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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Amino Acids
HYALURONIC ACID (HA)


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Hyaluronic Acid Description
  • Hyaluronic Acid Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Hyaluronic Acid Dosage Information
  • Hyaluronic Acid Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Hyaluronic Acid Supplement Products




  • HYALURONIC ACID DESCRIPTION

    AN ANIONIC NONSULFATED GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN POLYSACCHARIDE MOLECULE

    Hyaluronic Acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body. It is found in the highest concentrations in fluids in the eyes and joints. Hyaluronic Acid works by acting as a cushion and lubricant in the joints and other connective tissues. In addition, it might affect the way the body responds to injury. Hyaluronic Acid is classified as a polysaccharide (a type of carbohydrate molecule).

    The Hyaluronic Acid that is used as medicine is extracted from rooster combs or made by bacteria in the laboratory. People take Hyaluronic Acid for various joint disorders, including osteoarthritis. It can be taken by mouth or injected into the affected joint by a healthcare professional. The FDA has approved the use of Hyaluronic Acid during certain eye surgeries including cataract removal, corneal transplantation, and repair of a detached retina and other eye injuries. It is injected into the eye during the procedure to help replace natural fluids. Hyaluronic Acid is also used as a lip filler in plastic surgery. Some people apply Hyaluronic Acid to the skin for healing wounds, burns, skin ulcers, and as a moisturizer.

    There is also a lot of interest in using Hyaluronic Acid to prevent the effects of aging. In fact, Hyaluronic Acid has been promoted as a "fountain of youth." However, there is no evidence to support the claim that taking it by mouth or applying it to the skin can prevent changes associated with aging.

    Hyaluronic Acid, under the brand names Restylane and Restylane-L, is used treating facial wrinkles and folds. Restylane is a gel of Hyaluronic Acid produced by bacteria and is classified as a medical device. Hyaluronic Acid is a substance that is normally produced by the body; it is what gives skin its volume and fullness. The Hyaluronic Acid in Restylane is called non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) because it is not derived from animal sources. When Restylane is injected into wrinkled skin it adds fullness and reduces the prominence of the wrinkles in the previously wrinkled area. Hyaluronic Acid also attracts and binds water, and this also helps maintain fullness in the area of injection. The benefit of Hyaluronic Acid may last for six months or longer. Restylane was approved by the FDA in December 2003. It is available by prescription as single use syringes.

    Hyaluronic Acid is also available in dietary supplement form. Since the body's hyaluronic acid levels decrease as people age, hyaluronic acid supplements are often said to treat or prevent aging-related health problems.





    HYALURONIC ACID USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    So far, very few studies have tested the health effects of taking supplements containing hyaluronic acid. However, there is some evidence that hyaluronic acid supplements may offer certain benefits.

    In a research review published in Current Rheumatology Reports in 2000, for instance, researchers determined that hyaluronic acid shows promise in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Looking at findings from animal-based research and preliminary studies in humans, the report's authors found that hyaluronic acid may help reduce inflammation, relieve pain, restore joint fluids, and protect against cartilage breakdown in osteoarthritis patients.

    A study published in the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine in 2012, however, indicates that hyaluronic acid may not aid patients in recovery from knee arthroscopy (a common surgical procedure used to diagnose and treat knee problems). For the study, 98 patients undergoing routine arthroscopic procedures were assigned to treatment with either hyaluronic acid or bupivacaine (a local anesthesia). Finding that hyaluronic acid failed to reduce pain or improve functioning in the patients, the study's authors concluded that hyaluronic acid cannot be recommended to people undergoing knee arthroscopy.

    HYLURONIC ACID SUPPLEMENTS

    One of the most common uses of hyaluronic acid supplements is treatment of osteoarthritis. In some cases, supplements formulated to treat osteoarthritis contain a combination of hyaluronic acid, glucosamine, and chondroitin sulfate. In addition, proponents claim that hyaluronic acid supplements can help treat the following health problems:
    • Chronic fatigue syndrome.
    • Chronic pain.
    • Fibromyalgia.
    • Insomnia.

    Hyaluronic acid supplements are said to improve bone density and protect against osteoporosis, increase muscle strength, and enhance sexual function.

    OTHER FORMS OF HYALURONIC ACID

    Personal-care products containing hyaluronic acid are also sometimes applied to the skin to promote healing of burns and wounds. Some proponents claim that topically applied hyaluronic acid can help reverse signs of aging in the skin.

