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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Amino Acids
CYSTINE

& CYSTEINE


"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Cystine Description
  • Cystine Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Cystine Dosage Information
  • Cystine Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Cystine & Cysteine Supplement Products




  • CYSTINE DESCRIPTION

    CYSTINE & CYSTEINE RELATIONSHIP

    These two amino acids are closely related; each molecule of Cystine consists of two molecules of Cysteine joined together. Cysteine is very unstable and is easily converted to L-Cystine; however, each form is capable of converting into the other as needed. Both are sulfur-containing amino acids that aid in the formation of skin and are important in detoxification.

    L-Cysteine is also known as L-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid, 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid, beta-mercaptoalanine, 2-amino-3 mercaptopropionic acid and alpha-amino-beta-thiolpropionic acid. Its IUPAC abbreviation is Cys, and its one-letter abbreviation, used when spelling out protein structures, is C.

    L-Cysteine is a white, solid substance that is soluble in water. It is hygroscopic and slowly decomposes and oxidizes. In solution, it undergoes oxidation to L-cystine, which is a dimer of L-Cysteine. N-Acetyl Cysteine is a preferred delivery form of L-Cysteine because of greater stability and possible higher absorbability.

    Cystine is a crystalline, sulfur-containing amino acid, formed from two molecules of the amino acid cysteine. It can be converted to cysteine by reduction and was discovered in 1810 but was not recognized as a component of proteins until 1899, when it was isolated from animal horn - it is particularly abundant in skeletal and connective tissues, hair and digestive enzymes. The steps followed in the formation of Cystine and Cysteine, is from Methionine to Cystathionine and then to Cysteine to Cystine.

    Cysteine is a sulfur containing non-essential amino acid and is closely related to Cystine, as Cystine consists of two Cysteine molecules joined together. It is an unstable nutrient and easily converts to Cystine, but this does not cause a problem, since both can convert into the other - as required by the body.

    microscopic cystine microscopic cysteine


    MOLECULAR DESCRIPTION

    Cysteine is only incorporated into proteins at the rate of 2.8 percent relative to the other amino acids, but the unique thiol side chain of this amino acid is often heavily involved in the three-dimensional stability of proteins and enzymes. The side chain is also often involved in the chemistry occurring at the active sites of many enzymes. Cysteine is also critical to the metabolism of a number of essential biochemicals including coenzyme A, heparin, biotin, lipoic acid, and glutathione.

    Cystine is the product of an oxidation between the thiol side chains of two cysteine amino acids. As such, Cystine is not considered one of the 20 amino acids. This oxidation product is found in abundance in a variety of proteins such as hair keratin, insulin, the digestive enzymes chromotrypsinogen A, papain, and trypsinogen where it is heavily involved in stabilizing the tertiary structure of these macromolecules.





    CYSTINE USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    CYSTINE & CYSTEINE BENEFITS

    Cysteine is present in alpha-keratin, the chief protein constituent of the fingernails, toenails, skin, and hair. Cysteine aids in the production of collagen and promotes the proper elasticity and texture of the skin. It is also found in a variety of other proteins in the body, including several of the digestive system.

    Cysteine helps to detoxify harmful toxins and protect the body from radiation damage. It is one of the best free radical destroyers, and works best when taken with selenium and vitamin E. Cysteine is also precursor to Glutathione, a substance that detoxifies the liver by binding with potentially harmful substances there. It helps to protect the liver and brain from damage due to alcohol, drugs, and toxic compounds in cigarette smoke. Cystine may be effective in preventing hangovers.

    Since Cysteine is more soluble than Cystine, it is used more readily in the body and is usually best for treating most illnesses. This amino acid is formed from L-methionine in the body. Vitamin B-6 is necessary for Cysteine synthesis, which may not take place as it should in the presence of chronic disease. Cystine is required for proper Vitamin B-6 utilization. Therefore, people with chronic illnesses may need higher than normal doses of Cysteine, as much as 1,000 mg three times daily for a month at a time.

