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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Amino Acids
PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS)


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Phosphatidyl Serine Description
  • Phosphatidyl Serine Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Phosphatidyl Serine Dosage Information
  • Phosphatidyl Serine Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Phosphatidyl Serine Supplement Products




  • PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS) DESCRIPTION

    PHOSPHOLIPID COMPLEX

    Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a non-essential amino acid derivative compound is fat-soluble and found in high amounts in the brain, where it contributes to cognitive functioning. PS is manufactured by the body. It is classified as a phospholipid that is necessary to every cell in the body, and is abundant in nerve cells. Phosphatidyl Serine is required for the metabolism of fat, tissue growth and the immune system as it assists in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies. Our brain normally produces enough PS, but as we age, Phosphatidyl Serine production decreases, which can result in a deficiency. PS is found in high amounts in fish and it may improve memory in the elderly and lowers cortisol. Phosphatidyl Serine supplementation has been used to reduce symptoms of depression and Alzheimer's disease. Taking PS can also enhance memory and learning abilities.

    Phosphatidyl Serine, also known as PS, is a naturally occurring phospholipid that exists in all species, and comprises a portion of the phospholipid pool in the human brain (15-percent), lungs (7.4-percent), testes (6.4-percent), kidneys (5.7-percent), liver (3.8-percent), skeletal muscles (3.3-percent), heart (3.2-percent) and blood plasma (0.2-percent) with an estimated 60 grams total PS storage in the body where half exists in neural tissue. The average dietary intake is said to be approximately 130 mg daily.

    NATURAL FOOD & DIETARY SOURCES

    Phosphyatidyl Serine is found in meats and dairy products, wheat gluten, peanuts as well as soy products. If Phosphatidyl Serine supplements are taken, it is important to read and follow product label directions.

    PS supplements are a complex of phospholipid nutrients and fatty acids derived from soy lecithin (approximately 3-percent phospholipids), and provided in oil soluble softgels perfect for proper delivery of this product.





    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    PS is found in neural tissue. Past studies sourced supplemental PS from bovine cortex, which has since fallen out of favor due to the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Krill oil is said to be a source of PS, but the majority of the phospholipids, which as a group have been confirmed repeatedly, are from phosphotidyl choline and a PS content per se has not been confirmed. PS is a compound similar to a dietary fat which is highly prevalent in human neural tissue. It can be synthesized as well as consume through the diet, but further benefits can be gained through supplementation.


    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE STRUCTURE

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a structure somewhat similar to a triacylglyceride (storage form of dietary fat), but with two fatty acids (diacylglyceride) with the final bonding site on glycerol occupied by a phosphatadic acid molecule and serine amino acid. Various compounds may be called phosphatidylserine given they have that one serine containing group; the other two fatty acid chains are irrelevant to the naming, but not necessarily the function, and may differ depending on source.


    Phosphatidylserine is a triglyceride structure with one fatty acid replaced with a phosphatic acid and a serine amino acid, and is a phospholipid structure due to this.


    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE BIOSYTHESIS & BIOLOGICAL RELEVANCE

    Phosphatidyl Serine concentrations in the brain appear to decline with age when measuring rat cerebral slices with no significant alterations in red blood cells in humans (despite some alterations present in rats during the aging process.

    After synthesis, PS is then used as a structural component of a cell's lipid bilayer (cell membrane) with the serine molecule facing inwards. When included in the structure of the cell membrane, it seems to contribute to and increase cell fluidity and have positive influences on the enzymes Na+/K+ stimulated ATPase (upregulation) and acetylcholinesterase (downregulation) which may lead to its effects on cognition. There was an upper limit of enzymatic activation noted at 1 µmol/mg membrane protein, but this cannot be easily translated into an upper dosage.

    Phosphatidylserine is known to activate Protein kinase C (PKC) with a potency greater than other phospholipids and may stimulate sodium-potassium ATPase channels.

    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE VARIANTS & FORMULATIONS

    The first source of supplemental phosphatidylserine was that from the bovine cortex, and while on a molecular level and for some practises there are no significant differences between bovine cortex and Soy lecithin based phosphatidylserine. The reduction in cortisol seen with bovine cortex PS injections and oral supplementation does not appear to occur with soy lecithin based PS when orally supplemented.


