MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
(Wrinkling of the Skin)
For Informational Use Only
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Wrinkles form when the skin thins and loses its elasticity. As long as the skin is supple, any creasing of the skin disappears as soon as you stop making the expression that caused it. But the skin that has lost its suppleness retains the lines formed by smiling or frowning, for instance, even after you have assumed a more neutral expression. Over time, these lines deepen into wrinkles.
The skin is the largest organ of the body. It helps regulate body temperature, removes excess fluid and is the body's first defense against disease and infection, so it is important to take care of skin and keep it healthy. Unfortunately, the normal process of aging can reduce its elasticity and vibrancy, creating skin wrinkles and lines. As long as the skin is supple, any creasing in the skin immediately disappears as soon as an expression disappears from the face, but when skin thins and loses its elasticity, it retains the creases formed by facial expressions. Over time these creases deepen into wrinkles. Everyone experiences skin changes as they age, but the natural process of aging is not the only thing that can change the way skin looks. Family history, genetics and behavioral choices all have a profound impact on the onset of aging-skin symptoms. American society places a premium on youthfulness, so the emotional ramifications of aging and the related effects on the skin have a profound impact on self-esteem. This is evidenced by the billions of dollars Americans spend each year on cosmetics and treatments to cover and reduce the signs of aging and wrinkles.
As a person ages, skin undergoes significant changes that lead to wrinkles. The cells divide more slowly, and the inner layer of skin (the dermis) starts to thin. Fat cells beneath the dermis begin to atrophy (diminish). In addition, the ability of the skin to repair itself diminishes with age, so wounds are slower to heal. The thinning skin becomes vulnerable to injuries and damage.
The underlying network of Elastin and Collagen fibers, which provides scaffolding for the surface skin layers, loosens and unravels. Skin then loses its elasticity. When pressed, it no longer springs back to its initial position but instead sags and forms furrows. The sweat- and oil-secreting glands atrophy, depriving the skin of their protective water-lipid emulsions. The skin's ability to retain moisture then diminishes and it becomes dry and scaly. Frown lines (those between the eyebrows) and crow's feet (lines that radiate from the corners of the eyes) appear to develop because of permanent small muscle contractions. Habitual facial expressions also form characteristic lines. Gravity exacerbates the situation, contributing to the formation of jowls and drooping eyelids. (Eyebrows, surprisingly, move up as a person ages, possibly because of forehead wrinkles.)
Aging is inevitable, but there are factors that assist in increasing or reducing the rate in which our skin loses its elasticity and suppleness, many of which are under an individualís control. These factors include exposure to the sun, diet, nutritional intake, muscle tone, consistent or habitual facial expressions, stress, anxiety, skin care, exposure to pollutants, lifestyle choices, smoking and heredity.
WRINKLES FREQUENT SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
Some amount of wrinkling is a result of aging and is probably inevitable; no matter what you do, you will develop some lines if you simply live long enough. The first signs of wrinkles usually appear in the delicate tissue around the eyes - smile lines or "crow's feet." These wrinkles occur first because of the delate nature of the skin in these locations, the regular movement of the eye lids and the subsequent movement of the upper areas of the face. The cheeks and lips show damage next. As we age, our skin becomes both thinner and dryer, both of which contribute to the formation of wrinkles. But other factors help to determine both the rate and the extent of wrinkling, including diet and nutrition, muscle tone, habitual facial expressions, stress, proper skin care (or lack thereof), exposure to environmental pollutants, and lifestyle habits such as smoking. Heredity probably also plays a role. It is believed that women are at greater risk for wrinkles than men; however, evidence suggests that, given the same risk factors, men and women in the same age groups have comparable risks for skin photoaging. In fact, some studies report that men are more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancers.