    L-Cysteine may have anti-inflammatory properties that can protect against various toxins, and that supplementation may be recommended for and be helpful in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Supplementation with L-Cysteine is recommended in the treatment of hardening of the arteries, and mutagenic disorders such as cancer. Cystine promotes healing after surgery, wounds, and severe burns, chelates heavy metals, and binds with soluble iron, aiding in iron absorption. This amino acid also promotes the burning of fat and the building of muscle.

    Because of its ability to break down mucus in the respiratory tract, L-Cysteine is often beneficial in the treatment of bronchitis, emphysema, and tuberculosis. It promotes healing from respiratory disorders and plays an important role in the activity of white blood cells, which fight disease. Cystine helps break down mucus deposits in cystic fibrosis.

    Cystine or the N-Acetyl form of Cysteine (N-Acetyl Cysteine) may be used in place of L-Cysteine. N-Acetyl Cysteine aids in preventing side effects from chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Because it increases Glutathione levels in the lungs, kidneys, liver, and bone marrow, it has an anti-aging effect on the body - reducing the accumulation of age spots, for example. N-Acetyl-Cysteine has been shown to be more effective at boosting Glutathione levels than supplements of Cystine or even of Glutathione itself.

    People who have diabetes should be cautious about taking supplemental Cysteine because it is capable of in-activating insulin. Persons with cystinuria, a rare genetic condition that leads to the formation of Cystine kidney stones, should not take Cysteine. Cysteine also assists in the supply of insulin to the pancreas, which is needed for the assimilation of sugars and starches.

    Cysteine has also been found that it may help in strengthening the protective lining of the stomach as well as intestines, which may help prevent damage caused by aspirin and similar drugs. L-Cysteine serves as a precursor for synthesis of proteins, glutathione, taurine, coenzyme A and inorganic sulfate. Glutathione itself has a number of biochemical functions, including maintenance of normal cellular redox state. Certain conditions, e.g. an acetaminophen overdose, can deplete hepatic glutathione, and this can be life-threatening. The antidote to an acetaminophen overdose is L-Cysteine, in the delivery form of N-Acetyl Cysteine. The L-Cysteine derived from N-Acetyl Cysteine helps to restore hepatic glutathione.

    Cysteine is also critical to the metabolism of a number of essential biochemicals including coenzyme A, heparin, biotin, lipoic acid, and glutathione.

    For more information about Cysteine:

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids - Cysteine / L-Cysteine / N-Acetyl-Cysteine Information





  • CYSTINE DOSAGE INFORMATION

    FOOD SOURCES

    The body can synthesize Cysteine from the amino acid Methionine but is also found in high protein foods such as poultry, wheat, broccoli, eggs as well as garlic, onions and red peppers.

    DEFICIENCY

    No direct deficiencies have been reported as such.

    In chronic diseases it appears that the formation of cysteine from methionine is prevented, resulting in a deficiency.

    People suffering from AIDS/HIV may benefit from cysteine in proper amounts, as low levels are normally reported in people with this problem.

    SUPPLEMENT DOSAGE

    General dosage is not known but as supplement cysteine is used at 200 mg two to three times per day. The usual supplemental dosage of L-Cysteine is 500 milligrams to 1.5 grams daily. Those who supplement with L-Cysteine should drink at least six to eight glasses of water daily in order to prevent Cystine renal stones. Some studies indicate that an intake of 3 to 5 grams daily of Vitamin C may prevent Cystine stones. However, high-dose vitamin C itself may contribute to renal stones in some.

    Cysteine is best taken with Selenium, Vitamin B-6, and Vitamin E.

    Zinc: L-Cysteine complexes with Zinc and may increase the absorption of zinc.

    Vitamin C: Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) may inhibit the oxidation of L-cysteine to L-cystine.

    SUPPLEMENT FORMS

  • Capsules: 500 mg, 750 mg
  • Injection: 50 mg/ml
  • Powder
  • Tablets: 500 mg


  • Cystine Supplement Products
  • Cysteine Supplement Products
  • Amino Acid Complex Supplement Products





  • CYSTINE SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTION INFORMATION

    SAFETY CONCERNS

    People who have diabetes should be cautious about taking supplemental Cysteine because it is capable of in-activating insulin.