    Hyaluronic acid can be administered as an injection. Hyaluronic acid injections are most commonly used in treatment of eye disorders, but there is some evidence that injected hyaluronic acid may also help treat temporomandibular joint disorder (a condition more commonly referred to as "TMJ"). Intra-articular injections have also been explored for osteoarthritis. In addition, hyaluronic acid is used as a lip filler during cosmetic surgery.

  • Hyaluronic acid is effective for sores in the mouth, when applied to the skin as a gel.
  • When injected by an eye surgeon, it is used in eye surgery and corneal transplant.
  • When injected into the joint by a health care provider, it is used for osteoarthritis. Despite being approved by the FDA for treatment of osteoarthritis by injection, results vary. Some people report a moderate improvement in joint stiffness and pain decrease with hyaluronic acid treatment, but this is not always the case. Whether hyaluronic acid might delay or lessen progressive joint damage with long-term use is unknown.
  • Although there may be insufficient evidence, Hyaluronic Acid has been used in healing skin wounds and burns, detached retina and other eye injuries and preventing the effects of aging. More scientific evidence is needed to rate hyaluronic acid for these uses.



  • HYALURONIC ACID USES
    By Wikipedia

    Hyaluronic Acid, also called hyaluronan, hyaluronate or HA, is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. It is unique among glycosaminoglycans in that it is nonsulfated, forms in the plasma membrane instead of the Golgi, and can be very large, with its molecular weight often reachin the millions. One of the chief components of the extracellular matrix, hyaluronan contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration, and may also be involved in the progression of some malignant tumors.

    The average 154 pound (70 kg) person has roughly 15 grams of hyaluronan in the body, one-third of which is turned over (degraded and synthesized) every day. Hyaluronic acid is also a component of the group A streptococcal extracellular capsule, and is believed to play a role in virulence.

  • Hyaluronan has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. It has not been proven, however, to generate significant benefit and has potentially severe adverse effects.
  • Dry, scaly skin (xerosis) such as that caused by atopic dermatitis (eczema) may be treated with a prescription skin lotion containing sodium hyaluronate as its active ingredient.
  • In some cancers, hyaluronan levels correlate well with malignancy and poor prognosis. Hyaluronan is, thus, often used as a tumor marker for prostate and breast cancer. It may also be used to monitor the progression of the disease.
  • Hyaluronan may also be used postoperatively to induce tissue healing, notably after cataract surgery. Current models of wound healing propose the larger polymers of hyaluronic acid appear in the early stages of healing to physically make room for white blood cells, which mediate the immune response.
  • Hyaluronan has also been used in the synthesis of biological scaffolds for wound-healing applications. These scaffolds typically have proteins such as fibronectin attached to the hyaluronan to facilitate cell migration into the wound. This is particularly important for individuals with diabetes suffering from chronic wounds.
  • In 2007, the EMA extended its approval of Hylan GF-20 as a treatment for ankle and shoulder osteoarthritis pain.

  • HYALURONAN FUNCTIONS

    Until the late 1970s, hyaluronan was described as a "goo" molecule, a ubiquitous carbohydrate polymer that is part of the extracellular matrix. For example, hyaluronan is a major component of the synovial fluid, and was found to increase the viscosity of the fluid. Along with lubricin, it is one of the fluid's main lubricating components. Hyaluronan is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte). When aggrecan monomers bind to hyaluronan in the presence of link protein, large, highly negatively charged aggregates form. These aggregates imbibe water and are responsible for the resilience of cartilage (its resistance to compression). The molecular weight (size) of hyaluronan in cartilage decreases with age, but the amount increases.

    Hyaluronan is also a major component of skin, where it is involved in tissue repair. When skin is exposed to excessive UVB rays, it becomes inflamed (sunburn) and the cells in the dermis stop producing as much hyaluronan, and increase the rate of its degradation. Hyaluronan degradation products then accumulate in the skin after UV exposure.

