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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Nutrition Basics

Amino Acids
CARNOSINE


For Informational Use Only
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.





  • Carnosine Description
  • Carnosine Uses, Health Benefits & Scientific Evidence
  • Carnosine Dosage Information
  • Carnosine Safety, Cautions & Interactions
  • Carnosine Amino Acid Supplement Products




  • CARNOSINE DESCRIPTION

    A STRONG ANTIOXIDANT

    Carnosine occurs naturally in our bodies. We are born with high levels of Carnosine in our skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and brain, but as we age, the level decreases, especially in our hearts, leaving us vulnerable to illnesses and the effects of aging. This amino acid is a strong antioxidant, which fights dangerous free radicals (high-energy particles that ricochet wildly and damage cells). Carnosine is found naturally in meat, poultry, and fish.

    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histadine) is a dipepside of the amino acids beta-alanine and histadine. This dipeptide is found in relatively high concentrations in several body tissues such as the heart muscle, skin, stomach, nerve tissue and is highly concentrated in skeletal muscle and brain tissues. It has been called the anti-aging and antioxidant dipeptide. L-Carnosine is naturally produced in the body by the enzyme carnosine synthetase. This nutrient supports healthy aging and cellular rejuvenation by its effects on two mechanisms: Glycosylation and free radical damage. Glycosylation is the oxidation of proteins by glucose resulting in cross-linking of proteins and which is implicated in loss of cell function, genome integrity and accelerated aging. It also protects the aging process of the brain by retarding lipid peroxidation and stabilizing cell membranes.





    CARNOSINE USES, HEALTH BENEFITS & SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Carnosine helps prevent the loss of skin elasticity and wrinkles, but is best known for keeping the heart healthy. This amino acid also protects against radiation damage. Carnosine is being investigated as a preventative for Alzheimer’s. Preliminary studies have shown Carnosine to be effective in lowering blood pressure, boosting the immune system, wound healing, and exerting anti-cancer effects. Definitive studies though, have shown Carnosine to be very effective in treating peptic ulcers. Carnosine has been called a longevity nutrient. Laboratories have done studies on tissues that indicate that it can delay senescence and provoke cellular rejuvenation. Carnosine is a substance that protects and extends the functional life of the body’s key building blocks; cells, proteins, DNA and lipids. Mounting research suggests that Carnosine has these anti aging properties.

    Carnosinecan oppose glycation and it can chelate divalent metal ions. Chronic glycolysis is suspected to accelerate aging. Carnosine was found to inhibit diabetic nephropathy by protecting the podocytes and mesangial cells. Because of its antioxidant, antiglycator and metal chelator properties, Carnosine supplements have been proposed as a general anti-aging therapy. Carnosine containing products are also used in topical preparations to reduce wrinkles on the skin.

    A study reported in 2007 has shown that Carnosine may help block the disease called Diabetic-Nephropathy-Associated (ESRD). A Dr. Freedman has stated, “We now understand that a new pathway - Carnosine - is involved. We have the potential to find new therapies to block this deadly disease and we can potentially use this as a marker to predict who is at risk.” Research done in 2005 has shown that Carnosine is a potential protective agent for diabetic complications prevention or therapy. DNA polymorphisms were determined in 135 case (diabetic nephropathy) and 107 control (diabetes without nephropathy) subjects. The effect of Carnosine on the production of extracellular matrix components and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) after exposure to d-glucose was studied in cultured human podocytes and mesangial cells, respectively. Carnosine inhibited the increased production of fibronectin and collagen type VI in podocytes and the increased production of TGF-beta in mesangial cells. Diabetic patients with the CNDP1 Mannheim variant are less susceptible for nephropathy. Carnosine protects against the adverse effects of high glucose levels on renal cells.