    Persons with cystinuria, a rare genetic condition that leads to the formation of Cystine kidney stones, should not take Cysteine. Those who form renal stones should avoid L-cysteine supplements.

    L-Cysteine, like other sulfhydryl-containing substances, could produce a false-positive result in the nitroprusside test for ketone bodies used in diabetes.

    L-Cysteine supplementation is contraindicated in those hypersensitive to any component of the preparation.

    With typical doses of 1 to 1.5 grams daily, the most commonly reported side effects have been gastrointestinal, such as nausea. There are rare reports of Cystine renal stone formation.

    Because of lack of long-term safety studies, L-Cysteine supplementation should be avoided by children, pregnant women and nursing mothers.

  • Nutrition Basics: Cysteine & NAC Amino Acid Information


  • TOXICITY & SYMPTOMS OF HIGH INTAKE

    People suffering from diabetes should be careful when taking supplementation, as it could inactivate insulin.

    There are no reports of over dosage in those taking L-cysteine supplements. However, large doses of L-cysteine are neuroexcitotoxic in several species. Single injections of L-cysteine (0.6 to 1.5 g/kg) into 4-day-old pups resulted in massive damage to cortical neurons, permanent retinal dystrophy, atrophy of the brain and hyperactivity.






    CYSTINE AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS


    Products and supplements containing Cystine, Cysteine, NAC and other related products.

  • Cystine Supplement Products
  • Cysteine & NAC Supplement Products

  • Amino Acid Complex Supplement Products



  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS



    CYSTINE AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    L-Cystine is a disulfide (an amino acid containing two L-Cysteine molecules). It often helps proteins to hold their shapes as they are carried through the body. As a result, L-Cystine helps determine the forms and mechanical properties of many animal and plant proteins.

    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Cystine Amino Acid Supplement Products



  • Nutrition Basics: Cystine Amino Acid Information



  • CYSTEINE (L-CYSTEINE) & N-ACETYL CYSTEINE (NAC) AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    L-Cysteine is a non-essential amino acid that is an important component of hair, nails and the keratin of the skin. L-Cysteine stabilizes protein structure and aids in the formation of collagen, thereby promoting healthy skin, hair and nail texture and elasticity. Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is converted in the body to N-acetyl cysteine, a potent antioxidant. Cysteine is also a part of the reduced glutathione molecule, which plays an important role in the livers detoxification pathways. Glutathione binds and conjugates toxins, promoting their excretion. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a stable form of the non-essential amino acid L-Cysteine. It is a sulfur-containing amino acid that acts as a stabilizer for the formation of protein structures, and is also necessary for the formation of glutathione. Molybdenum and Selenium are essential trace minerals that facilitate the production of several important enzymes. Studies have shown that NAC helps protect against respiratory ailments such as bronchitis, bronchial asthma, emphysema, chronic sinusitis, and even help defend against lung damage caused by cancer-causing chemicals in cigarette smoke. NAC has also been used effectively in treating inner ear infections. As a dietary supplement, take one or more capsules per day or as directed by your health care practitioner.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine Powder, Mono HCL Powder, Source Naturals, 100 grams (3.53 oz.) (7006)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, Solgar, 500 mg, 30 VCaps (36542)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, Thompson Nutritional Products, 500 mg, 30 Caps (89632)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 500 mg, 30 VCaps (100400)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, TwinLab, 500 mg, 60 Caps (19665)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, Solgar, 500 mg, 60 VCaps (36543)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, BlueBonnet Nutrition, 500 mg, 60 VCaps (100402)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, TwinLab, 500 mg, 60 Caps (19665)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, Solgar, 500 mg, 90 VCaps (36544)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, Now Foods, 500 mg, 100 Tabs (68034)
    HerbsPro: L-Cysteine, Natures Life, 500 mg, 100 Caps (89932)
    HerbsPro: Glutathione Cysteine & Vitamin C, Life Extension, 750 mg, 100 Caps (91748)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Natural Factors, 500 mg, 90 Caps (83917)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), FoodScience of Vermont, 500 mg, 90 Caps (61535)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 500 mg, 120 Tabs (18292)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Antioxidant Support, Source Naturals, 600 mg, 30 Tabs (3934)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Antioxidant Support, Source Naturals, 600 mg, 60 Tabs (3935)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), TwinLab, 600 mg, 60 Caps (19793)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Now Foods, 600 mg, 100 Caps (68490)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Antioxidant Support, Source Naturals, 600 mg, 120 Tabs (3936)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Now Foods, 600 mg, 250 Caps (68489)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Solgar, 750 mg, 30 VCaps (37361)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine), Country Life BioChem, 750 mg, 60 Caps (37362)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Antioxidant Support, Source Naturals, 1000 mg, 30 Tabs (3931)
    HerbsPro: NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine), Antioxidant Support, Source Naturals, 1000 mg, 120 Tabs (3933)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: L-Cysteine, TwinLab, 500 mg, 60 Caps: HF
    Kalyx: NAC N-Acetyl Cysteine, Nutricology, 500 mg, 120 Tabs: N
    Kalyx: NAC N-Acetyl-Cysteine, Nutricology, 500 mg, 120 Tabs: HF