    While it is abundant in extracellular matrices, hyaluronan also contributes to tissue hydrodynamics, movement and proliferation of cells, and participates in a number of cell surface receptor interactions, notably those including its primary receptors, CD44 and RHAMM. Upregulation of CD44 itself is widely accepted as a marker of cell activation in lymphocytes. Hyaluronan's contribution to tumor growth may be due to its interaction with CD44. Receptor CD44 participates in cell adhesion interactions required by tumor cells. Although hyaluronan binds to receptor CD44, there is evidence hyaluronan degradation products transduce their inflammatory signal through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4 or both TLR2, and TLR4 in macrophages and dendritic cells. TLR and hyaluronan play a role in innate immunity.

    High concentrations of hyaluronan in the brains of young rats, and reduced concentrations in the brains of adult rats suggest hyaluronan plays an important role in brain development.

    MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

    Properties of hyaluronan were first determined in the 1930s in the laboratory of Karl Meyer. Hyaluronan is a polymer of disaccharides, themselves composed of D-glucuronic acid and D-N-acetylglucosamine, linked via alternating beta-1,4 and beta-1,3 glycosidic bonds. Hyaluronan can be 25,000 disaccharide repeats in length. Polymers of hyaluronan can range in size from 5,000 to 20,000,000 Da in vivo. The average molecular weight in human synovial fluid is 3 to 4 million Da, and hyaluronan purified from human umbilical cord is 3,140,000 Da.

    Hyaluronan is energetically stable, in part because of the stereochemistry of its component disaccharides. Bulky groups on each sugar molecule are in sterically favored positions, whereas the smaller hydrogens assume the less-favorable axial positions.

    BIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS

    Hyaluronan is synthesized by a class of integral membrane proteins called hyaluronan synthases, of which vertebrates have three types: HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3. These enzymes lengthen hyaluronan by repeatedly adding glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine to the nascent polysaccharide as it is extruded via ABC-transporter through the cell membrane into the extracellular space.

    Hyaluronan synthesis (HAS) has been shown to be inhibited by 4-methylumbelliferone (hymecromone, heparvit), a 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin derivative. This selective inhibition (without inhibiting other glycosaminoglycans) may prove useful in preventing metastasis of malignant tumor cells.

    Bacillus subtilis recently has been genetically modified (GMO) to culture a proprietary formula to yield hyaluronans, in a patented process producing human-grade product.

    CELL RECEPTORS FOR HYALURONAN

    So far, cell receptors that have been identified for HA fall into three main groups: CD44, Receptor for HA-mediated motility (RHAMM) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). CD44 and ICAM-1 were already known as cell adhesion molecules with other recognized ligands before their HA binding was discovered. CD44 is widely distributed throughout the body, and the formal demonstration of HA-CD44 binding was proposed by Aruffo et al. in 1990. To date, it is recognized as the main cell surface receptor for HA. CD44 mediates cell interaction with HA and the binding of the two functions as an important part in various physiologic events, such as cell aggregation, migration, proliferation and activation; cell–cell and cell–substrate adhesion; endocytosis of HA, which leads to HA catabolism in macrophages; and assembly of pericellular matrices from HA and proteoglycan. Two significant roles of CD44 in skin were proposed by Kaya et al. The first is regulation of keratinocyte proliferation in response to extracellular stimuli, and the second is the maintenance of local HA homeostasis.

    ICAM-1 is known mainly as a metabolic cell surface receptor for HA, and this protein may be responsible mainly for the clearance of HA from lymph and blood plasma, which accounts for perhaps most of its whole-body turnover. Ligand binding of this receptor, thus, triggers a highly coordinated cascade of events that includes the formation of an endocytotic vesicle, its fusion with primary lysosomes, enzymatic digestion to monosaccharides, active transmembrane transport of these sugars to cell sap, phosphorylation of GlcNAc and enzymatic deacetylation. Like its name, ICAM-1 may also serve as a cell adhesion molecule, and the binding of HA to ICAM-1 may contribute to the control of ICAM-1-mediated inflammatory activation.

    DEGRADATION

    Hyaluronan is degraded by a family of enzymes called hyaluronidases. In humans, there are at least seven types of hyaluronidase-like enzymes, several of which are tumor suppressors. The degradation products of hyaluronan, the oligosaccharides and very low-molecular-weight hyaluronan, exhibit pro-angiogenic properties. In addition, recent studies showed hyaluronan fragments, not the native high-molecular mass of hyaluronan, can induce inflammatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells in tissue injury and in skin transplant.