    Relative to the commonly supplemented soy lecithin based phosphatidylserine, the PS derived from bovine brain tissue is structurally the same yet implicated in reducing cortisol (maybe due to other compounds in the extract), but the bovine brain derived PS is no longer used due to concerns over Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


    Phosphatidylserine has recently started to be extracted from sunflower oil, and at this moment in time there do not appear to be much research into its effects in living organisms nor a known reason to supplement over soy lecithin based phosphatidylserine.


    There is currently a lack of information on phosphatidylserine sourced from sunflower oil.


    NEUROLOGY - ATTENTION, ADHD, & COGNITION STUDIES

    2 months of supplementation of 200 mg Phosphatidylserine (PS) appears to improve symptoms of global and subscale attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in children with ADHD, and secondary to improving symptoms of ADHD an improvement in short-term auditory memory and impulsivity was noted. Other studies in children with ADHD have noted promise when pairing PS with Fish Oil supplementation, with some using a phosphatidylserine structure with the fish oil fatty acids (EPA and DHA) attached to the glycerol backbone (study duplicated in Medline) and appears to enhance erythrocytic fish oil fatty acid levels to a level greater than fish oil itself (a phenomena seen with Krill Oil; fish oil fatty acids bound as Phosphatidylcholine).

    In otherwise healthy young adults given 400 mg PS for 2 weeks, a significant improvement in processing speed (20%) and accuracy (13% more correct responses, 39% less wrong responses) is noted relative to placebo and independent of mood state.


    Phosphatidylserine appears to promote attention and reduce symptoms of ADHD, and when the phosphatidylserine molecule contains the Fish Oil fatty acids then it may promote attention to an even greater degree.


    NEUROLOGY - STRESS STUDIES

    Stress has been noted to be reduced with doses as low as 60 mg in otherwise healthy men, although this study is confounded with the inclusion of Fish Oil (and stress was only significantly reduced at rest in high stressed persons); it has been replicated elsewhere with phosphatidylserine in isolation with 42 days supplementation of 200 mg phosphatidylserine (as protein bar) where induced stresses were less than control (and associated with less beta-1 wave function in the right hemisphere). This same dose and supplementation vessel has been used in young golfers given 200 mg phosphatidylserine for 42 days, where a 21.6-percent increase in drive accuracy (percentage of straight shots) was thought to be secondary to a stress reducing effect.

    Using cortisol as a biomarker, stress levels during cognitive testing appear to be unaffected despite improvement in performance and some studies in healthy individuals fail to find any salient effect. Regardless, studies that measure heart rate changes during stress fail to find a significant influence of supplementation.


    Phosphatidylserine supplementation appears to exert anti-stress effects in otherwise healthy persons without stress disorders following prolonged supplementation, and this appears to possibly be independent of the classical biomarkers of stress reduction (cortisol, heart rate).

    The anti-stress effect appears to be somewhat different than other supplements and not 100-percent reliable, and it is uncertain how phosphatidylserine is doing this. It does, however, appear to extend to both soy lecithin based and bovine cortex based phosphatidylserine.


    NEUROLOGY - ACETYLCHOLINE STUDIES

    Phosphatidyl Serine supplementation has been noted to increase acetylcholine levels in aged rats in vitro which does not appear to extend to young rats.

    NEUROLOGY - COGNITIVE DECLINE & DEMENTIA STUDIES

    Several studies have noted that prolonged supplementation of phosphatidylserine to rats during the aging process can reduce the rate of cognitive decline or otherwise show trends to reverse it in the range of 15 to 50 mg/kg daily. It has been noted that administration of 200 mg (intravenous injection) of phospholipids to patients with Alzheimer's is able to increase dopamine and serotonin metabolites, which are normally reduced in cognitive decline. Phosphatidylserine has been found to preserve glucose metabolism during Alzheimer's disease by 13.5 to 16-percent following ingestion of 500 mg phosphatidylserine which may be a mechanism underlying its observed benefit in some instances.

    In studies assessing cognitive decline in Alzheimer's via the MMSE, there appears to be a collection of studies suggesting no effect with 500 mg for 3 weeks but benefit with 300 mg of phosphatidyl serine from bovine cortex for 8 weeks or 12 weeks and has been noted to have benefit with 400 mg over 6 months to a level greater than Pyritinol. One study using the MMSE as a rating scale in elderly persons with age-related cognitive decline (but not diagnosed Alzheimer's) has also noted an improvement with 300 mg bovine cortex phosphatidylserine.