    Carnosine eye drops could be used as a potent antioxidant to reduce certain types of vision disorders. Some studies have detected beneficial effects of topical N-Acetyl-Carnosine eyedrops in preventing and treating cataracts of the eyes; in one of these, Carnosine was found to reduce cloudiness in rat lenses that were exposed to guanidine to cause cataracts. However, claims that Carnosine confers these and other posited ophthalmological benefits are, as yet, insufficiently supported for endorsement by the mainstream medical community; Britain's Royal College of Ophthalmologists, for instance, has asserted that neither safety nor efficacy has been sufficiently demonstrated to recommend Carnosine's use as a topical treatment for cataracts. The Professor Wang et. al. clinical trial study called 'Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings' was carried out on 96 patients with cataracts of varying degrees of severity, which showed a success rate of 80-percent in advanced senile cataracts, and 100-percent in patients with mild to moderate cataracts, over the 6 months trial period.

    Longevity may be possible with Carnosine. In 1999 Australian researchers confirmed that Carnosine increases the longevity of human fibroblast cells. Carnosine extended the Hayflick limit (the maximum number of times a cell can divide) from 50 to up to an additional 10 times. Although research is still taking place in this area, Carnosine may become a common supplement for longevity.

    A study done in 2002 showed that Carnosine could be used as an effective dietary supplement for people with Autism. Potentially improving such areas as auditory processing, speech and language skills, motor skills and socialization. Researchers in Australia, Britain and Russia have also shown that Carnosine has a number of antioxidant properties that may be beneficial. Improvement in this study could have been due to maturation, educational interventions, placebo effect, or other confounds that were not addressed in the study design. In animal models, supplemental Carnosine can increase corticosterone levels, which may explain the hyperactivity sometimes seen in high doses. However, the aforementioned study used Carnosine injected into chicks intracerebroventricularly, and a raise in corticosterone levels has not yet been found in humans. Researchers at the Autism and Epilepsy Specialty Services in Lake Bluff, Illinois, investigated 31 children with autism in an 8-week, double-blinded study to determine if Carnosine would result in changes. The children received 800 mg a day and were compared with a group of children on placebo. After 8 weeks, children given Carnosine showed statistically significant improvements on several tests including an improvement in vocabulary and recognizing a picture. L-carnosine is sold in health food stores most commonly in capsules of 500 mg. It would be worthwhile to try 100 to 200 mg of this nutrient before breakfast and lunch for a few weeks under a pediatrician’s supervision. The dose would be much less than in adults.

    In animal models Carnosine has been shown to retard cancer growth and protect against alcohol-induced oxidative stress as well as ethanol-induced chronic liver damage. Carnosine is also neuroprotective against permanent cerebral ischemia in mice. A study with rabbits indicates that Carnosine reduces the cardiac toxicity from the use of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin.

    Carnosine can increase the Hayflick limit in human fibroblasts, as well as appearing to reduce the telomere shortening rate. This could potentially favor the growth of certain cancers that thrive due to telomere preservation. Carnosine is also considered as a geroprotector.



    CARNOSINE: EXCEEDING SCIENTIFIC EXPECTATIONS

    By Kirk Stokel, Life Extension Magazine January 2011

    Almost ten years ago, Life Extension published compelling data showing that supplementation with higher-dose Carnosine induced a wide range of anti-aging effects, including marked reductions in lethal glycation reactions.

    We reported on experimental findings in the 1990s demonstrating life span extending effects when Carnosine was added to the diet.

    Since then an enormous number of published scientific studies have corroborated the multiple beneficial effects of carnosine including protecting brain cells from toxic metal ion reactions that lead to dementia.

    Carnosine is an amino acid compound found primarily in red meat. A typical red meat meal may provide 250 mg of Carnosine, but this is quickly degraded in the body by the carnosinase enzyme. What this means is that even if a person relied on red meat for their carnosine, it would not last long enough in the body to provide sustained protective effects. Supplementation with 1,000 mg a day of Carnosine overwhelms the carnosinase enzyme, thus enabling one to maintain consistent blood levels of this critical nutrient.

    In this article, we report on a new longevity study using Carnosine. Highly concentrated in brain and muscle tissue (including the heart), it turns out that Carnosine strikes at multiple molecular targets to delay aging in laboratory animals and human tissues! This article uncovers new data about carnosine's ability to provide targeted support to vital tissues in the heart, brain, and eye.

    A GROUNDBREAKING DISCOVERY

    Dr. Sergey Stvolinsky, a highly-regarded anti-aging scientist at the Russian Academy, has studied carnosine for years. In 2010 he published some surprising results in the journal Rejuvenation Research about Carnosine’s effect on fruit flies.