The most important factor of all is sun exposure, which not only dries out the skin but also leads to the generation of free radicals that can damage the skin cells. The sun is your skin's worst enemy. It is estimated that 90 percent of what we think of as signs of age are actually signs of overexposure. Furthermore, overexposure does not necessarily mean sunbathing or sunburn; approximately 70 percent of sun damage is incurred during such everyday activities as driving and walking to and from your car. The ultraviolet-A (UVA) rays that do this damage are present all day long and in all seasons. Worse, the effects of the sun are cumulative, although they may not be obvious for many years.
For more information about causes and treatments, see below.
AGING PROCESS & WRINKLES
As a person ages, skin undergoes significant changes:
- The cells divide more slowly, and the inner layer of skin (the dermis) starts to thin. Fat cells beneath the dermis begin to atrophy (diminish). In addition, the ability of the skin to repair itself diminishes with age, so wounds are slower to heal. The thinning skin becomes vulnerable to injuries and damage.
- The underlying network of elastin and collagen fibers, which provides scaffolding for the surface skin layers, loosens and unravels. Skin then loses its elasticity. When pressed, it no longer springs back to its initial position but instead sags and forms furrows.
- The sweat- and oil-secreting glands atrophy, depriving the skin of their protective water-lipid emulsions. The skin's ability to retain moisture then diminishes and it becomes dry and scaly.
- Frown lines (those between the eyebrows) and crow's feet (lines that radiate from the corners of the eyes) appear to develop because of permanent small muscle contractions. Habitual facial expressions also form characteristic lines.
- Gravity exacerbates the situation, contributing to the formation of jowls and drooping eyelids. (Eyebrows, surprisingly, move up as a person ages, possibly because of forehead wrinkles.)
Wrinkles can have a profound impact on self-esteem. Indeed, the stigma attached to looking old is evidenced by the fact that Americans spend more than 12 billion dollars each year on cosmetics to camouflage the signs of aging. Our current society places a premium on youthfulness, and age discrimination in the workplace, although illegal, has stalled many a person's career. Indeed, the emotional ramifications of aging explain in large part why the cosmetics industry and plastic surgeons thrive.
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, SUNLIGHT, & PHOTOAGING
The role of the sun cannot be overestimated as the most important cause of prematurely aging skin (called photoaging) and skin cancers. Of all the risk factors for aging skin, exposure to UV radiation from sunlight is by far the most serious. Indeed, the vast majority of undesirable consequences of aging skin occur in individuals who are repeatedly exposed to the sun, including outdoor workers (such as farmers, fishermen, construction workers, and lifeguards), outdoor enthusiasts and sunbathers. Overall, exposure to ultraviolet (referred to as UVA or UVB) radiation emanating from sunlight accounts for about 90 percent of the symptoms of premature skin aging, and most of these effects occur by age 20:
Initial Damaging Effects of Sunlight: Sunlight consists of ultraviolet (referred to as UVA or UVB) radiation, which penetrates the layers of the skin. Both UVA and UVB rays cause damage leading to wrinkles, lower immunity against infection, aging skin disorders, and cancer. They appear to damage cells in different ways, however.
- Even small amounts of UV radiation trigger process leading to skin wrinkles.
- Long-term repetitive and cumulative exposure to sunlight appears to be responsible for the vast majority of undesirable consequences of aging skin, including basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas.
- Melanoma is more likely to be caused by intense exposure to sunlight in early life.
Both UVA and UVB rays cause damage, including genetic injury, wrinkles, lower immunity against infection, aging skin disorders, and cancer, although the mechanisms are not yet fully clear.
- UVB is the primary agent in sunburning and primarily affects the outer skin layers. UVB is most intense at midday when sunlight is brightest. Slightly over 70 percent of the yearly UVB dose is received during the summer and only 28 percent is received during the remainder of the year.
- UVA penetrates more deeply and efficiently, however. UVA's intensity also tends to be less variable both during the day and throughout the year than UVB's. For example, only about half of the yearly UVA dose is received during the summer months and the balance is spread over the rest of the year. UVA is also not filtered through window glass (as is UVB).