    HYALURONAN ROLE ON WOUND REPAIR PROCESS

    Skin provides a mechanical barrier to the external environment and acts to prevent the ingress of infectious agents. Once injured, the tissues beneath are exposed to infection; therefore, rapid and effective healing is of crucial significance to reconstruct a barrier function. Skin wound healing is a complex process, and includes many interacting processes initiated by hemostasis and the release of platelet-derived factors. The following stages are inflammation, granulation tissue formation, reepithelization and remodeling. HA is likely to play a multifaceted role in mediation of these cellular and matrix events. The proposed roles of HA in this sequence of skin wound healing events are elucidated in details below.

    Inflammation: Many biological factors, such as growth factors, cytokines, eicosanoids etc., are generated in the inflammation process. These factors are necessary for the subsequent steps of wound healing due to their roles in promoting migration of inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells into the wound site. The wound tissue in the early inflammatory phase of wound repair is abundant in HA, probably a reflection of increased synthesis. HA acts as a promoter of early inflammation, which is crucial in the whole skin wound-healing process. In a murine air pouch model of carrageenan/IL-1-induced inflammation, HA was observed to enhance cellular infiltration. Kobayashi and colleagues showed a dose-dependent increase of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-8 production by human uterine fibroblasts at HA concentrations of 10 mcg/ml to 1 mg/ml via a CD44-mediated mechanism. Endothelial cells, in response to inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, also synthesize HA, which has been shown to facilitate primary adhesion of cytokine-activated lymphocytes expressing the HA-binding variants of CD44 under laminar and static flow conditions. It is interesting to note that HA has contradictory dual functions in the inflammatory process. It not only can promote the inflammation, as stated above, but also can moderate the inflammatory response, which may contribute to the stabilization of granulation tissue matrix, as described in the following part.

    Granulation & Organization of the Granulation Tissue Matrix: Granulation tissue is the perfused, fibrous connective tissue that replaces a fibrin clot in healing wounds. It typically grows from the base of a wound and is able to fill wounds of almost any size it heals. HA is abundant in granulation tissue matrix. A variety of cell functions that are essential for tissue repair may attribute to this HA-rich network. These functions include facilitation of cell migration into the provisional wound matrix, cell proliferation and organization of the granulation tissue matrix. Initiation of inflammation is crucial for the formation of granulation tissue, therefore the pro-inflammatory role of HA as discussed above also contributes to this stage of wound healing.

    HA & Cell Migration: Cell migration is essential for the formation of granulation tissue. The early stage of granulation tissue is dominated by a HA-rich extracellular matrix, which is regarded as a conducive environment for migration of cells into this temporary wound matrix. Contributions of HA to cell migration may attribute to its physicochemical properties as stated above, as well as its direct interactions with cells. For the former scenario, HA provides an open hydrated matrix that facilitates cell migration, whereas, in the latter scenario, directed migration and control of the cell locomotory mechanisms are mediated via the specific cell interaction between HA and cell surface HA receptors. As discussed before, the three principal cell surface receptors for HA are CD44, RHAMM, and ICAM-1. RHAMM is more related to cell migration. It forms links with several protein kinases associated with cell locomotion, for example, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p125fak, and pp60c-src. During fetal development, the migration path through which neural crest cells migrate is rich in HA. HA is closely associated with the cell migration process in granulation tissue matrix, and studies show that cell movement can be inhibited, at least partially, by HA degradation or blocking HA receptor occupancy.

    By providing the dynamic force to the cell, HA synthesis has also been shown to associate with cell migration. Basically, HA is synthesized at the plasma membrane and released directly into the extracellular environment. This may contribute to the hydrated microenvironment at sites of synthesis, and is essential for cell migration by facilitating cell detachment.

    Role of HA in Moderation of the Inflammatory Response: Although inflammation is an integral part of granulation tissue formation, for normal tissue repair to proceed, inflammation needs to be moderated. The initial granulation tissue formed is highly inflammatory with a high rate of tissue turnover mediated by matrix degrading enzymes and reactive oxygen metabolites that are products of inflammatory cells. Stabilization of granulation tissue matrix can be achieved by moderating inflammation. HA functions as an important moderator in this moderation process, which contradicts its role in inflammatory stimulation, as described above. HA can protect against free-radical damage to cells. This may attribute to its free-radical scavenging property, a physicochemical characteristic shared by large polyionic polymers. In a rat model of free-radical scavenging property investigated by Foschi D. and colleagues, HA has been shown to reduce damage to the granulation tissue.

