Softgels (83915)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Jarrow Formulas, 100 mg, 60 Caps (13115)
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    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine DHA Optimized, Source Naturals, 60 VCaps (75376)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine (PS Caps), Life Extension, 100 mg, 100 Caps (91792)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine With Ginkgo, Now Foods, 100 mg/60 mg, 100 Softgels (68608)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Doctors Best, 100 mg, 120 VCaps (81265)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Now Foods, 100 mg, 120 VCaps (68605)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine PS-100, Jarrow Formulas, 100 mg, 120 Caps (13114)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Source Naturals, 150 mg, 30 Tabs (7289)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Source Naturals, 150 mg, 60 Tabs (7290)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Now Foods, 150 mg, 60 Tabs (92568)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine, Solgar, 200 mg, 60 Softgels (100259)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine Matrix, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 30 Softgels (67584)
    HerbsPro: Neuro-PS Phosphatidyl Serine Complex, Country Life, 500 mg, 30 Softgels (37395)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine Matrix, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 60 Softgels (67585)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine Complex, Support Concentration, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 60 Softgels (7292)
    Phosphatidyl Serine is a key human brain phosphlipid which is essential for normal neuron structure and function. PS, along with other essential fatty acids, may play a critical role in cognitive function, including maintaining concentration.
    HerbsPro: Neuro-PS Phosphatidyl Serine Complex, Country Life, 1000 mg, 60 Caps (79024)
    HerbsPro: Theanine Serine With Relora, Source Naturals, 60 Tabs (45950)
    HerbsPro: Theanine Serine With Relora, Source Naturals, 120 Tabs (45951)


    Amazon: L-Serine Amino Acid Supplement Products
    Amazon: Serine Amino Acid Supplement Products
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    Amazon: L-Serine, Douglas Labs, 500 mg, 60 Caps
    Amazon: Pure L-Serine, Montiff, 500 mg, 50 Capsules
    Amazon: D-Serine, 100% Pure Bulk Powder, Smart Powder, 100 Grams

  • Nutrition Basics: Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) Supplement Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Serine Amino Acid Supplement Information



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    Complete Free Form blend of all 9 essential amino acids. Dietary supplements helpful in sports. GMP quality assured.
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance Powder, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals
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    HerbsPro: Amino Max 21, FoodScience of Vermont, 90 Caps
    A high quality, hypoallergenic amino acid formulation. Amino Max 21 is a scientifically formulated combination of 21 crystalline, free-form amino acids in the natural L-configuration. Because free-form amino acids are readily bioavailable and require no digestion by the body, they can be absorbed efficiently into the bloodstream and accompanying tissues where they are used for cellular regeneration.
    HerbsPro: Essential Amino Acid Complex, Solgar, Free Form, 600 mg, 90 VCaps (36384)
    HerbsPro: Amino Complete, Balanced Blend Complex, Now Foods, 120 Caps
    HerbsPro: Max-Amino With Vitamin B-6, Blend of 18 Amino Acids, Country Life, 180 Caps
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    HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 16 fl. oz. (19499)
    Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that help relieve muscle breakdown.
    HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 32 fl. oz. (19498)
    Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that helps to relieve muscle breakdown. The protein in this product is a predigested collagen and whey (lactalbumin) protein and is therefore utilized 100%. Contains all the essential amino acids derived by enzymatically hydrolyzing the animal protein collagen and whey protein (lactalbumin). The amino acids in this product are naturally present in the protein. They are not added or manufactured. 15 grams per ounce. New improved formula. Predigested collagen. Enriched with predigested whey protein, a superior source of high quality amino acids.


    Amazon: Amino Acid Complex Complete Supplement Products

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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
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