MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
RNA & DNA
For Informational Use Only
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RNA-DNA PROTEIN DESCRIPTION
DNA carries the genetic information of a cell and consists of thousands of genes. Each gene serves as a recipe on how to build a protein molecule. Proteins perform important tasks for the cell functions or serve as building blocks. The flow of information from the genes determines the protein composition and thereby the functions of the cell. The DNA is situated in the nucleus, organized into chromosomes. Every cell must contain the genetic information and the DNA is therefore duplicated before a cell divides (replication). When proteins are needed, the corresponding genes are transcribed into RNA (transcription). The RNA is first processed so that non-coding parts are removed (processing) and is then transported out of the nucleus (transport). Outside the nucleus, the proteins are built based upon the code in the RNA (translation).
RNA - RIBONUCLEIC ACID
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a ubiquitous family of large biological molecules that perform multiple vital roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Together with DNA, RNA comprises the nucleic acids, which, along with proteins, constitute the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but is usually single-stranded. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (often notated using the letters G, A, U, and C for the nucleotides guanine, adenine, uracil and cytosine) that directs synthesis of specific proteins, while many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome.
Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function whereby mRNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosomes. This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) links amino acids together to form proteins.
Other names include Acide Desoxyribonucleique, Acide Nucleique, Acides Nucleiques, ADN, ADN-ARN, ADN/ARN, ARN et ADN, ARN y ADN, DNA, Deoxynucleic Acid, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Extrait Ribonucleique, Nuclei Acids, Nucleic, Nucleic Acid, Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, Nucleotides, Purines, Pyrimidines, RNA, RNA-DNA, RNA/DNA, Ribonucleic Acid, Ribonucleic Extract.
RNA-DNA Supplement Products Amino Acid Complex Supplement Products
DNA - DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID
DNA is sometimes called "The Blueprint of Life" because it contains the code, or instructions for building and organism and ensuring that organism functions correctly. Just like a builder uses a blueprint to build a house, DNA is used as the blueprint, or plans, for the entire organism. It is the chemical component of chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of every cell. Stretches of DNA (or stretches of chromosomes) code for genes. A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for a protein, which in turn codes for a trait (skin tone, eye color..etc), a gene is a stretch of DNA. The structure of DNA was established by James Watson and Francis Crick.
The shape of the DNA molecule is a double-helix (like a twisted ladder). The sides of the ladder are composed of alternating sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphates. The rungs of the ladder are composed of nucleotides.
Nucleotides (also called Bases)
- Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine or A, T, G, C
- Nucleotides pair in a specific way - called the Base-Pair Rule
- Adenine pairs to Thymine
- Guanine pairs to Cytosine
- Memory Helper: Think "A T Granite City" - which is where you live.
The rungs of the ladder can occur in any order (as long as the base-pair rule is followed). For instance, a stretch of DNA could be AATGACCAT - which would code for a different gene than a stretch that read: GGGCCATAG. All in all, there are billions of bases (nucleotides) in cells, which code for all the things an organism needs to function.
Replication is the process where DNA makes a copy of itself. Cells divide for an organism to grow or reproduce, every new cell needs a copy of the DNA or instructions to know how to be a cell. DNA replicates right before a cell divides. DNA replication is semi-conservative. That means that when it makes a copy, one half of the old strand is always kept in the new strand. This helps reduce the number of copy errors.
DNA remains in the nucleus, but in order for it to get its instructions translated into proteins, it must send its message to the ribosomes, where proteins are made. The chemical used to carry this message is Messenger RNA. RNA is ribonucleic acid. RNA is similar to DNA except:
1. RNA has one strand instead of two strands.
2. RNA has uracil instead of thymine.
3. RNA has ribose instead of deoxyribose.
mRNA has the job of taking the message from the DNA to the nucleus to the ribosomes.
TRANSCRIPTION: RNA is made from DNA.
TRANSLATION: Proteins are made from the message on the RNA.