Processes Leading to Wrinkles: Even small amounts of UV radiation trigger the process that can cause wrinkles, like:
There is a possible upside to wrinkles and sun exposure. A 2001 study reported that people with more wrinkles were less likely to develop basal cell carcinomas, even among high-risk groups. Some experts suggest that people prone to wrinkles may respond to sun exposure with biologic mechanisms that protect against basal cell carcinoma. More research is needed confirm this.
- Sunlight damages collagen fibers (the major structural protein in the skin) and causes accumulation of abnormal elastin (the protein that causes tissue to stretch).
- In response to this sun-induced elastin accumulation, large amounts of enzymes called metalloproteinases are produced. (One study indicated that when people with light to moderate skin color are exposed to sunlight for just five to 15 minutes, metalloproteinases remain elevated for about a week.)
- The normal function of these metalloproteinases is generally positive, to remodel the sun-injured tissue by manufacturing and reforming collagen. This is an imperfect process, however, and some of metalloproteinases produced by sunlight actually degrade collagen. The result is an uneven formation (matrix) of disorganized collagen fibers called solar scars . Repetition of this imperfect skin rebuilding over and over again causes wrinkles.
- An important event in this process is the over-production of oxidants, also called free radicals. These are unstable molecules that are normally produced by chemical processes in the body, a process called oxidation. With environmental assaults, however, such as from sunlight, they are produced in excessive amounts and damage the body's cells and even alter their genetic material. Oxidation may specifically contribute to wrinkling by activating the specific metalloproteinases that degrade connective tissue.
OTHER FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR WRINKLES
In addition to sunlight, other factors may hasten the formation of wrinkles:
- Childhood Sun Exposure: It is estimated that 50 to 80 percent of skin damage occurs in childhood and adolescence from intermittent, intense sun exposure that causes severe sunburns. In spite of this, many people still believe that a child's tan signifies health. Parents who are concerned about sun exposure, should apply sunscreen and insure their children are wearing protective clothing.
- Tanning Salon Use: People who regularly attend tanning salons or use tanning beds tend to have more wrinkles than those who do not. A 2002 study indicated that regular use significantly increases the risk for non-melanoma skin cancers. Fair women under age 50 are at particular risk.
MOONDRAGON'S SKIN-RELATED LINKS
- Cigarette Smoke: It is estimated that heavy smokers are almost five times as likely to have wrinkled facial skin than nonsmokers. In fact, heavy smokers in their 40s often have facial wrinkles more like those of nonsmokers in their 60s. Studies of identical twins have found smokers to have thinner skin (in some cases as much as 40 percent), more severe wrinkles and more gray hair than their non-smoking twins. Cigarette smokers are more prone to skin cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma and giant basal cell carcinomas. Smoking produces oxygen-free radicals, which are known to accelerate wrinkles and aging skin disorders and increase the risk for non melanoma skin cancers. Studies also suggest that smoking and subsequent oxidation produce higher levels of metalloproteinases, which are enzymes associated with wrinkles.
- Air Pollution: Ozone, a common air pollutant, may be a particular problem for the skin. One study reported that it might deplete the amount of vitamin E in the skin; this vitamin is an important antioxidant.
- Rapid Weight Loss: If weight loss occurs to rapidly, the volume of fat cells that cushion the face are also decreased before chemicals in the skin can react. This not only makes a person look gaunt, but can cause the skin to sag.
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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Sunburn
WRINKLES RISK FACTORS
AGE & RISK
Exposure to Sun in Childhood: It is estimated that 50 to 80 percent of skin damage occurs in childhood and adolescence from intermittent, intense sun exposure that causes severe sunburns. In spite of this now well-known effect, many people still believe that a tan in children signifies health. And, even many parents who are concerned about sun exposure still rely too much on sunscreen and not enough on protective clothing.
The Elderly: Most people over 70 have at least one skin disorder and many have three or four. Everyone experiences skin changes as they age, but a long life is not the sole determinant of aging skin. Family history, genetics, and behavioral choices all have a profound impact on the onset of aging-skin symptoms.