    Fruit flies are incredibly useful experimental animals, particularly for genetic and aging research, because of their very short life spans and rapid reproductive rates. Stvolinsky and his research team found that adding a tiny amount of carnosine to the flies' food supply produced an immediate 20-percent increase in the average life span of male flies. Alone, Carnosine had little effect on female flies' life span, but when combined with a water-soluble form of vitamin E, female flies experienced a 36-percent increase in longevity as well. Stvolinsky's work is indeed groundbreaking, but one is left with the question of why Carnosine produces such dramatic effects and whether these results in insects have relevance for human life span. Let's look at Carnosine's broad spectrum longevity benefits for some answers.

    CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH BENEFITS

    Oxidant stress eventually shortens our life span by contributing to the risk of atherosclerosis and its consequences such as heart attack and stroke. Carnosine's powerful antioxidant effects, coupled with its ability to scavenge both free radicals and damaged protein products, give it unique protective characteristics that have the potential to lengthen life span.

    Carnosine can inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity that otherwise promotes hypertension, thus diminishing obesity-associated blood pressure elevations.

    Its antioxidant properties protect heart muscle directly against toxins, even powerful chemotherapy agents that would otherwise pose serious risks to heart tissue.

    Its anti-glycation properties help prevent harmful modifications of LDL cholesterol molecules that contribute to early stages of arterial plaque formation, a benefit especially important in protecting blood vessels from diabetic damage.

    But even after substantial damage has been done, and arteries are clogged, Carnosine offers potentially lifesaving benefits. When blood flow is obstructed, tissue is starved of oxygen and nutrients by the resulting ischemia. Even though the restriction of blood flow produces immediate damage, still more damage occurs when blood flow is restored and oxygen-rich blood floods the area. This double-hit is called ischemia/reperfusion injury, and accounts for much of the disability that follows a heart attack, stroke, or traumatic injury.

    Carnosine protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a number of remarkable ways. It protects brain cells after a stroke by reducing toxicity of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Interestingly, treatment with Carnosine significantly reduced the amount of brain tissue involved in experimentally-produced strokes in mice. Perhaps more impressively, carnosine supplements protect animals' brains against localized ischemia in the first place. This discovery has been credited with increasing survival of experimental animals following stroke. Carnosine also prevents or reverses ischemia/reperfusion injury in liver and kidney tissue following injury or surgical procedures, helping to reduce complications. The more we learn about ischemia/reperfusion injury the more we find it contributes to long-term disability and reduces life span. Carnosine certainly deserves a place in a cardiovascular prevention program.

    COMBATING THE DANGERS OF ELEVATED GLUCOSE

    The destructive changes in vital enzymes and other proteins by glucose (the glycation process) is one of the major causes of aging and age-related tissue dysfunction. While this process is accelerated in diabetes due to constantly elevated glucose levels, it occurs in all of us, and the effects accumulate over time. A substance that can prevent glycation in the first place, or one that can reverse existing protein glycation, would therefore be a powerful anti-aging compound.

    Carnosine acts on multiple targets within cells and tissues to quench the chemical reactions that prevent proteins from functioning properly. One benefit discovered early from this process is a suppression of elevated blood pressure in diabetic animals. An animal study showed that carnosine decreases blood glucose levels indirectly through beneficial effects on the autonomic nervous system. This modulation of blood glucose levels makes damaging glycation reactions less likely to occur. These benefits have immediate payoff in living organisms. Carnosine stabilizes red blood cell membranes against the damaging effects of glycation products in diabetes. Additionally, it protects human LDL cholesterol from both oxidation and glycation, early events in the production of atherosclerosis. Astonishingly, Carnosine supplementation in animals delays onset of diabetes and increases the mass of insulin-secreting pancreatic cells.

    NOVEL ANTI-CANCER PROPERTIES

    The use of Carnosine as a chemopreventive is in its infancy, but encouraging studies are rapidly emerging as scientists look for more ways to capitalize on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory features. As an antioxidant, Carnosine helps block the DNA damage that can lead to cancerous transformation in cultured cells - and it increases the life span of cells cultured from young subjects in the laboratory. Carnosine also prevents release of inflammatory cytokines in intestinal cells, reducing a significant risk for colon cancers. Its ability to inhibit new metastases, and to interfere with cancer cells' energy metabolism, make it still more appealing as a potential anticancer nutrient.