COMPARISON OF RNA & DNA
Three-dimensional representation of the 50S ribosomal subunit. RNA is in ochre, protein in blue. The active site is in the middle (red).The chemical structure of RNA is very similar to that of DNA, but differ in three main ways:
- Unlike double-stranded DNA, RNA is a single-stranded molecule in many of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides. However, RNA can, by complementary base pairing, form intrastrand double helixes, as in tRNA.
- While DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose (in deoxyribose there is no hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2' position). These hydroxyl groups make RNA less stable than DNA because it is more prone to hydrolysis.
- The complementary base to adenine is not thymine, as it is in DNA, but rather uracil, which is an unmethylated form of thymine.
- Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs, including mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs, and other non-coding RNAs, contain self-complementary sequences that allow parts of the RNA to fold and pair with itself to form double helices. Analysis of these RNAs has revealed that they are highly structured. Unlike DNA, their structures do not consist of long double helices but rather collections of short helices packed together into structures akin to proteins. In this fashion, RNAs can achieve chemical catalysis, like enzymes. For instance, determination of the structure of the ribosome - an enzyme that catalyzes peptide bond formation - revealed that its active site is composed entirely of RNA.
RNA CHEMICAL STRUCTURE
Each nucleotide in RNA contains a ribose sugar, with carbons numbered 1' through 5'. A base is attached to the 1' position, in general, adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or uracil (U). Adenine and guanine are purines, cytosine, and uracil are pyrimidines. A phosphate group is attached to the 3' position of one ribose and the 5' position of the next. The phosphate groups have a negative charge each at physiological pH, making RNA a charged molecule (polyanion). The bases may form hydrogen bonds between cytosine and guanine, between adenine and uracil and between guanine and uracil. However, other interactions are possible, such as a group of adenine bases binding to each other in a bulge, or the GNRA tetraloop that has a guanine-adenine base-pair.
An important structural feature of RNA that distinguishes it from DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2' position of the ribose sugar. The presence of this functional group causes the helix to adopt the A-form geometry rather than the B-form most commonly observed in DNA. This results in a very deep and narrow major groove and a shallow and wide minor groove. A second consequence of the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group is that in conformationally flexible regions of an RNA molecule (that is, not involved in formation of a double helix), it can chemically attack the adjacent phosphodiester bond to cleave the backbone.
SECONDARY STRUCTURE OF A TELOMERASE RNA
RNA is transcribed with only four bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil), but these bases and attached sugars can be modified in numerous ways as the RNAs mature. Pseudouridine (Ψ), in which the linkage between uracil and ribose is changed from a C-N bond to a C-C bond, and ribothymidine (T) are found in various places (the most notable ones being in the TΨC loop of tRNA). Another notable modified base is hypoxanthine, a deaminated adenine base whose nucleoside is called inosine (I). Inosine plays a key role in the wobble hypothesis of the genetic code.
There are nearly 100 other naturally occurring modified nucleosides, of which pseudouridine and nucleosides with 2'-O-methylribose are the most common. The specific roles of many of these modifications in RNA are not fully understood. However, it is notable that, in ribosomal RNA, many of the post-transcriptional modifications occur in highly functional regions, such as the peptidyl transferase center and the subunit interface, implying that they are important for normal function.
The functional form of single-stranded RNA molecules, just like proteins, frequently requires a specific tertiary structure. The scaffold for this structure is provided by secondary structural elements that are hydrogen bonds within the molecule. This leads to several recognizable "domains" of secondary structure like hairpin loops, bulges, and internal loops. Since RNA is charged, metal ions such as Mg2+ are needed to stabilize many secondary and tertiary structures.