    In addition to the free-radical scavenging role, HA may also function in the negative feedback loop of inflammatory activation through its specific biological interactions with the biological constituents of inflammation. TNF-alpha, an important cytokine generated in inflammation, stimulates the expression of TSG-6 (TNF-stimulated gene 6) in fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. TSG-6, a HA-binding protein, also forms a stable complex with the serum proteinase inhibitor IalphaI (Inter-alpha-inhibitor) with a synergistic effect on the latter's plasmin-inhibitory activity. Plasmin is involved in activation of the proteolytic cascade of matrix metalloproteinases and other proteinases leading to inflammatory tissue damage. Therefore, the action of TSG-6/ IalphaI complex, which may be additionally organized by binding to HA in the extracellular matrix, may serve as a potent negative feedback loop to moderate inflammation and stabilize the granulation tissue as healing progresses. In the murine air pouch model of carragenan/IL-1 (Interleukin-1beta)-induced inflammation, where HA has been shown to have a proinflammatory property, reduction of inflammation can be achieved by administrating TSG-6, and the result is comparable with systemic dexamethasone treatment.

    Reepithelization: HA plays an important role in the normal epidermis. HA also has crucial functions in the reepithelization process due to several of its properties. It serves as an integral part of the extracellular matrix of basal keratinocytes, which are major constituents of the epidermis; its free-radical scavenging function and its role in keratinocyte proliferation and migration.

    In normal skin, HA is found in relative high concentrations in the basal layer of the epidermis where proliferating keratinocytes are found. CD44 is collocated with HA in the basal layer of epidermis where additionally it has been shown to be preferentially expressed on plasma membrane facing the HA-rich matrix pouches. Maintaining the extracellular space and providing an open, as well as hydrated, structure for the passage of nutrients are the main functions of HA in epidermis. Tammi R. and other colleagues found HA content increases at the presence of retinoic acid (vitamin A). The proposed effects of retinoic acid against skin photo-damage and aging may be correlated, at least in part, with an increase of skin HA content, giving rise to increase of tissue hydration. It has been suggested the free-radical scavenging property of HA contributes to protection against solar radiation, supporting the role of CD44 acting as a HA receptor in the epidermis.

    Epidermal HA also functions as a manipulator in the process of keratinocyte proliferation, which is essential in normal epidermal function, as well as during reepithelization in tissue repair. In the wound healing process, HA is expressed in the wound margin, in the connective tissue matrix, and collocating with CD44 expression in migrating keratinocytes. Kaya et al. found suppression of CD44 expression by an epidermis-specific antisense transgene resulted in animals with defective HA accumulation in the superficial dermis, accompanied by distinct morphologic alterations of basal keratinocytes and defective keratinocyte proliferation in response to mitogen and growth factors. Decrease in skin elasticity, impaired local inflammatory response, and impaired tissue repair were also observed. Their observations are strongly supportive of the important roles HA and CD44 have in skin physiology and tissue repair.

    Fetal Wound Healing & Scarring: Lack of fibrous scarring is the primary feature of fetal wound healing. Even for longer periods, HA content in fetal wounds is still higher than that in adult wounds, which suggests that HA may, at least in part, reduce collagen deposition and therefore lead to reduced scarring. This suggestion is in agreement with the research of West et al., who showed in adult and late gestation fetal wound healing, removal of HA results in fibrotic scarring.

    ROLE IN CANCER METASTASIS

    process of cancer metastasis

    The process of cancer metastasis in which HA-associated molecules play a role in the steps. Abbreviations: hyaluronic acid (HA), hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS), hyaluronic acid receptor (HAR), hyaluronidase (HAase/HYAL)


    As shown above, the various types of molecules that interact with hyaluronan can contribute to many of the stages of cancer metastasis.

    Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) play roles in all of the stages of cancer metastasis. By producing anti-adhesive HA, HAS can allow tumor cells to release from the primary tumor mass, and if HA associates with receptors such as CD44, the activation of Rho GTPases can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells. During the processes of intravasation or extravasation, the interaction of HAS produced HA with receptors such as CD44 or RHAMM promote the cell changes that allow for the cancer cells to infiltrate the vascular or lymphatic systems. While traveling in these systems, HA produced by HAS protects the cancer cell from physical damage. Finally, in the formation of a metastatic lesion, HAS produces HA to allow the cancer cell to interact with native cells at the secondary site and to produce a tumor for itself.