    In other cognitive disease states, persons with Parkinson's disease given bovine cerebral phosphatidylserine note some degree of improvement on EEG parameters and in general dementia 300 mg of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine has noted some degree of benefit within 3 weeks of a 6 week trial and has improved memory and depressive symptoms in persons suffering from geriatric depression.


    In persons with age-related cognitive decline associated with pathology, there appears to be a large body of evidence to support the role of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine in alleviating symptoms at 300 mg daily. However, there is a lack of evidence to support the role of Soy lecithin-based phosphatidylserine in this role and some suspicion that it may not be as effective.


    NEUROLOGY - MEMORY & LEARNING STUDIES

    PS supplementation has been implicated in increased spatial memory in aged rats at 50 mg/kg (human equivalent of 8 mg/kg or 550 mg for a 150 lb person) and has been noted at lower concentrations (5 to 20 mg/kg) when injected into aged rats, where improvements in grooming and behaviour retention are noted. Studies in non-aged rats (to establish a Nootropic effect rather than cognitive rehabilitative effect) using 50 mg/kg bodyweight for 27 days was able to significantly enhance brightness discrimination (indicative of memory formation) without significantly affecting anxiety or depressive symptoms.


    There appears to be a memory promoting effect of phosphatidylserine supplementation in rats that occurs in cognitively damaged models, aged rat models, and young rats as well; the dosage used in these rat studies is higher than usual (around 500mg for a non-obese human) but not unfeasibly high.


    The first report of cognitive improvment in elderly humans with aging associated mental impairment (non-pathological) was 3 months of 300 mg soy-based phosphatidylserine (PS), in which scores on the Wechsler Memory test improved with particular improvement in visual memory; this was later replicated with 300mg PS over 12 weeks and two studies have noted that PS supplementation appears to aid in face recognition in elderly persons at this dose.

    Other studies note that 100 or 300 mg daily for 6 months has failed to outperform placebo on the Rivermead behavioral memory test (test catered for 'everyday memory problems') while scores on the Hasegawa dementia scale (HDS-R; used for dementia assessment similar to the MMSE) improved relative to placebo, and MMSE score improved as well. Improvements in the former parameter has been noted elsewhere in elderly persons with memory complaints when using a phosphatidylserine molecule complexed with DHA or phosphatidylserine from bovine cortex at 100 mg but soy based phosphatidylserine up to 600 mg daily (6 months) has been noted to fail with similar methodology.

    In studies that assess more quantifiable parameters, supplementation of PS (where Fish Oil fatty acids were added to the structure) reported an improvement in immediate word recall by 42-percent in elderly subjects.


    In healthy elderly adults, there appears to be benefit associated with long term supplementation of phosphatidylserine which seems to be more catered towards preventing dementia; benefits to practical cognition, such as working memory and cognition in everyday situations (or at least rating scales thought to be indicative of this), seems somewhat mixed and may be restricted to PS complexed with fish oils.


    EXERCISE & PERFORMANCE INTERVENTION STUDIES

    During intermittent moderate intensity cycling in which soy based phosphatidylserine was consumed for 10 days at 750 mg noted that time to exhaustion increased by 29 plus/minus 8-percent when cycling at 85-percent intensity, and that this improvement was independent of any changes in fat oxidation or cortisol changes. Elsewhere, supplementation of this dose of soy based PS has failed to alter the exercise-induced changes in lipid peroxidation, muscle soreness, or inflammation.

    HORMONE INTERACTION - TESTOSTERONE STUDIES

    400 mg PS delivered via a protein bar format (some nutrient confounds) for 2 weeks in college-aged males does not alter the fluctuations of testosterone during weight-bearing exercise.

    HORMONE INTERACTION - CORTISOL STUDIES

    It was initially reported that phosphatidylserine obtained from bovine cortex was able to reduce the exercise-induced increase in ACTH and cortisol following intravenous injections of 50 to 75 mg which was later replicated with 10 days supplementation of 800 mg bovine cortex phosphatidylserine in otherwise healthy men subject to exercise.

    Studies using Soy lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine noted that 400 mg PS delivered via a protein bar format (some nutrient confounds) for 2 weeks in college-aged men does not appear to significant alter exercise-induced changes in cortisol nor ACTH and 750 mg of PS daily for 10 days has twice failed to significantly influence cortisol/ACTH in otherwise healthy exercising men.