SYNTHESIS OF RNA
Synthesis of RNA is usually catalyzed by an enzyme - RNA polymerase - using DNA as a template, a process known as transcription. Initiation of transcription begins with the binding of the enzyme to a promoter sequence in the DNA (usually found "upstream" of a gene). The DNA double helix is unwound by the helicase activity of the enzyme. The enzyme then progresses along the template strand in the 3' to 5' direction, synthesizing a complementary RNA molecule with elongation occurring in the 5' to 3' direction. The DNA sequence also dictates where termination of RNA synthesis will occur.
RNAs are often modified by enzymes after transcription. For example, a poly(A) tail and a 5' cap are added to eukaryotic pre-mRNA and introns are removed by the spliceosome.
There are also a number of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that use RNA as their template for synthesis of a new strand of RNA. For instance, a number of RNA viruses (such as poliovirus) use this type of enzyme to replicate their genetic material. Also, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is part of the RNA interference pathway in many organisms.
TYPES OF RNA
This is a List of RNAs in nature. Some of these categories are broad, others are single families.
RNAs Involved In Protein Synthesis TYPE ABBREVIATION FUNCTION DISTRIBUTION Messenger RNA mRNA Genetic Codes for Protein All Organisms Ribosomal RNA rRNA Translation All Organisms Signal Recognition Particle RNA 7SL RNA or
Membrane Integration All Organisms Transfer RNA tRNA Translation All Organisms Transfer-Messenger RNA tmRNA Rescuing Stalled Ribosomes Bacteria
RNAs Involved In Post-Transcriptional Modification or DNA Replication TYPE ABBREVIATION FUNCTION DISTRIBUTION Small Nuclear RNA snRNA Splicing & Other Functions Eukaryotes &
Small Nucleolar RNA snoRNA Nucleotide Modification of RNA Eukaryotes &
SmY RNA SmY mRNA Trans-Splicing Nematodes Small Cajal Body-Specific RNA scaRNA Type of snoRNA, Nucleotide
Modification of RNAs
Guide RNA gRNA mRNA Nucleotide Modification Kinetroplastid
Ribonuclease P RNase P tRNA Maturation All Organisms Ribonuclease MRP RNase MRP rRNA Maturation, DNA Replication Eukaryotes Y RNA RNA Processing, DNA Replication Animals Telomerase RNA Telomere Synthesis Most Eukaryotes Spliced Leader RNA
REGULATORY RNAs TYPE ABBREVIATION FUNCTION DISTRIBUTION Antisense RNA aRNA Transcriptional Attenuation /
mRNA Degradation /
mRNA Stabiliization /
All Organisms Cis-Natural Antisense Transcript Gene Regulation CRISPR RNA crRNA Resistance To Parasites,
Probably By Targeting Their DNA
Bacteria & Archaea Long Noncoding RNA Long ncRNA Various Eukaryotes MicroRNA miRNA Gene Regulation Most Eukaryotes Piwi-Interfacing RNA piRNA Transposon Defense,
Maybe Other Functions
Most Animals Small Interfacing RNA siRNA Gene Regulation Most Eukaryotes Trans-Acting siRNA tasiRNA Gene Regulation Land Plants Repeat Associated siRNA rasiRNA Type of piRNA;
Drosophila 7SK RNA 7SK Negatively Regulating CDK9 /
Cyclin T Complex
PARASITIC RNAs TYPE FUNCTION DISTRIBUTION Retrotransposon Self-Propagating Eukaryotes & Some Bacteria Viral Genome Information Carrier Double-Stranded RNA Viruses,
Positive-Sense RNA Viruses,
Negative-Sense RNA Viruses,
Many Satellite Viruses &
Reverse Transcribing Vitruses
Viroid Self-Propagating Infected Plants Satellite RNA Self-Propagating Infected Cells
OTHER RNAs TYPE ABBREVIATION FUNCTION DISTRIBUTION Vault RNA vRNA Expulsion of Xenobiotics, Maybe
RNA (mRNA) is the RNA that carries information from DNA to the ribosome, the sites of protein synthesis (translation) in the cell. The coding sequence of the mRNA determines the amino acid sequence in the protein that is produced. Many RNAs do not code for protein however (about 97-percent of the transcriptional output is non-protein-coding in eukaryotes.
