MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
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CYSTINE & CYSTEINE RELATIONSHIP
These two amino acids are closely related; each molecule of Cystine consists of two molecules of Cysteine joined together. Cysteine is very unstable and is easily converted to L-Cystine; however, each form is capable of converting into the other as needed. Both are sulfur-containing amino acids that aid in the formation of skin and are important in detoxification.
L-Cysteine is also known as L-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid, 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid, beta-mercaptoalanine, 2-amino-3 mercaptopropionic acid and alpha-amino-beta-thiolpropionic acid. Its IUPAC abbreviation is Cys, and its one-letter abbreviation, used when spelling out protein structures, is C.
L-Cysteine is a white, solid substance that is soluble in water. It is hygroscopic and slowly decomposes and oxidizes. In solution, it undergoes oxidation to L-cystine, which is a dimer of L-Cysteine. N-Acetyl Cysteine is a preferred delivery form of <L-Cysteine because of greater stability and possible higher absorbability.
Cystine is a crystalline, sulfur-containing amino acid, formed from two molecules of the amino acid cysteine. It can be converted to cysteine by reduction and was discovered in 1810 but was not recognized as a component of proteins until 1899, when it was isolated from animal horn - it is particularly abundant in skeletal and connective tissues, hair and digestive enzymes. The steps followed in the formation of Cystine and Cysteine, is from Methionine to Cystathionine and then to Cysteine to Cystine.
Cysteine is a sulfur containing non-essential amino acid and is closely related to Cystine, as Cystine consists of two Cysteine molecules joined together. It is an unstable nutrient and easily converts to Cystine, but this does not cause a problem, since both can convert into the other - as required by the body.
Cysteine is only incorporated into proteins at the rate of 2.8 percent relative to the other amino acids, but the unique thiol side chain of this amino acid is often heavily involved in the three-dimensional stability of proteins and enzymes. The side chain is also often involved in the chemistry occurring at the active sites of many enzymes. Cysteine is also critical to the metabolism of a number of essential biochemicals including coenzyme A, heparin, biotin, lipoic acid, and glutathione.
Cystine is the product of an oxidation between the thiol side chains of two cysteine amino acids. As such, Cystine is not considered one of the 20 amino acids. This oxidation product is found in abundance in a variety of proteins such as hair keratin, insulin, the digestive enzymes chromotrypsinogen A, papain, and trypsinogen where it is heavily involved in stabilizing the tertiary structure of these macromolecules.
CYSTINE USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
CYSTINE & CYSTEINE BENEFITS
Cysteine is present in alpha-keratin, the chief protein constituent of the fingernails, toenails, skin, and hair. Cysteine aids in the production of collagen and promotes the proper elasticity and texture of the skin. It is also found in a variety of other proteins in the body, including several of the digestive system.
Cysteine helps to detoxify harmful toxins and protect the body from radiation damage. It is one of the best free radical destroyers, and works best when taken with selenium and vitamin E. Cysteine is also precursor to Glutathione, a substance that detoxifies the liver by binding with potentially harmful substances there. It helps to protect the liver and brain from damage due to alcohol, drugs, and toxic compounds in cigarette smoke. Cystine may be effective in preventing hangovers.
Since Cysteine is more soluble than Cystine, it is used more readily in the body and is usually best for treating most illnesses. This amino acid is formed from L-methionine in the body. Vitamin B-6 is necessary for Cysteine synthesis, which may not take place as it should in the presence of chronic disease. Cystine is required for proper Vitamin B-6 utilization. Therefore, people with chronic illnesses may need higher than normal doses of Cysteine, as much as 1,000 mg three times daily for a month at a time.
L-Cysteine may have anti-inflammatory properties that can protect against various toxins, and that supplementation may be recommended for and be helpful in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Supplementation with L-Cysteine is recommended in the treatment of hardening of the arteries, and mutagenic disorders such as cancer. Cystine promotes healing after surgery, wounds, and severe burns, chelates heavy metals, and binds with soluble iron, aiding in iron absorption. This amino acid also promotes the burning of fat and the building of muscle.