    This apparent discrepancy appears to be either due to other molecules that may coexist with bovine cortex but not soy lecithin (eg. sphingomyelin) or the fatty acids bound to the glycerol backbone in the relative sources.


    Phosphatidylserine derived from the bovine cortex appears to reduce cortisol in high concentrations, there is no evidence to support the role of soy based phosphatidylserine in this role and evidence to actively disprove an ability of PS to suppress cortisol or ACTH.


    NUTRIENT-NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS - FISH OIL (COINGESTION) STUDIES

    Fish Oil (the fatty acids EPA and DHA) are components of phosphatidyl serine (PS) derived from bovine cerebral cortex but not from soy lecithin and some authors mention that combination therapy of both fatty acids with PS would lead to better results. Both phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are constituents of lipid membranes, and are thought by some work synergistically.

    300 mg phosphatidylserine paired with 37.5 mg of fish oil fatty acids has been noted to improve delayed word recall in older individuals by 42-percent relative to baseline (no placebo control) with immediate recall not affected nor was any other tested parameter (attention, reaction time, working memory, etc.); this effect size may be larger than it actually is due to the low sample size (n=8).

    In adult men (non-elderly) using capsules containing fish oil (25-percent DHA, 5-percent EPA) and phosphatidylserine (20 to 22-percent) at 300 mg daily (total PS 60 to 66 mg) noted reduced stress levels in subjects who reported higher baseline chronic stress levels; those with lower stress failed to see an effect to chronic stress, but both groups experienced a lessening of percieved stress during testing (to a lower magnitude in the low stress group).

    NUTRIENT-NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS - FISH OIL (COMPLEXATION) STUDIES

    Phosphatidylserine, as a phospholipid, may be bound to two fatty acids; connection of the phosphatidylserine molecule to Fish Oil fatty acids (EPA and DHA) results in a complexed form that has been used in a few studies with benefit.

    NUTRIENT-NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS - GINKGO BILOBA STUDIES

    Ginkgo Biloba is a cognitive enhancing herb, with at least one study noted that despite inefficacy with 120 mg of ginkgo that complexing this herb with phosphatidylserine results in enhanced memory, with a degree greater than that seen with ginkgo complexed with Phosphatidylcholine (which also out-performend ginkgo in isolation).


    Further testing is required, but the two agents may be synergistic.


    SAFETY & TOXICOLOGY STUDIES

    Supplementation of up to 600 mg phosphatidyl serine (soy based) for 12 weeks in elderly persons has been noted to not be associated with any adverse effects.

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the human version of mad cow disease, a neurodegenerative disease caused by infectious proteins known as prions. A risk factor for CJD is consuming neural tissue of other living species, and it was believed that extracting phosphatidylserine from bovine cortex (main source of PS in the past) ran a risk of CJD.

    Despite no reported cases of CJD from phosphatidylserine supplementation, modern supplements use PS derived from Soy lecithin due to a higher safety profile.


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    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE - NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT FOR THE BRAIN

    Phosphatidyl serine (PS) is one of the key human brain phospholipids and is essential for normal neuron structure and function. Phosphatidyl serine, along with other essential fatty acids, may also play a critical role in cognitive function, including maintaining concentration and memory.

    Phosphatidyl Serine is nutritional suppott for the brain. All we have ever known or will ever feel, begins and ends with the hundreds of billions of nerve cells that form our brain. Without them, there can be no experience; for us, nothing would exist. Our mind and personality, the sense of who we are, emanate from this immensely intricate system of nerves. The brain's remarkable ability to perceive and perform, remember and learn, is severely challenged by today's social and physical environment. These environmental factors accelerate the decline in nerve cell activity that normally occurs with age. Recent clinical research is revealing how previously unrecognized nutrients can strengthen the body's natural defenses against age-related cognitive decline.

    Phosphotidyl Serine is a phospholipid which forms an essential part of every human cell, but it is particularly concentrated in the membranes of nerve cells. Since the electronic messages that communicate and regulate every aspect of our lives travel along nerve cell membranes, the structural integrity of these membranes is imperative to our health. The nerve cell membrane is the site where molecules of sodium and potassium exchange electrons, causing the electrical impulse to be generated. This bio-electric current then travels along the membrane to trigger the release of neurotransmitters. These are the chemical messengers that cross synapses (gaps between nerve cells) to relay information to neighboring nerve cells. This sets other electrical currents in motion- along thousands of other nerve cells. This happens billions of times each second, and is how the brain and nerves coordinate and communicate with the rest of the body.