These so-called non-coding RNAs ("ncRNA") can be encoded by their own genes (RNA genes), but can also derive from mRNA introns. The most prominent examples of non-coding RNAs are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), both of which are involved in the process of translation. There are also non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation, RNA processing and other roles. Certain RNAs are able to catalyse chemical reactions such as cutting and ligating other RNA molecules, and the catalysis of peptide bond formation in the ribosome; these are known as ribozymes.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information about a protein sequence to the ribosomes, the protein synthesis factories in the cell. It is coded so that every three nucleotides (a codon) correspond to one amino acid. In eukaryotic cells, once precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) has been transcribed from DNA, it is processed to mature mRNA. This removes its introns - non-coding sections of the pre-mRNA. The mRNA is then exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it is bound to ribosomes and translated into its corresponding protein form with the help of tRNA. In prokaryotic cells, which do not have nucleus and cytoplasm compartments, mRNA can bind to ribosomes while it is being transcribed from DNA. After a certain amount of time the message degrades into its component nucleotides with the assistance of ribonucleases.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA chain of about 80 nucleotides that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. It has sites for amino acid attachment and an anticodon region for codon recognition that binds to a specific sequence on the messenger RNA chain through hydrogen bonding.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the catalytic component of the ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes contain four different rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S rRNA. Three of the rRNA molecules are synthesized in the nucleolus, and one is synthesized elsewhere. In the cytoplasm, ribosomal RNA and protein combine to form a nucleoprotein called a ribosome. The ribosome binds mRNA and carries out protein synthesis. Several ribosomes may be attached to a single mRNA at any time. Nearly all the RNA found in a typical eukaryotic cell is rRNA.
Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is found in many bacteria and plastids. It tags proteins encoded by mRNAs that lack stop codons for degradation and prevents the ribosome from stalling.
Several types of RNA can downregulate gene expression by being complementary to a part of an mRNA or a gene's DNA. MicroRNAs (miRNA; 21-22 nt) are found in eukaryotes and act through RNA interference (RNAi), where an effector complex of miRNA and enzymes can cleave complementary mRNA, block the mRNA from being translated, or accelerate its degradation.
While small interfering RNAs (siRNA; 20-25 nt) are often produced by breakdown of viral RNA, there are also endogenous sources of siRNAs. siRNAs act through RNA interference in a fashion similar to miRNAs. Some miRNAs and siRNAs can cause genes they target to be methylated, thereby decreasing or increasing transcription of those genes. Animals have Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA; 29-30 nt) that are active in germline cells and are thought to be a defense against transposons and play a role in gametogenesis.
Many prokaryotes have CRISPR RNAs, a regulatory system similar to RNA interference. Antisense RNAs are widespread; most downregulate a gene, but a few are activators of transcription. One way antisense RNA can act is by binding to an mRNA, forming double-stranded RNA that is enzymatically degraded. There are many long noncoding RNAs that regulate genes in eukaryotes, one such RNA is Xist, which coats one X chromosome in female mammals and inactivates it.
An mRNA may contain regulatory elements itself, such as riboswitches, in the 5' untranslated region or 3' untranslated region; these cis-regulatory elements regulate the activity of that mRNA. The untranslated regions can also contain elements that regulate other genes.
IN RNA PROCESSING
Uridine to pseudouridine is a common RNA modification.Many RNAs are involved in modifying other RNAs. Introns are spliced out of pre-mRNA by spliceosomes, which contain several small nuclear RNAs (snRNA), or the introns can be ribozymes that are spliced by themselves. RNA can also be altered by having its nucleotides modified to other nucleotides than A, C, G and U. In eukaryotes, modifications of RNA nucleotides are in general directed by small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA; 60-300 nt), found in the nucleolus and cajal bodies. snoRNAs associate with enzymes and guide them to a spot on an RNA by basepairing to that RNA. These enzymes then perform the nucleotide modification. rRNAs and tRNAs are extensively modified, but snRNAs and mRNAs can also be the target of base modification. RNA can also be methylated.