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Cysteine Amino Acid Supplement Products
    Amazon: NAC - N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine Amino Acid Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Cysteine & NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine) Amino Acid Information
  • Nutrition Basics: NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine) Antioxidant Information
  • Nutrition Basics: Amino Acid Complex Supplement Information



  • AMINO ACID COMPLEX PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Amino-9 Essentials Powder, Now Foods, 330 Grams
    Complete Free Form blend of all 9 essential amino acids. Dietary supplements helpful in sports. GMP quality assured.
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance Powder, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance Powder, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 grams
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 120 Caps
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 240 Caps
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 500 Caps
    For tissue repair, reduced soreness and accelerated recovery, as well as a wealth of non-training benefits, this blend of 23 pure crystalline 100% pharmaceutical grade free-form amino acids is unmatched.
    HerbsPro: Amino Max 21, FoodScience of Vermont, 90 Caps
    A high quality, hypoallergenic amino acid formulation. Amino Max 21 is a scientifically formulated combination of 21 crystalline, free-form amino acids in the natural L-configuration. Because free-form amino acids are readily bioavailable and require no digestion by the body, they can be absorbed efficiently into the bloodstream and accompanying tissues where they are used for cellular regeneration.
    HerbsPro: Essential Amino Acid Complex, Solgar, Free Form, 600 mg, 90 VCaps (36384)
    HerbsPro: Amino Complete, Balanced Blend Complex, Now Foods, 120 Caps
    HerbsPro: Max-Amino With Vitamin B-6, Blend of 18 Amino Acids, Country Life, 180 Caps
    An easily absorbed blend of 18 amino acids yielding high biological activity. An ideal formula for athletes, and when protein demands may not be fully satisfied. B-6 aids in the utilization of amino acids. An easily absorbed Amino Acid Supplement.
    HerbsPro: Amino Acid Complete, Balanced Blend Complex, Now Foods, 360 Caps
    HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 16 fl. oz. (19499)
    Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that help relieve muscle breakdown.
    HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 32 fl. oz. (19498)
    Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that helps to relieve muscle breakdown. The protein in this product is a predigested collagen and whey (lactalbumin) protein and is therefore utilized 100%. Contains all the essential amino acids derived by enzymatically hydrolyzing the animal protein collagen and whey protein (lactalbumin). The amino acids in this product are naturally present in the protein. They are not added or manufactured. 15 grams per ounce. New improved formula. Predigested collagen. Enriched with predigested whey protein, a superior source of high quality amino acids.


    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Amino Acid Complex Complete Supplement Products

  • Nutrition Basics: Amino Acid Complex Supplement Information






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    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


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    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
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    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
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  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
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