    SAFEGUARDING THE AGING BRAIN

    Brain tissue naturally contains high levels of carnosine, which is capable of reducing the oxidative, nitrosative, and glycemic stress to which the brain is especially vulnerable. Oxidation and glycation produce inflammation, and also contribute to cross-linking of proteins, including the Alzheimer's disease protein called amyloid-beta. Carnosine can prevent that cross-linking, preserving normal neuronal function, and also helps minimize toxicity created by the high levels of metal ions that are present in certain areas of the brain.

    Carnosine levels are significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative disorders, suggesting either that carnosine deficiency contributes to the disease, or, more likely, that the disease processes are using up protective carnosine. In either case, supplementation with Carnosine could be expected to alleviate much of the cellular toxicity that contributes to these diseases, which is why animal and human studies now suggest an important role for Carnosine supplementation in prevention of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer's diseases.

    WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: CARNOSINE

    Carnosine lowers blood glucose, enhances insulin sensitivity, and may help prevent type 2 diabetes from emerging.
    • Breakthrough research has shown that carnosine can dramatically extend thelifetimes of laboratory animals.
    • Carnosine also extends lifetime of human cells in culture.
    • Carnosine is a natural antioxidant and anti-glycation substance found in normal human tissues, predominantly in the brain and heart.
    • By fighting oxidant and glucose-induced damage, carnosine blocks the central changes to cells and tissues that result in aging and age-related diseases.
    • Carnosine helps prevent cardiovascular damage and brain injury through a host of mechanisms closely related to the interplay of glycation, oxidation, and inflammation.
    • Carnosine should form a part of a comprehensive anti-aging supplement program.


    BLOCKING CATARACT FORMATION

    In addition to extending the quantity of life, carnosine can contribute to improved quality of life by reducing the risk and severity of cataracts in the eye. The lens of the eye is highly sensitive to glycation of its proteins, which render it opaque. Carnosine’s anti-glycation effects, therefore, provide prominent vision protection. Carnosine in different delivery systems has been show to reduce cataract formation in studies of diabetic animals, which, like diabetic humans, are prone to cataract development.

    WHY WE NEED SUPPLEMENTAL CARNOSINE

    Carnosine levels in the body decline with age. Muscle levels decrease 63% between ages 10 to 70, which may account for the reduction in muscle mass and function seen in aging humans.

    Carnosine acts not only as an antioxidant in muscle, but also as a pH buffer. In this way it keeps on protecting muscle cell membranes from oxidation under the acidic conditions of muscular exertion.

    Carnosine enables the heart muscle to contract more efficiently through enhancement of calcium response in heart cells. Muscle levels of carnosine correlate with the maximum life span of animal species.

    Carnosine has been shown to rejuvenate connective tissue cells, which may explain its beneficial effects on wound healing. Damaged proteins accumulate and cross-link in the skin, causing wrinkles and loss of elasticity. The multiplicity of pathological effects caused by protein degradation places this problem beyond the sope of simple antioxidants. Carnosine is the most promising broad-spectrum shield against protein degradation.


  • Stuerenburg HJ, Kunze K. Concentrations of free carnosine (a putative membrane-protective antioxidant) in human muscle biopsies and rat muscles. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1999.29:107-13.
  • Burcham PC, Kerr PG, Fontaine F. The antihypertensive hydralazine is an efficient scavenger of acrolein. Redox Rep. 2000;5(1):47-9.
  • Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW, et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol. 1997;272(1 Pt 2):H462-8.
  • Wang AM, Ma C, Xie ZH, Shen F. Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000;65(7):869-71.


  • SUMMARY

    Growing scientific interest in longevity-boosting compounds has led to groundbreaking new research on carnosine. Highly concentrated in brain and muscle, carnosine is a natural antioxidant and glycation-fighting nutrient whose levels in the body naturally decline with age.