    Hyaluronidases (HAase or HYAL) also play many roles in cancer metastasis. By helping to degrade the ECM surrounding the tumor, hyaluronidases help the cancer cell escape from the primary tumor mass and play a major role in intravasation by allowing degradation of the basement membrane of the lymph or blood vessel. Hyaluronidases again play these roles in establishment of a metastatic lesion by helping with extravasation and clearing the ECM of the secondary site.[51] Finally, hyaluronidases play a key role in the process of angiogenesis. HA fragments promote angiogenesis and hyaluronidases produce these fragments. Interestingly, hypoxia also increases production of HA and activity of hyaluronidases.

    The hyaluronan receptors, CD44 and RHAMM, are most thoroughly studied in terms of their roles in cancer metastasis. Increased clinical CD44 expression has been positively correlated to metastasis in a number of tumor types. In terms of mechanics, CD44 affects adhesion of cancer cells to each other and to endothelial cells, rearranges the cytoskeleton through the Rho GTPases, and increases the activity of ECM degrading enzymes. Increased RHAMM expression has also been clinically correlated with cancer metastasis. In terms of mechanics, RHAMM promotes cancer cell motility through a number of pathways including focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Map kinase (MAPK), pp60(c-src), and the downstream targets of Rho kinase (ROK). RHAMM can also cooperate with CD44 to promote angiogenesis toward the metastatic lesion.

    COSMETIC APPLICATIONS

    Hyaluronan is a common ingredient in skin-care products. In 2003, the FDA approved hyaluronan injections for filling soft tissue defects such as facial wrinkles. Restylane is a common trade name for the product. Hyaluronan injections temporarily smooth wrinkles by adding volume under the skin, with effects typically lasting for six months. Juvederm is a bacterial hyaluronic acid injectable filler, similar to Restylane, but differing slightly in terms of effect and longevity. It is used for lip augmentation, reduction of folds and wrinkles, and removal of scars. The effects of Juvéderm treatments are also temporary, and costs are similar to those of Restylane. Until recently, such hyaluronic acid fillers were injected using a classic sharp hypodermic needle, cutting through nerves and vessels, causing pain and bruises to the patient. In 2009, pioneers discovered a new technique using a blunt-tip microcannula. This technique consists of puncturing the skin with a sharp needle, then sliding the flexible and atraumatic blunt-tip microcannula under the skin, sparing nerves and vessels, therefore causing much less bruising.

    The presence of hyaluronic acid in epithelial tissue has been shown to promote keratinocyte proliferation and increase the presence of retinoic acid, causing skin hydration. Hyaluronic acid's interaction with CD44 drives collagen synthesis and normal skin function. Present in the extracellular matrix of basal keratinocytes, hyaluronic acid is critical to the structural integrity of the dermal collagen matrix. These benefits make hyaluronic acid a very effective topical humectant; however, results may only be sustained as part of an ongoing treatment program.

    One study showed that a minimal surgery procedure using hyaluronic acid is an effective and safe method for improving acne scars. Another found that this treatment can reduce the appearance of neck wrinkles. When used in combination with pimecrolimus cream, it has been shown to work well in the treatment of atopic dermatitis with no side effects. However, one peer-reviewed article presented case studies that suggest that such side effects as necrosis can occur when using hyaluronic acid injections.

    In cosmetics, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid is used as humectant, antioxidant, stimulating agent for collagen synthesis and cell proliferation and cytotaxis, and believed to be a key factor in fighting aging.

    EQUINE (HORSE) APPLICATIONS

    Hyaluronan is used in treatment of articular disorders in horses, in particular those in competition or heavy work. It is indicated for carpal and fetlock joint dysfunctions, but not when joint sepsis or fracture are suspected. It is especially used for synovitis associated with equine osteoarthritis. It can be injected directly into an affected joint, or intravenously for less localized disorders. It may cause mild heating of the joint if directly injected, but this does not affect the clinical outcome. Intra-articularly administered medicine is fully metabolized in less than a week. Note that, according to Canadian regulation, hyaluronan in HY-50 preparation should not be administered to animals to be slaughtered for horse meat. In Europe, however, the same preparation is not considered to have any such effect, and edibility of the horse meat is not affected.