Activities Leading to Overexposure to Sunlight and Ultraviolet Radiation: Of all the risk factors for aging skin, exposure to UV radiation from sunlight is by far the most serious. Indeed, the vast majority of undesirable consequences of aging skin occur in individuals who are repetitively exposed to the sun, including the following:
- Outdoor workers, such as farmers, fishermen, construction workers, and lifeguards.
- Outdoor enthusiasts.
- People who regularly attend tanning salons or use tanning beds. A 2002 study indicated that regular use significantly increases the risk for non melanoma skin cancers. Fair women under age 50 were at particular risk.
Experts have devised a classification system for skin phototypes (SPTs) based on the sensitivity to sunlight. It ranges from SPT I (lightest skin plus other factors) to IV (darkest skin). [See Table below.] People with skin types I and II are at highest risk for photoaging skin diseases, including cancer. It should be noted, however, that premature aging from sunlight can affect people of all skin shades.
SKIN TYPE TANNING & SUNBURN HISTORY I Always burns, never tans, sensitive to sun exposure. II Burns easily, tans minimally. III Burns moderately, tans gradually to light brown. IV Burns minimally, always tans well to moderately brown. V Rarely burns, tans profusely to dark. VI Never burns, deeply pigmented, least sensitive.
WRINKLES & GENDER DIFFERENCES
It is commonly believed that women are at greater risk for wrinkles than men are. Some evidence suggests, however that, given the same risk factors, men and women in the same age groups have comparable risks for skin photoaging. In fact, in one 1999 study, long-term sun exposure caused a greater number of wrinkles in men than in women. In a French study, the evidence of moderate to severe photoaging was observed in the following:
Some studies report that men are more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancers.
- In 22 percent of women and 17 percent of men between the ages of 45 and 49.
- In 36 percent of women and 38 percent of men by age 54.
- Nearly half of both men and women by age 60.
WRINKLES & SMOKERS
According to one study, heavy smokers are almost five times as likely to have wrinkled facial skin than non-smokers. In fact, heavy smokers in their 40s often have facial wrinkles more like those of non-smokers in their 60s. Studies of identical twins have found smokers to have thinner skin (in some cases by as much as 40 percent), more severe wrinkles, and more gray hair than their non-smoking twins. And even worse, cigarette smokers are more prone to skin cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma and giant basal cell carcinomas.
STAYING OUT OF THE SUN
The best way to prevent skin damage in any case is to avoid episodes of excessive sun exposure. The following are some specific guidelines:
- Avoid exposure particularly during the hours of 10 AM to 4 PM when sunlight pours down 80 percent of its daily UV dose.
- Avoid reflective surfaces, such as water, sand, concrete, and white-painted areas. (Clouds and haze are not protective, and in some cases may intensify UVB rays.)
- Ultraviolet intensity depends on the angle of the sun, not heat or brightness. So the dangers are greater the closer to the summer-start date. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, UV intensity in April (two months before summer starts) is equal to that in August (two months after summer begins).
- The higher the altitude the quicker one sunburns. (One study suggested, for example, that an average complexion burns at six minutes at 11,000 feet at noon compared to 25 minutes at sea level in a temperate climate.)
- Avoid sun lamps and tanning beds. They provide mostly UVA rays, and some experts believe that 15 to 30 minutes at a tanning salon are as dangerous as a day spent in the sun.
The use of sunscreens is complex and everyone should understand how and when to use them. The bottom line is not that people should avoid sunscreens or sunblocks but that they should always use them in combination with other sun-protective measures. [See Box Sunscreen Guidelines.]
In choosing a sunscreen, look at the ingredients. Preparations that help block UV radiation are sometimes classified as sunscreens or sunblocks according to the substances they contain. In general, sunscreens have contained or organic formulas and sunblocks inorganic ingredients. However, the term sunblock is used less and less as sunscreens increasingly contain both kinds of ingredients:
Note: Organic formulas and inorganic microfine oxides do not protect against visible light, which is a problem for people who have light-sensitive skin conditions, including actinic prurigo, porphyria, and chronic actinic dermatitis. Inorganic sunscreens that protect against visible light and are still cosmetically acceptable are now available in Europe, but not yet in the US.