Because of its ability to break down mucus in the respiratory tract, L-Cysteine is often beneficial in the treatment of bronchitis, emphysema, and tuberculosis. It promotes healing from respiratory disorders and plays an important role in the activity of white blood cells, which fight disease. Cystine helps break down mucus deposits in cystic fibrosis.
Cystine or the N-Acetyl form of Cysteine ( N-Acetyl Cysteine) may be used in place of L-Cysteine. N-Acetyl Cysteine aids in preventing side effects from chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Because it increases Glutathione levels in the lungs, kidneys, liver, and bone marrow, it has an anti-aging effect on the body - reducing the accumulation of age spots, for example. N-Acetyl-Cysteine has been shown to be more effective at boosting Glutathione levels than supplements of Cystine or even of Glutathione itself.
People who have diabetes should be cautious about taking supplemental Cysteine because it is capable of in-activating insulin. Persons with cystinuria, a rare genetic condition that leads to the formation of Cystine kidney stones, should not take Cysteine. Cysteine also assists in the supply of insulin to the pancreas, which is needed for the assimilation of sugars and starches.
Cysteine has also been found that it may help in strengthening the protective lining of the stomach as well as intestines, which may help prevent damage caused by aspirin and similar drugs. L-Cysteine serves as a precursor for synthesis of proteins, glutathione, taurine, coenzyme A and inorganic sulfate. Glutathione itself has a number of biochemical functions, including maintenance of normal cellular redox state. Certain conditions, e.g. an acetaminophen overdose, can deplete hepatic glutathione, and this can be life-threatening. The antidote to an acetaminophen overdose is L-Cysteine, in the delivery form of N-Acetyl Cysteine. The L-Cysteine derived from N-Acetyl Cysteine helps to restore hepatic glutathione.
Cysteine is also critical to the metabolism of a number of essential biochemicals including coenzyme A, heparin, biotin, lipoic acid, and glutathione.
For more information about Cysteine:
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids - Cysteine / L-Cysteine / N-Acetyl-Cysteine Information
CYSTINE DOSAGE INFORMATION
The body can synthesize Cysteine from the amino acid Methionine but is also found in high protein foods such as poultry, wheat, broccoli, eggs as well as garlic, onions and red peppers.
No direct deficiencies have been reported as such.
In chronic diseases it appears that the formation of cysteine from methionine is prevented, resulting in a deficiency.
People suffering from AIDS/HIV may benefit from cysteine in proper amounts, as low levels are normally reported in people with this problem.
General dosage is not known but as supplement cysteine is used at 200 mg two to three times per day. The usual supplemental dosage of L-Cysteine is 500 milligrams to 1.5 grams daily. Those who supplement with L-Cysteine should drink at least six to eight glasses of water daily in order to prevent Cystine renal stones. Some studies indicate that an intake of 3 to 5 grams daily of Vitamin C may prevent Cystine stones. However, high-dose vitamin C itself may contribute to renal stones in some.
Cysteine is best taken with Selenium, Vitamin B-6, and Vitamin E.
Zinc: L-Cysteine complexes with Zinc and may increase the absorption of zinc.
Vitamin C: Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) may inhibit the oxidation of L-cysteine to L-cystine.
Capsules: 500 mg, 750 mg Injection: 50 mg/ml Powder Tablets: 500 mg
Cystine Supplement Products Cysteine Supplement Products Amino Acid Complex Supplement Products
CYSTINE SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTION INFORMATION
People who have diabetes should be cautious about taking supplemental Cysteine because it is capable of in-activating insulin.
Persons with cystinuria, a rare genetic condition that leads to the formation of Cystine kidney stones, should not take Cysteine. Those who form renal stones should avoid L-cysteine supplements.