    ETYMOLOGY

    Hyaluronic acid is derived from hyalos (Greek for vitreous) and uronic acid because it was first isolated from the vitreous humour and possesses a high uronic acid content. The term hyaluronate refers to the conjugate base of hyaluronic acid. Because the molecule typically exists in vivo in its polyanionic form, it is most commonly referred to as hyaluronan.

    HISTORY

    Hyaluronan is found in many tissues of the body, such as skin, cartilage, and the vitreous humour. Therefore, it is well suited to biomedical applications targeting these tissues. The first hyaluronan biomedical product, Healon, was developed in the 1970s and 1980s by Pharmacia, and is approved for use in eye surgery (i.e., corneal transplantation, cataract surgery, glaucoma surgery, and surgery to repair retinal detachment). Other biomedical companies also produce brands of hyaluronan for opthalmic surgery.

    Native hyaluronan has a relatively short half-life (shown in rabbits) so various manufacturing techniques have been deployed to extend the length of the chain and stabilise the molecule for its use in medical applications. The introduction of protein based cross-links, the introduction of free-radical scavenging molecules such as sorbitol, and minimal stabilisation of the HA chains through chemical agents e.g. NASHA stabilisation are all techniques that have been used.

    In the late 1970s, intraocular lens implantation was often followed by severe corneal edema, due to endothelial cell damage during the surgery. It was evident that a viscous, clear, physiologic lubricant to prevent such scraping of the endothelial cells was needed.

    RESEARCH

    Due to its high biocompatibility and its common presence in the extracellular matrix of tissues, hyaluronan is gaining popularity as a biomaterial scaffold in tissue engineering research. In particular, a number of research groups have found hyaluronan's properties for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are significantly improved with crosslinking, producing a hydrogel. This added feature allows a researcher to form a desired shape, as well as to deliver therapeutic molecules, into a host. Hyaluronan can be crosslinked by attaching thiols (trade names: Extracel, HyStem), methacrylates, and tyramines (trade name: Corgel). Hyaluronan can also be crosslinked directly with formaldehyde (trade name: Hylan-A) or with divinylsulfone (trade name: Hylan-B).

    For complete article and references see Wikipedia.org: Hyaluronan





    HYALURONIC ACID DOSAGE INFORMATION

    SUPPLEMENT FORMS

    According to scientific research, health care providers inject hyaluronic acid into the knee joint for treating osteoarthritis.

    Hyaluronic Acid is used for the correction of moderate to severe wrinkles and folds (for example, naso-labial folds). It also is used for enhancing fullness of the lips (lip augmentation). Hyaluronic Acid is administered by injection only by a health care practitioner. The amount of hyaluronic acid that is administered depends on the site that is being treated but it should not be more than 1.5 ml per nasa-labial fold or 6 ml per treatment. For lip augmentation the maximum volume is 1.5 ml per lip not to exceed 3 ml per session.





    HYALURONIC ACID SAFETY & INTERACTION INFORMATION

    Due to a lack of research, little is known about the safety of using hyaluronic acid supplements. However, it is important to note that self-treating a chronic health condition with hyaluronic acid supplements, and avoiding or delaying standard care, may have serious consequences. If you are considering the use of hyaluronic acid supplements in treatment of a chronic condition, be sure to consult your health care provider before starting your supplement regimen.

    Prescription forms of hyaluronic acid are safe for most people. There is not enough information about hyaluronic acid to know if it is safe when taken by mouth. Sometimes hyaluronic acid can cause pain and redness where it is injected. Increased pressure in the eye may occur after hyaluronic acid is used for eye surgery. Rarely, hyaluronic acid may cause allergic reactions.

    The most common side effects of hyaluronic acid are reactions at the site of injection such as bruising, redness, pain, itching, tenderness, and swelling. Vitamin E supplements, St. John's Wort, aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as Aleve and Motrin may increase bruising or bleeding after injection of hyaluronic acid. Therefore, patients should stop these drugs at least one week before the injections. Post marketing adverse effects that have been reported include infection, allergic reactions, necrosis (death of tissue), and acne.