- Organic formulas contain UV-filtering chemicals such as butyl methoxydibenzoyl-methane (also called avobenzone or Parsol 1789), benzophenones (dioxybenzone, oxybenzone), sulisobenzone, methyl anthranilate, octocrylene, cinnamates (octyl methoxycinnamate, ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate), and terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid, a UVA blocker. Para-amino benzoic acid (PABA), once a popular ingredient, is now used infrequently. PABA may actually break down in the presence of UV exposure and release harmful oxidants. (And many people have an allergic reaction to it.) Not all these chemicals block UVA, and in choosing an organic sunscreen, people should look for a wide spectrum of chemicals.
- Inorganic formulas contain the UV-blocking pigments zinc oxide or titanium dioxide. Zinc and titanium oxides lie on top of the skin and are not absorbed. They prevent nearly all UVA and UVB rays from reaching the skin. Older sunblocks are white, pasty, and unattractive, but current products use so-called microfine oxides, either zinc (Z-Cote) or titanium. They are transparent and nearly as protective as the older types. Microfine zinc oxide may be more protective and less pasty-colored than microfine titanium oxide.
- Inexpensive products work as well as expensive ones with the same ingredients. Unfortunately, there are still not standards for sunscreens, and even those claiming UVA protection may offer very little. In one study, the average UVA protection from a wide range of brands was only 23 percent. In fact, the average protection on brands not making the claim was 37 percent.
CALCULATING THE SPF
The sun protection factor (SPF) on all sunscreen labels is a ratio based on the amount of UVB (not UVA) radiation required to turn sunscreen- or sunblock-treated skin red compared to non-treated skin. For instance, people who sunburn in five minutes and who want to stay in the sun for 150 minutes might use an SPF 30. The formula would be: 30 (the SPF number) times five (minutes to burn) equals 150 minutes in the sun.
Protection offered by sunscreens may be classified as follows:
SPF LEVELS BY AGE GROUP
- Minimal: SPF 2 to 11.
- Moderate: SPF 12 through 29.
- High: 30-Plus. (Although some sunscreens claim SPFs higher than 30, the added protection at such higher levels is insignificant.)
Certain groups should have higher or lower SPFs depending on age and other factors:
- Babies and young children should be well covered with clothing, sunglasses, and hats as the first line of defense against sunburn. Sunscreens should not be used on babies younger than six months without consulting a health care provider. Sunscreens should be used only if necessary in older children, since the long-term effects of the chemicals used in sunscreens are still unknown. For example, in two 2000 studies, one found greater numbers of moles and the other fewer numbers in children who used sunscreens. (Studies suggest that having numerous, normal moles may significantly increase the risk for melanoma.) Well-conducted studies on specific sunscreens are necessary to determine their safety in children.
- Older children and adults (even those with darker skin) benefit from using SPFs of 15 and over. Some experts recommend that most people should use SPF 30 on the face and 15 on the body.
- Adults who burn easily instead of tanning and anyone with risk factors for skin cancer should use at least SPF 30.
TIMING & AMOUNT OF APPLICATION
Sunscreen or sunblock should be applied liberally as follows:
- Adults should include sunscreen with a daily skin regimen, even if going outdoors for only a short time.
- Apply initially 30 minutes before venturing outdoors for best results. (This allows time for the sunscreen to be absorbed. Then reapply every 15 to 30 minutes while in the sunlight.)
- Also reapply each time after exercise or swimming. (Choose a waterproof or water-resistant formula even if activities do not include swimming. Waterproof formulas last for about 40 minutes in the water, whereas water-resistant formulas last half as long.)
- Apply a large amount (equal to about one quarter of a four-ounce bottle) to all exposed areas, including ears and feet.
- Insect repellants reduce sunscreen SPFs by up to one-third. Use higher SPFs and very liberal application when applying both.