    A 2010 study revealed that carnosine extends life span in laboratory animals, consistent with other recent findings that carnosine fights aging at multiple targets in heart, brain, skin, and other organ systems.

    Carnosine's multiple and interrelated mechanisms of action mean that carnosine can provide benefits to cells and tissues throughout the body that would otherwise succumb to the pathologic effects of aging.

    If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.

    CARNOSINE AT WORK

    An obvious feature of Carnosine is its powerful antioxidant effect, which may prevent age-related accumulation of free radicals and their disastrous impact on tissues. Carnosine is a dipeptide - that is, a small molecule composed of two amino acids, histidine and beta alanine. It continues to work to prevent oxidant damage even after cellular molecules are attacked. It prevents destructive effects of oxidized chemicals such as malondialdehyde (MDA) that are associated with brain cell death in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

    A separate and equally important feature of Carnosine is its ability to interfere with protein modifications by glucose and oxygen, two events that contribute powerfully to inflammation and aging. Carnosine also directly and indirectly inhibits release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and is being closely studied for its ability to mitigate the inflammatory effects of viral infections such as influenza.

    The sum of all these intracellular biochemical events helps to explain the remarkable explosion of literature on carnosine as a possible life span extender. A central biochemical characteristic of aging is the accumulation of proteins altered by chemical reactions with oxygen, nitrogen, and glucose. Carnosine's ability to interfere with that alteration may account for its observed ability to extend life span not only of fruit flies but also of "higher" laboratory animals and human tissue in culture.

    A close-up look at carnosine's actions reveals a remarkable effect on telomeres, the DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that act as a sort of cellular "clock," largely controlling the aging process. As telomeres shorten with each cellular replication, the remaining life span of the cell is diminished. Telomere shortening is induced by oxidative changes and other protein modifications of precisely the kind that carnosine can prevent. Carnosine can therefore block telomere shortening and reduce aging effects in individual tissues. For example, carnosine can prevent telomere shortening-induced cataracts in the lens of the eye.


    CARNOSINE DOSAGE GUIDELINES

    Most people consume relatively small amounts of carnosine in their diet. Based on a study showing that 250 mg of ingested carnosine from 7 ounces of hamburger meat was completely cleared from the blood of study volunteers within 5 to 6 hours by the carnosinase enzyme. Life Extension recommends that individuals seeking its anti-aging effects supplement with at least 1,000 mg of carnosine daily to maintain optimal levels in the body.


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    59. Calabrese V, Cornelius C, Mancuso C, et al. Cellular stress response: a novel target for chemoprevention and nutritional neuroprotection in aging, neurodegenerative disorders and longevity. Neurochem Res. 2008 Dec;33(12):2444-71.
    60. McFarland GA, Holliday R. Retardation of the senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts by carnosine. Exp Cell Res. 1994 Jun;212(2):167-75.
    61. McFarland GA, Holliday R. Further evidence for the rejuvenating effects of the dipeptide L-carnosine on cultured human diploid fibroblasts. Exp Gerontol. 1999 Jan;34(1):35-45.
    62. Holliday R, McFarland GA. A role for carnosine in cellular maintenance. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Jul;65(7):843-8.
    63. Boldyrev AA. Protection of proteins from oxidative stress: a new illusion or a novel strategy? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Dec;1057:193-205.
    64. Babizhayev MA, Vishnyakova KS, Yegorov YE. Telomere-dependent senescent phenotype of lens epithelial cells as a biological marker of aging and cataractogenesis: the role of oxidative stress intensity and specific mechanism of phospholipid hydroperoxide toxicity in lens and aqueous. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Apr 19.
    65. Babizhayev MA, Savel’yeva EL, Moskvina SN, Yegorov YE. Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative oxidative stress, biologic age, and an independent predictor of survival and therapeutic treatment requirement associated with smoking behavior. Am J Ther. 2010 Mar 29.
    66. Shao L, Li QH, Tan Z. L-carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Nov 12;324(2):931-6.
    67. Babizhayev MA, Yegorov YE. Telomere attrition in lens epithelial cells - a target for N-acetylcarnosine therapy. Front Biosci. 2010;15:934-56.
    68. Wang AM, Ma C, Xie ZH, Shen F. Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Jul;65(7):869-71.
    69. Park YJ, Volpe SL, Decker EA. Quantitation of carnosine in humans plasma after dietary consumption of beef. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 15;53(12):4736-9.