Like DNA, RNA can carry genetic information. RNA viruses have genomes composed of RNA that encodes a number of proteins. The viral genome is replicated by some of those proteins, while other proteins protect the genome as the virus particle moves to a new host cell. Viroids are another group of pathogens, but they consist only of RNA, do not encode any protein and are replicated by a host plant cell's polymerase.
IN REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION
Reverse transcribing viruses replicate their genomes by reverse transcribing DNA copies from their RNA; these DNA copies are then transcribed to new RNA. Retrotransposons also spread by copying DNA and RNA from one another, and telomerase contains an RNA that is used as template for building the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is RNA with two complementary strands, similar to the DNA found in all cells. dsRNA forms the genetic material of some viruses (double-stranded RNA viruses). Double-stranded RNA such as viral RNA or siRNA can trigger RNA interference in eukaryotes, as well as interferon response in vertebrates.
HISTORY OF RNA BIOLOGY
KEY DISCOVERIES IN RNA BIOLOGY
Research on RNA has led to many important biological discoveries and numerous Nobel Prizes. Nucleic acids were discovered in 1868 by Friedrich Miescher, who called the material 'nuclein' since it was found in the nucleus. It was later discovered that prokaryotic cells, which do not have a nucleus, also contain nucleic acids. The role of RNA in protein synthesis was suspected already in 1939. Severo Ochoa won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Medicine (shared with Arthur Kornberg) after he discovered an enzyme that can synthesize RNA in the laboratory. However, the enzyme discovered by Ochoa (polynucleotide phosphorylase) was later shown to be responsible for RNA degradation, not RNA synthesis.
The sequence of the 77 nucleotides of a yeast tRNA was found by Robert W. Holley in 1965, winning Holley the 1968 Nobel Prize in Medicine (shared with Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall Nirenberg). In 1967, Carl Woese hypothesized that RNA might be catalytic and suggested that the earliest forms of life (self-replicating molecules) could have relied on RNA both to carry genetic information and to catalyze biochemical reactions - an RNA world.
During the early 1970s retroviruses and reverse transcriptase were discovered, showing for the first time that enzymes could copy RNA into DNA (the opposite of the usual route for transmission of genetic information). For this work, David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Temin were awarded a Nobel Prize in 1975. In 1976, Walter Fiers and his team determined the first complete nucleotide sequence of an RNA virus genome, that of bacteriophage MS2.
In 1977, introns and RNA splicing were discovered in both mammalian viruses and in cellular genes, resulting in a 1993 Nobel to Philip Sharp and Richard Roberts. Catalytic RNA molecules (ribozymes) were discovered in the early 1980s, leading to a 1989 Nobel award to Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman. In 1990 it was found in petunia that introduced genes can silence similar genes of the plant's own, now known to be a result of RNA interference.
At about the same time, 22 nt long RNAs, now called microRNAs, were found to have a role in the development of C. elegans. Studies on RNA interference gleaned a Nobel Prize for Andrew Fire and Craig Mello in 2006, and another Nobel was awarded for studies on transcription of RNA to Roger Kornberg in the same year. The discovery of gene regulatory RNAs has led to attempts to develop drugs made of RNA, such as siRNA, to silence genes.
Information obtained from:
Wikipedia: RNA Wikipedia: Protein
RNA-DNA USES, HEALTH BENEFITS, & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
RNA-DNA & PROTEIN
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid usually in the form of a double helix that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life. DNA is a long polymer of nucleotides (a polynucleotide) and encodes the sequence of the amino acid residues in proteins using the genetic code, a triplet code of nucleotides. DNA is thought to date back to between approximately 3.5 to 4.6 billion years ago.
RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are chemical compounds that can be made by the body. They can also be made in a laboratory. RNA and DNA are used as medicine. Ribonucliec acid (RNA) is responsible for building proteins and protein synthesis in the body. To understand RNA function one must understand protein function. A protein is a group of molecules composed of elements and amino acids. These are in all living cells and many substances such as enzymes, hormones and the antibodies that are necessary for proper animal diets and to the growth and repair of tissue in the body. Without RNA, proein would not be produced or synthesized by the body. As we age, there tends to be breakdowns and shortages of nucleic acids in the system, leading to RNA errors and lack of protein synthesis. This is where aging comes from.
Research done by Dr. Benjamin Frank, author of Nucleic Acid Nutritional Therapy, Dr. Milton Fried and HEM Pharmaceuticals shows clearly that those who supplement with RNA on a regular basis showed improvement in their memory function, increased energy levels, better tolerance of extreme temperature changes, enhance immunity, better vision and tighter, radiant skin. They also found that those who supplemented with RNA looked 5 to 15 years younger than their actual age. Some believe it will not only help one to look and feel younger, but that it will aid in ridding the body of toxins, repair genetic sequences and alterations, desensitize the blood to allergies and promote general youth and vitality. There are countless herbs, fruits, vegetables, and natural foods that can have DNA protecting potential. Watercress supplementation is just one herb that may reduce DNA damage. RNA DNA supplement pills are available without a prescription for purchase. See RNA-DNA Supplement Products for some available prducts.
RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are chemicals called nucleotides that are made by the body. People take RNA/DNA combinations to improve memory and mental sharpness, treat or prevent Alzheimer's disease, treat depression, increase energy, tighten skin, increase sex drive, and counteract the effects of aging. In the hospital, RNA is used in nutrition formulas that include omega-3 fatty acids and arginine. The combination is used for reducing the time needed for recovery after surgery, boosting the immune system's response, and improving outcomes for burn patients and intensive care patients. As a shot, RNA is used to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis, as well as hives and shingles. There needs to be more research done to verify all the claims of RNA-DNA supplement usage. They appear to be essential under conditions of rapid growth such as intestinal development, liver surgery or injury, and also during challenges to the immune system.
Possibly Effective For:
Insufficient Evidence To Rate Effectiveness For:
- Shortening recovery from surgery or illness. Supplementing the diet of patients undergoing major surgery with RNA, L-Arginine and Eicosapentaenoic Acid might improve recovery. Giving this combination aroun the time of surgery appears to boost the immune response, reduce infections, improve wound healing, and shorten recovery time.
- Burn injury recovery.
- Alzheimers disease.
- Improving memory.
- Sagging skin.
- Decreased sex drive.
- Eczema, psoriasis, hives, shingles, and other skin conditions when given as injections.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of RNA & DNA for these uses.
RNA-DNA Supplement Products Amino Acid Complex Supplement Products
RNA-DNA DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION
The following doses has been studied in scientific research, usually given by feeding tube for improving surgical recovery - 30 mg/kg/day of RNA along with arginine and omega-3 fatty acids.
Oral supplements - 1.5 teaspoons per day. Sprinkle over food or add to food or use as directed on product label. Will not dissolve in water. Good for healthy cell reproduction. Use a sublingual. Caution: Do not take this supplement if you have gout
RNA-DNA Supplement Products Amino Acid Complex Supplement Products
RNA-DNA SAFETY, CONCERNS, SIDE EFFECTS & CAUTIONS
RNA appears to be safe for most people when taken along with omega-3 fatty acids and L-arginine or injected under the skin. Injections can cause itching, redness, and swelling at the injection site. Infant formulas that contain RNA or DNA also seem to be safe for children.
Do not take RNA and DNA as medicine if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. It might be unsafe to take RNA-DNA supplements if you are pregnant as there seems to be some evidence that DNA might cross the placenta and cause birth defects. There is not enough information to know whether RNA/DNA combinations are safe to take by mouth. Not enough is known about the safety of using RNA and DNA if you are breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
There is currently no information available for RNA-DNA Interactions.