POSSIBLE HAZARDS OF SUNSCREENS, SUN AVOIDANCE, OR BOTH
When used generously and appropriately, sunscreen products and sun avoidance help reduce the severity of many aging skin disorders, including squamous cell cancers. There are certain concerns, however.
Sunscreen Use May Not Protect against Basal Cell and Melanoma Cancers - and May Even Increase the Risk. Although sunscreens help prevent squamous cell carcinomas and other skin disorders, sunscreens do not appear to provide protection against melanoma and some basal cell cancers. In fact, some studies have reported a higher association with sunscreen use and these skin malignancies, though not all studies report such negative results. The reasons for this possible increased risk are unclear, though some theories include the following:
Sunscreens Use May Increase the Risk for Health Problems Related to Sunlight Deficiencies. There is some major concern that underexposure to sunlight, due to the use of sunscreens or sun-avoidance measures, may produce other health problems, such as the following:
- Until recently, many sunscreens blocked only or predominantly UVB rays and not UVA, the more deeply penetrating rays now known to be especially dangerous. (Most major sunscreen brands now block both UVA and UVB, but the effect of this double action on melanoma is not yet clear.)
- People who apply sunscreens may feel safe and stay out longer during high sun-exposure hours than is safe. It should be strongly noted that even if a person does not sunburn, UVA rays can still penetrate the skin and do harm.
- People do not put on enough sunscreen. In fact, according to one survey most apply about one quarter of the amount needed to meet standard recommendations for sun protection.
- Some sunscreen products, notably those containing PABA, may actually break down in the presence of UV exposure and release harmful free radical particles, which theoretically could increase the risk for cancer, though the long-term effects are not known. (Still other evidence suggests that some sunscreen ingredients protect against such oxidants.)
- Vitamin D Deficiency. Vitamin D is found in foods, but it is primarily manufactured a chemical reaction to ultraviolet B sunlight. Vigorous sun-protection measures, then, may increase a person's risk for developing Vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D is important for prevention of rickets and osteoporosis and some cancers, including melanoma . People who need to avoid sunlight and whose diet is low in foods that contain Vitamin D should take supplements. People with darker skin are at higher risk for deficiencies from sun protection than those with whiter skin. (Note: Vitamin D is toxic in high doses.)
- Other Cancers. Although sunlight is implicated in skin cancers, it is also associated with lower risks for breast, prostate, ovarian, and colon cancers. Some protection against these cancers may be related to Vitamin D production by sunlight.
- Depression. Many people suffer from SAD (seasonal affective disorder), a form of depression that generally occurs in winter and is associated with exposure to less sunlight. The bottom line is that some sunlight is important and even necessary for a healthful and high-quality life. Some experts recommend that adults may benefit from daily moderate tanning (20 to 30 maximum minutes of exposure during lower-risk hours) over a number of days to slowly build up pigment in the skin.
Wearing sun-protective clothing is extremely important and protects even better than sunscreens. Special clothing is now available for blocking UV rays and is rated using SPF ratings or a system called the UPF (ultraviolet protection factor) index, with 50 UPF being the highest. (According to one study, this is a very reliable indicator of protection.) The clothing is expensive, however. The following are some tips for anyone:
- Everyone, including children, should wear hats with wide brims. (Even wearing a hat, however, may not be fully protective against skin cancers on the head and neck.)
- People should look for loosely fitted, unbleached, tightly woven fabrics. The tighter the weave the more protective the garment.
- Washing clothes over and over improves UPF by drawing fabrics together during shrinkage. An easy way to assess protection is simply to hold the garment up to a window or lamp and see how much light comes through. The less the better.
- Everyone over age one should wear sunglasses that block all UVA and UVB rays.
Some research suggests that melanin and dihydroxyacetone (DHA), the active ingredients in many self-tanning lotions, may help filter out UVA and UVB radiation and so be protective against sun damage. More research is underway.