    Phosphatidyl serine has a very important function in the nerve cell membrane. As a key bio-structural molecule, Phosphatidyl serine provides vital support for the membrane proteins that enable nerve cells to communicate and grow.

    Unlike other cells in the body, nerve cells do not reproduce. Instead, they repair and rebuild themselves, using proteins called Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). Experiments verify that PS enhances the synthesis and reception of NGF, which tend to drop off radically with age. Phosphatidyl Serine supplements enhance the cerebral cortex's output of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter associated with our ability to think, reason, and concentrate. Phosphatidyl Serine also stimulates the synthesis and release of dopamine, related to heightened states of attention.

    The brain's response to stress also appears to be related to Phosphatidyl Serine. When healthy young men were subjected to exercise-induced stress, those taking Phosphatidyl Serine had a lowered stress response. This was measured by blood levels of ACTH, the pituitary hormone that triggers the adrenals to secrete the stress hormone cortisol. Subjects taking Phosphatidyl Serine showed increased levels of brain energy metabolism and scored higher on cognitive tests. Behavioral factors were also measured in elderly subjects; Phosphatidyl Serine positively affected their mood states. Over 23 clinical trials have investigated the effect of Phosphatidyl Serine supplements on more than 1200 human subjects, ages 40 to 93. Consistent and statistically significant results suggest that Phosphatidyl Serine supports brain functions that tend to diminish with age.





    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE DOSAGE INFORMATION

    SUPPLEMENT FORMS

    Phosphatidyl Serine, or PS, is a compound similar to a dietary fat which is highly prevalent in human neural tissue. Do not confuse it with Serine. Phosphatidyl Serine is non-stimulatory and goes well with fatty acids due to fat solubility. It does not go well with fat-blockers. It can be synthesized as well as consumed through the diet , but further benefits can be gained through supplementation. It is vital for cognitive function, but is not necessarily needed as the body synthesizes it. However, Phosphatidylserine (PS) supplementation in older individuals seems to improve memory and cognitive capacity.

    PS is vital for cognitive function, but is not necessarily needed as the body synthesizes it. However, Phosphatidyl (PS) supplementation in older individuals seems to improve memory and cognitive capacity. PS complex aids brain cell function and reduces age-related mental decline. With age normal brain and nerve cell activity may decline due to diminished neurotransmitter and brain cell function. Phosphatidyl Serine assists in regulating membrane transfer of nutrients an neurotransmitters necessary for proper mental function. PS can provide relatively quick benefits especially to mature adults who are experiencing age related mental decline.

    A standard dose of phosphatidylserine (PS) is 100 mg, taken 3 times a day to total 300mg daily, with water at mealtimes for one month. This dose seems to be effective as a daily preventative against cognitive decline, and 100 mg once daily may provide some degree of benefit (but may be less benefit than 300 mg). For a maintenance dose, take one or two 100 mg softgels daily with water at mealtimes. Benefits fade away within about a month if you stop using the product.

    Studies in children and adolescents for the purpose of attention improvement tend to use 200 mg, and a dose of 200 to 400 mg has been used in adult non-elderly humans with success. Animal evidence tends to use a dose correlating to 550 mg as well.

    FOODS RICH IN PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE

    Phosphatidyl Serine have been known to improve age-related memory problems. Men and women addicted to sex and with poor memory can concentration issues can benefit from Phosphatidy Serine.



    PS CONTENT IN DIFFERENT FOODS


    The average daily phosphatidylserine (PS) intake from diet in Western countries is estimated to be 130 mg. PS may be found in meat and fish. Only small amounts of PS can be found in dairy products or in vegetables, with the exception of white beans and soy lecithin.
    Food
    PS Content in mg/100 g
    Soy Lecithin
    5900
    Bovine Brain
    713
    Atlantic Mackerel
    480
    Chicken Heart
    414
    Atlantic Herring
    360
    Eel
    335
    Offal (Average Value)
    305
    Pork Spleen
    239
    Pork Kidney
    218
    Tuna
    194
    Chicken Leg With Skin, W/O Bone
    134
    Chicken Liver
    123
    White Beans
    107
    Soft-Shell Clam
    87
    Chicken Breast With Skin
    85
    Mullet
    76
    Veal
    72
    Beef
    69
    Pork
    57
    Pork Liver
    50
    Turkey Leg W/O Skin or Bone
    50
    Turkey Breast W/O Skin
    45
    Crayfish
    40
    Cuttlefish
    31
    Atlantic Cod
    28
    Anchovy
    25
    Whole Grain Barley
    20
    European Hake
    17
    European Pilchard (Sardine)
    16
    Trout
    14
    Rice (Unpolished)
    3
    Carrot
    2
    Ewe's Milk
    2
    Cow's Milk (Whole, 3.5% Fat)
    1
    Potato
    1