    Special Precautions & Warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Hyaluronic acid is considered possibly safe when given by injection during pregnancy. However, not enough is known about the safety of hyaluronic acid when taken by mouth or applied to the skin during pregnancy. Use of hyaluronic acid during pregnancy has not been evaluated. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

    If you are breast-feeding, do not use hyaluronic acid, even by injection. Use of hyaluronic acid by nursing mothers has not been evaluated. Researchers do not know whether it can get into breast milk and what effect that might have on an infant.

    There is no information for hyaluronic acid interactions available at this time. Hyaluronic acid is classified as a medical device when dosed in single use syringes. Hyaluronic acid should be stored at room temperature up to 77°F.





    HYALURONIC ACID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

  • Hyaluronic Acid Supplement Products


  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


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    HYALURONIC ACID (HA) SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Woodland Publishing, 32 Page Booklet (90320)
    HerbsPro: Pycnogenol & Hyaluronic Acid Eye Creme, Derma-E, 0.5 oz. (49986)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid 65% SeruGel, Devita Natural Skin Care, 1 oz. (76547)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Serum, Now Foods, 1 oz. (68313)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Serum, Larenim, 1 oz. (105963)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Day Creme Rehydrating Formula, Derma-E, 2 oz. (49461)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Night Creme Intensive Rehydrating Formula, Derma-E, 2 oz. (49462)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Firming Serum, Derma-E, 2 oz. (49463)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Creme, Now Foods, 2 oz. Tube (68314)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Moisturizer, Now Foods, 2 oz. Tube (68312)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Cream, Home Health, 4 oz. (70776)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Rejuvenating, Home Health, 8 oz. (73538)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Ampules, Reviva, 10 Vials (35485)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Liquid Supplement, Blueberry, Neocell Labs, 16 fl. oz. (78712)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Liquid Supplement, Now Foods, 100 mg, 16 fl. oz. (94312)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Natrol, 40 mg, 30 Caps (67213)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 30 Tabs (62827)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 30 Caps (69806)
    HerbsPro: BioCell Collagen II Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 30 Tabs (37979)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 30 Tabs (70044)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Solgar, 120 mg, 30 Tabs (100223)
    HerbsPro: Natural Hyaluronic Acid, Life Time Nutritional Specialties, 140 mg, 30 VCaps (89831)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Plus MSM, Thompson Nutritional Products, 30 Enteric Coated Caps (81256)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 60 Caps (69807)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 60 Tabs (62828)
    HerbsPro: BioCell Collagen II Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 60 Tabs (37980)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid With MSM, Now Foods, 50 mg, 60 VCaps (68335)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 70 mg, 60 Softgels (31264)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid With Chondroitin Sulfate, Doctors Best, 100 mg, 60 Caps (69122)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Now Foods, 100 mg, 60 VCaps (71683)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Vita Plus, 100 mg, 60 Caps (73829)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 100 mg, 60 Tabs (70045)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid With Chondroitin Sulfate, Doctors Best, 60 Tabs (94338)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Foodscience of Vermont, 60 Caps (70210)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Jarrow Formulas, 60 Caps (66038)
    HerbsPro: Celadrin With Hyaluronic Acid, Foodscience of Vermont, 60 Caps (70203)
    HerbsPro: Hyabest Hyaluronic Acid, Natural Factors, 60 VCaps (91364)
    HerbsPro: Hydraplenish Hyaluronic Acid, Natures Way, 60 Caps (67187)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, California Natural, 90 Caps (44921)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid Complex, Country Life Bio-Active, 90 VCaps (79075)
    HerbsPro: Vegetarian Hyaluronic Acid With MSM & Glucosamine, Natrol, 90 Caps (70393)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Olympian Labs, 100 Caps (74360)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid With MSM, Now Foods, 50 mg, 120 VCaps (68334)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 120 Caps (69808)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 120 Tabs (62829)
    HerbsPro: BioCell Collagen II Hyaluronic Acid, Source Naturals, 50 mg, 120 Tabs (37981)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Now Foods, 120 Caps (94311)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid, Jarrow Formulas, 120 Caps (66591)
    HerbsPro: Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM Plus Hyaluronic Acid, Doctors Best, 150 Caps (94477)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid With Chondroitin Sulfate, Doctors Best, 180 Caps (86521)
    HerbsPro: Hyaluronic Acid For Dogs, Cheese, ActiPet, 60 Chews (94056)


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Hyaluronic Acid Supplement Information






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    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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