WRINKLES CONVENTIONAL MEDICAL TREATMENTS
The outward manifestations of age represent hard-won experience and character, and those who wear its natural signs with a healthy and happy outlook should be regarded with respect as role models. Before embarking on an expensive and ultimately futile attempt to keep time at bay, consider the real bases for self-esteem and the pursuit of a lifestyle that will bring true health and youthful vigor rather than an imitation of it.
For people who make the decision to pursue intensive treatments, individuals should consider the following factors, among others, and discuss them with their dermatologist or plastic surgeon:
A person's age also helps determine the procedure:
- The ability of the procedure to safely reduce wrinkles.
- The ease and safety record of the procedure.
- The skill of the health care provider.
- The length of recovery.
- Possible complications.
- The duration of the benefits.
In older individuals, combination procedures may be beneficial. Some examples include the following:
- For people in their thirties, a simple chemical peel is sufficient.
- After age 40, people may benefit from collagen or fat implants.
- At age 50 and over, plastic surgeons recommend laser resurfacing and customized treatments for individual needs.
- Laser surgery may be used for deep lines (such as those around the mouth) and chemical peels used over the rest of the face.
- For enhancing the eye by correcting droopy eyelids and bags and raising the brow, combinations of blepharoplasty (eye lift), Botox, and laser resurfacing may be used.
There are many choices for skin resurfacing (also called exfoliation) and the patient must discuss a number of different factors that affect the choice. Resurfacing can achieve the following:
In addition to determining the skill of the surgeon and the safety of the procedure, the patient must discuss the desired depth of the resurfacing and the capability of each procedure to reach this safely. All resurfacing procedures require a healing period afterward, during which the skin is red and sensitive. And it should be noted that the deeper the procedure, the higher the risk for complications, including delayed healing, infection, loss of pigment (skin color), and scarring.
- Removal of abnormal tissue and rough skin.
- Stimulation of new skin growth.
- Stimulation of collagen and elastin production.
Chemical peels, also known as chemosurgery, help restore wrinkled, lightly scarred, or blemished facial skin. Much like chemical paint strippers, chemical peels strip off the top layers of skin, and new, younger-looking skin grows back. The procedure is very effective for the upper lip. It cannot be performed around the eyes. Partial peels are often done in conjunction with a face-lift.
Complications include white heads, cold sores, infection, scarring, numbness, and permanent discoloration, particularly in people with darker skin. Refinement of chemical peel techniques are now permitting health practitioners to reach deeper skin, improvements which make it easier to apply peels to non-facial skin and to individuals with darker skin.
- Dermatologist applies chemicals to the skin. They include trichloroacetic acid, high concentrations of alpha hydroxy or beta hydroxy acids, or combinations of them.
- In some cases, tretinoin (vitamin A derivative) or alpha hydroxy is applied four to six weeks before and starting one day after the peel. Such treatments can enhance the effects of a peel and reduce the risk of discoloration in people at risk for this complication. (Tretinoin itself is being tested as a chemical peel. In one small 2001 study, it effectively reduced wrinkles with no side effects.)
- A crust or a scab generally forms within 24 hours after surgery, which can be removed by gentle cleansing with soap and water.
- The skin takes six or seven days to heal.
- After the scab disappears, the visible skin is deep red but gradually lightens as it regenerates.
Dermabrasion affects deeper layers of skin than chemical peels, and may be useful for removing disfiguring marks, such as deep acne scars or deep wrinkles. As with chemical peels, it is effective for wrinkles on the upper lip and chin and cannot be used around the eyes. Some experts prefer dermabrasion to lasers for skin surfacing of people with darker skin colors.
Standard dermabrasion uses a rotating brush that removes the top layers of a person's skin. As with chemical peels, dermabrasion selectively strips away the upper layers of skin, leaving the underlying dermal layers exposed.
As with chemical peels, after the procedure, the treated skin oozes and forms a scab, a reaction that is both unsightly and uncomfortable, but only temporary.