RNA-DNA SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS
QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS
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RNA & DNA SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Phytonutrient, Vegan, are responsible for building proteins and protein synthesis in the body.
HerbsPro: RNA-DNA, Country Life, 100 mg / 10 mg, 100 Tabs (37426)
Vegetarian/Kosher An ideal 10 to 1 ratio of these vital nucleic acids RNA and DNA. ! RNA -100 mg / DNA - 10 mg in a Base of Brewer's Yeast
HerbsPro: RNA-DNA, Solgar, 100 mg / 100 mg, 100 Tabs (36721)
HerbsPro: RNA-DNA Yeast, Natures Life, 324 mg / 32.4 mg, 50 Tabs (89816)
HerbsPro: RNA-DNA Yeast, Natures Life, 324 mg / 32.4 mg, 100 Tabs (89817)
HerbsPro: RNA-DNA Yeast, Natures Life, 324 mg / 32.4 mg, 250 Tabs (89818)
Nature''s Life RNA-DNA tablets are made with high-quality nutritional yeast. As a source of RNA-DNA and protein, yeast helps build healthy cells throughout the body.
HerbsPro: RNA-DNA Moisture Creme, Natures Life, 2.25 oz. (89886)
RNA/DNA Moisture Crme by Nature's Life this will enrich your skin, moisturizes and gives smooth touch to your skin.
Amazon: RNA Amino Acid Supplement Products
Nutrition Basics: RNA-DNA Supplement Information
AMINO ACID COMPLEX PRODUCTS
HerbsPro: Amino-9 Essentials Powder, Now Foods, 330 Grams
Complete Free Form blend of all 9 essential amino acids. Dietary supplements helpful in sports. GMP quality assured.
HerbsPro: Amino Balance Powder, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals
HerbsPro: Amino Balance Powder, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 grams
HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 120 Caps
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For tissue repair, reduced soreness and accelerated recovery, as well as a wealth of non-training benefits, this blend of 23 pure crystalline 100% pharmaceutical grade free-form amino acids is unmatched.
HerbsPro: Amino Max 21, FoodScience of Vermont, 90 Caps
A high quality, hypoallergenic amino acid formulation. Amino Max 21 is a scientifically formulated combination of 21 crystalline, free-form amino acids in the natural L-configuration. Because free-form amino acids are readily bioavailable and require no digestion by the body, they can be absorbed efficiently into the bloodstream and accompanying tissues where they are used for cellular regeneration.
HerbsPro: Essential Amino Acid Complex, Solgar, Free Form, 600 mg, 90 VCaps (36384)
HerbsPro: Amino Complete, Balanced Blend Complex, Now Foods, 120 Caps
HerbsPro: Max-Amino With Vitamin B-6, Blend of 18 Amino Acids, Country Life, 180 Caps
An easily absorbed blend of 18 amino acids yielding high biological activity. An ideal formula for athletes, and when protein demands may not be fully satisfied. B-6 aids in the utilization of amino acids. An easily absorbed Amino Acid Supplement.
HerbsPro: Amino Acid Complete, Balanced Blend Complex, Now Foods, 360 Caps
HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 16 fl. oz. (19499)
Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that help relieve muscle breakdown.
HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 32 fl. oz. (19498)
Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that helps to relieve muscle breakdown. The protein in this product is a predigested collagen and whey (lactalbumin) protein and is therefore utilized 100%. Contains all the essential amino acids derived by enzymatically hydrolyzing the animal protein collagen and whey protein (lactalbumin). The amino acids in this product are naturally present in the protein. They are not added or manufactured. 15 grams per ounce. New improved formula. Predigested collagen. Enriched with predigested whey protein, a superior source of high quality amino acids.
Amazon: Amino Acid Complex Complete Supplement Products
Nutrition Basics: Amino Acid Complex Supplement Information
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY
A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.