L-Cysteine, like other sulfhydryl-containing substances, could produce a false-positive result in the nitroprusside test for ketone bodies used in diabetes.
L-Cysteine supplementation is contraindicated in those hypersensitive to any component of the preparation.
With typical doses of 1 to 1.5 grams daily, the most commonly reported side effects have been gastrointestinal, such as nausea. There are rare reports of Cystine renal stone formation.
Because of lack of long-term safety studies, L-Cysteine supplementation should be avoided by children, pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Nutrition Basics: Cysteine & NAC Amino Acid Information
TOXICITY & SYMPTOMS OF HIGH INTAKE
People suffering from diabetes should be careful when taking supplementation, as it could inactivate insulin.
There are no reports of over dosage in those taking L-cysteine supplements. However, large doses of L-cysteine are neuroexcitotoxic in several species. Single injections of L-cysteine (0.6 to 1.5 g/kg) into 4-day-old pups resulted in massive damage to cortical neurons, permanent retinal dystrophy, atrophy of the brain and hyperactivity.
CYSTINE AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS
QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS
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CYSTINE AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS
L-Cystine is a disulfide (an amino acid containing two L-Cysteine molecules). It often helps proteins to hold their shapes as they are carried through the body. As a result, L-Cystine helps determine the forms and mechanical properties of many animal and plant proteins.
Amazon: Cystine Amino Acid Supplement Products
Nutrition Basics: Cystine Amino Acid Information
AMINO ACID COMPLEX PRODUCTS
HerbsPro: Amino-9 Essentials Powder, Now Foods, 330 Grams
Complete Free Form blend of all 9 essential amino acids. Dietary supplements helpful in sports. GMP quality assured.
HerbsPro: Amino Balance Powder, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals
HerbsPro: Amino Balance Powder, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 grams
HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 120 Caps
HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 240 Caps
HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 500 Caps
For tissue repair, reduced soreness and accelerated recovery, as well as a wealth of non-training benefits, this blend of 23 pure crystalline 100% pharmaceutical grade free-form amino acids is unmatched.
HerbsPro: Amino Max 21, FoodScience of Vermont, 90 Caps
A high quality, hypoallergenic amino acid formulation. Amino Max 21 is a scientifically formulated combination of 21 crystalline, free-form amino acids in the natural L-configuration. Because free-form amino acids are readily bioavailable and require no digestion by the body, they can be absorbed efficiently into the bloodstream and accompanying tissues where they are used for cellular regeneration.
HerbsPro: Essential Amino Acid Complex, Solgar, Free Form, 600 mg, 90 VCaps (36384)
HerbsPro: Amino Complete, Balanced Blend Complex, Now Foods, 120 Caps
HerbsPro: Max-Amino With Vitamin B-6, Blend of 18 Amino Acids, Country Life, 180 Caps
An easily absorbed blend of 18 amino acids yielding high biological activity. An ideal formula for athletes, and when protein demands may not be fully satisfied. B-6 aids in the utilization of amino acids. An easily absorbed Amino Acid Supplement.
HerbsPro: Amino Acid Complete, Balanced Blend Complex, Now Foods, 360 Caps
HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 16 fl. oz. (19499)
Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that help relieve muscle breakdown.
HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 32 fl. oz. (19498)
Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that helps to relieve muscle breakdown. The protein in this product is a predigested collagen and whey (lactalbumin) protein and is therefore utilized 100%. Contains all the essential amino acids derived by enzymatically hydrolyzing the animal protein collagen and whey protein (lactalbumin). The amino acids in this product are naturally present in the protein. They are not added or manufactured. 15 grams per ounce. New improved formula. Predigested collagen. Enriched with predigested whey protein, a superior source of high quality amino acids.
Amazon: Amino Acid Complex Complete Supplement Products
Nutrition Basics: Amino Acid Complex Supplement Information
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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