    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTIONS

    In rare case, large doses (200 mg or higher per single dose) can lead to nausea when taken on an empty stomach, due to its stimulation of dopamine release. Taking PS with meals alleviates this problem. Taking PS just before going to bed may delay falling asleep.

    Exceeding the recommended dosages of Phosphatidyl Serine can cause immune suppression and psycholgical symptoms similar to cerebral allergies. Some have experienced nausea after taking PS, however, taking this supplement with food will reduce the nausea. Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known.





    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS) SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

  • Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) Supplement Products


  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


    FTC Advertising & Affilate Disclosure: This website has an affiliate relationship with certain merchants selling products and we recieve commissions from those sales to help support this website. Any products listed here are not listed by any rating system. We do not rate any product or post any feedback about products listed here. We leave this to the individual merchants to provide. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit. All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual.


    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS) AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTS PRODUCTS

    Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a phospolipid compound derived from soy lecithin that plays an essential role in cell membrane compostition and intercellular communication. PS is a major structural component of neural membranes where it assists in the conduction of electrical impulses and facilitates the activity of neurotransmitters involved in learning, memory and mood. It may reduce the risk of dementia in the elderly and support cognitive function.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Now Foods, 100 mg, 30 VCaps (68606)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Source Naturals, 30 Tabs (7287)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine, Natural Factors, 100 mg, 30 Softgels (83914)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine Complex, Solgar, 100 mg, 30 Tabs (36693)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Jarrow Formulas, 30 Softgels (13145)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 100 mg, 30 Softgels (100797)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Natures Way, 30 Caps (18040)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine DHA Optimized, Source Naturals, 30 VCaps (75375)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine With Ginkgo, Now Foods, 100 mg/60 mg, 50 Softgels (68609)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Now Foods, 100 mg, 60 VCaps (68607)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Natures Way, 60 Caps (18041)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine, Natural Factors, 100 mg, 60 Softgels (83915)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Jarrow Formulas, 100 mg, 60 Caps (13115)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Jarrow Formulas, 60 Softgels (20987)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine Complex, Olympian Labs, 100 mg, 60 Softgels (74407)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Bluebonnet Nutrition, 100 mg, 60 Softgels (100798)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine DHA Optimized, Source Naturals, 60 VCaps (75376)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine (PS Caps), Life Extension, 100 mg, 100 Caps (91792)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine With Ginkgo, Now Foods, 100 mg/60 mg, 100 Softgels (68608)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Doctors Best, 100 mg, 120 VCaps (81265)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Now Foods, 100 mg, 120 VCaps (68605)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine PS-100, Jarrow Formulas, 100 mg, 120 Caps (13114)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Source Naturals, 150 mg, 30 Tabs (7289)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Source Naturals, 150 mg, 60 Tabs (7290)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine, Now Foods, 150 mg, 60 Tabs (92568)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidylserine, Solgar, 200 mg, 60 Softgels (100259)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine Matrix, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 30 Softgels (67584)
    HerbsPro: Neuro-PS Phosphatidyl Serine Complex, Country Life, 500 mg, 30 Softgels (37395)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine Matrix, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 60 Softgels (67585)
    HerbsPro: Phosphatidyl Serine Complex, Support Concentration, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 60 Softgels (7292)
    Phosphatidyl Serine is a key human brain phosphlipid which is essential for normal neuron structure and function. PS, along with other essential fatty acids, may play a critical role in cognitive function, including maintaining concentration.
    HerbsPro: Neuro-PS Phosphatidylserine Complex, Country Life, 1000 mg, 60 Caps (79024)


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Phosphatidyl Serine Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) Supplement Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Serine Amino Acid Supplement Information






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    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


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    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


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    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
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