    CARNOSINE DOSAGE INFORMATION

    SUPPLEMENTAL FORMS

    Carnosine nutritional supplements are available as tablets, capsules and liquids. Also available in combination with Vitamin B-1, Taurine, Benfotiamine, and Luteolin from Life Extension. Amino acid supplements prefaced by the letter L, such as L-carnosine, are more similar to the amino acids in the body than those that start with the letter D, with the exception of DL-Phenylalanine, which treats chronic pain.

    RECOMMENDED DOSAGES

    The appropriate dose of Carnosine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for Carnosine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or other healthcare professional before using.

    Usually recommended supplemental Carnosine dosages say to take 500 to 1,000 mg daily, or per health care practitioner's advice. Take it before or with breakfast at least a few times per week, as instructed. For the recommended dosage, read product label directions. Carnosine is an amino acid compound found primarily in red meat. A typical red meat meal (7 ounces of hamburger meat) may provide 250 mg of Carnosine, but this is quickly degraded in the body by the Carnosinase enzyme within 5 to 6 hours. What this means is that even if a person relied on red meat for their Carnosine, it would not last long enough in the body to provide sustained protective effects. Individuals seeking its anti-aging effects should consider supplementation with up to 1,000 mg a day of Carnosine. This overwhelms the carnosinase enzyme, thus enabling one to maintain consistent optimal blood levels of this critical nutrient.

    Dr. Kyriazis, a leading anti-aging MD in the UK, based on his human trials of Carnosine and current research states the current marketed dosing is based upon studies done with mice and cancer patients and that dosage of 100 to 200 mg are effective in humans while doses greater than 500 mg show adverse and reverse effects. Obviously there is a dosage transition area between 200 and 500. This medical practitioner recommends ideally - 100 to 150 mg a day. However, no ideal dosage is known for humans and every person's needs are different. Consult with your nutritionist or health care professional for individuals dosage recommendations. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid use of Carnosine since not enough is known about the use of Carnosine during pregnancy or while lactating.

  • Carnosine Supplement Products





  • CARNOSINE SAFETY, CAUTIONS & INTERACTION INFORMATION

    CARNOSINE DEFICIENCY

    Those with severe protein deficiency or genetic disorder characterized by inborn errors in amino acid metabolism may have a Carnosine deficiency. Supplemental Carnosine may increase Corticosterone levels, which can explain the hyperactivity sometimes seen in high doses. Typical vegetarian diets are thought to be lacking in carnosine, but whether this has a detrimental effect on vegetarians is unknown. There is currently no information available about Carnosine interactions.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    An allergic response may occur (skin rash, sinus problems) in sensitive individuals to oral Carnosine at higher doses (500 to 1000 mg). Carnosine converts into Histidine which converts into Histamine. Perhaps too high of a Carnosine dose can shift the metabolic pathway towards Histamine. A lower dosage of no more than 100 mg is generally needed on a regular basis. Consult with your health care practitioner if you are having an allergic response to Carnosine. Dosages may need to be adjusted.





    CARNOSINE AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

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  • QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS


    FTC Advertising & Affilate Disclosure: This website has an affiliate relationship with certain merchants selling products and we recieve commissions from those sales to help support this website. Any products listed here are not listed by any rating system. We do not rate any product or post any feedback about products listed here. We leave this to the individual merchants to provide. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit. All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual.


    CARNOSINE (L-CARNOSINE) AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    Carnosine is a multifunctional dipeptide made up of a chemical combination of the amino acids beta-alanine and L-histidine. It is found both in food and in the human body. Long-lived cells such as nerve cells (neurons) and muscle cells (myocytes) contain high levels of carnosine. Muscle levels of carnosine correlate with the maximum life spans of animals. Carnosine is a naturally occurring antioxidant that has been shown to be an anti-glycating agent. This nutrient also has the ability to suppress formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), culprits in metabolic dysfunction and oxidative stress that can lead to age-related conditions. Carnosine levels decline with age. Muscle levels decline 63 percent from age 10 to age 70, which may account for the normal age-related decline in muscle mass and function. Since carnosine acts as a pH buffer, it can keep on protecting muscle cell membranes from oxidation under the acidic conditions of muscular exertion. Carnosine enables the heart muscle to contract more efficiently through enhancement of calcium response in heart myocytes. Aging causes irreversible damage to the body’s proteins. One underlying mechanism behind this damage is glycation. Glycation involves the non-enzyme controlled cross-linking of proteins and sugars to form non-functioning structures in the body. The process of glycation can be superficially seen as unsightly wrinkled skin. Glycation is also an underlying cause of age-related neurologic, vascular, and eye problems. Carnosine is a unique dipeptide that can interfere with the glycation process. Benfotiamine, a derivative of thiamine (vitamin B-1), provides additional protection against glycation reactions while guarding cells against the toxic effects of chronic glucose exposure. Even people with normal glucose levels encounter damaging sugar reactions over a lifetime. Benfotiamine protects against glucose-induced cell damage via several mechanisms.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: L-Carnosine, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 30 Tabs (31701)
    HerbsPro: L-Carnosine, Now Foods, 500 mg, 50 VCaps (67908)
    HerbsPro: L-Carnosine, Futurebiotics, 60 VCaps (107164)
    HerbsPro: L-Carnosine, Source Naturals, 500 mg, 60 Tabs (31702)
    HerbsPro: L-Carnosine 500, Jarrow Formulas, 500 mg, 90 Caps (20772)
    HerbsPro: L-Carnosine, Now Foods, 500 mg, 100 VCaps (67907)


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  • AMINO ACID COMPLEX PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Amino-9 Essentials Powder, Now Foods, 330 Grams
    Complete Free Form blend of all 9 essential amino acids. Dietary supplements helpful in sports. GMP quality assured.
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance Powder, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance Powder, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 grams
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 120 Caps
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 240 Caps
    HerbsPro: Amino Balance, Free Form Amino Acid Complex, Anabol Naturals, 500 mg, 500 Caps
    For tissue repair, reduced soreness and accelerated recovery, as well as a wealth of non-training benefits, this blend of 23 pure crystalline 100% pharmaceutical grade free-form amino acids is unmatched.
    HerbsPro: Amino Max 21, FoodScience of Vermont, 90 Caps
    A high quality, hypoallergenic amino acid formulation. Amino Max 21 is a scientifically formulated combination of 21 crystalline, free-form amino acids in the natural L-configuration. Because free-form amino acids are readily bioavailable and require no digestion by the body, they can be absorbed efficiently into the bloodstream and accompanying tissues where they are used for cellular regeneration.
    HerbsPro: Essential Amino Acid Complex, Solgar, Free Form, 600 mg, 90 VCaps (36384)
    HerbsPro: Amino Complete, Balanced Blend Complex, Now Foods, 120 Caps
    HerbsPro: Max-Amino With Vitamin B-6, Blend of 18 Amino Acids, Country Life, 180 Caps
    An easily absorbed blend of 18 amino acids yielding high biological activity. An ideal formula for athletes, and when protein demands may not be fully satisfied. B-6 aids in the utilization of amino acids. An easily absorbed Amino Acid Supplement.
    HerbsPro: Amino Acid Complete, Balanced Blend Complex, Now Foods, 360 Caps
    HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 16 fl. oz. (19499)
    Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that help relieve muscle breakdown.
    HerbsPro: Cher-Amino Liquid Protein, TwinLab, 32 fl. oz. (19498)
    Cher Amino Protein is a concentrated and peptide bonded free amino acid supplement contains all essential amino acid derived from natural enzyme hydrolysis of collagen protein and whey protein that helps to relieve muscle breakdown. The protein in this product is a predigested collagen and whey (lactalbumin) protein and is therefore utilized 100%. Contains all the essential amino acids derived by enzymatically hydrolyzing the animal protein collagen and whey protein (lactalbumin). The amino acids in this product are naturally present in the protein. They are not added or manufactured. 15 grams per ounce. New improved formula. Predigested collagen. Enriched with predigested whey protein, a superior source of high quality amino acids.


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