Postoperative care is similar for both procedures.A gentler variation called micro-dermabrasion uses very tiny crystals to polish the skin and a vacuum technique to remove them. Results are similar to light chemical peels. Patients can have this procedure done on their lunch hour and return to work. Only mild redness occurs after treatment, although for best results five or six repetitive treatments are needed every one or two weeks. To date, overall patient satisfaction has been very high.
Lasers are currently the most effective exfoliation tools for eliminating wrinkles. Their unique advantages over other resurfacing methods are their ability to tighten the skin. A successful procedure can make patients look 10 to 20 years younger, and the results can last up to 10 years. It should be noted, however, that a 2002 study indicated that this procedure may not protect against skin cancers.
The procedure is most beneficial for the following areas:
The Laser Resurfacing Procedure. In general the procedure works in the following way:
- Best around the mouth and eyes. Recent evidence suggests CO2 lasers may be even better than dermabrasion for the upper lip.
- Slightly less beneficial for the area around the nose.
- Used alone, current laser therapy does not eliminate crow's feet, broken blood vessels, or dark circles under the eye.
- Standard laser dermabrasion is too harsh for thinner skin layers, such as on the neck. Newer and gentler laser techniques, however, stimulate collagen without taking off skin layers and may prove to be useful for necklines.
- The evidence of the effects of lasers on acne scars is unknown.
Choice of Lasers. The lasers used depend on skin type and severity of the condition:
- Laser pulses penetrate the skin quickly, vaporizing water and surface skin without damaging the deeper layers, allowing new top skin to grow.
- In addition, enough heat is applied to shorten collagen fibers, restoring some elasticity to the skin.
Some surgeons are using combination techniques that employ more than one laser technology in one session to achieve different effects. For example, one combination technique uses CO2, YAG, pulsed-dye laser, and one other laser technology to both improve wrinkles and clear under-eye dark circles and acne scarring. Pretreatment with botulinum injections before laser resurfacing significantly improved the treatment of crow's feet in one 2001 study.
- The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is the most powerful laser treatment and is used for deep wrinkles and skin imperfections. People who have had silicone injections should not have CO2 procedures, which can burn and scar the skin over the implanted area.
- The Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser is gentler than the CO2 and is effective for mild wrinkles and for providing a smooth texture. It has a shorter recovery time. Some experts have even found the YAG laser as effective in removing deep wrinkles as CO2 when used to sufficient depth. A so-called variable pulse YAG laser can shift between pulses that destroy skin to tissue to those that heat the skin; this process effectively resurfaces the skin with fewer side effects than CO2 laser therapy.
- A gentle laser procedure called non-ablative laser resurfacing (NLite), also called photorejuvenation, is now approved for the treatment of all facial wrinkles. The procedure uses light energy to gently stimulate new collagen, and possibly elastin, without removing the skin tissue itself. Its effects are less pronounced than those of other laser procedures. However, because it does not injure the external layers of skin, it can be used on delicate skin areas, such as the neck and around the eyes. It also causes very little irritation afterward.
The procedure itself is relatively painless, but the redness and irritation that occur during the healing process can be severe. (Non-ablative laser resurfacing does not have the same severe after effects as other laser treatments.) For eight to nine days, the face looks skinned and swollen and requires continuous moisturizing. (Some experts suggest that people with very sensitive skin who can not tolerate the medications and lubricants should avoid laser resurfacing.) Redness and sensitivity can persist for one to four months. The patient must stay out of the sun as much as possible during this time and should always avoid sunbathing and damaging their skin again. Early research suggests that silicone dressings may reduce post-procedure pain and crusting.
Scarring and infections can occur in about 1 percent of procedures, with risk increasing or decreasing depending on the experience of the surgeon. People with a history of herpes simplex may experience flare-ups of fever, facial pain, and flu-like symptoms for five or six days afterward. In addition, people with darker skin may wish to avoid the procedure because it can cause unpredictable and dramatic lightening of the skin.
OTHER EXFOLIATION PROCEDURES
Cold Ablation. Cold ablation, called coblation for short, delivers saline (salt water) to the skin through which a cool electric current is passed. A subsequent reaction heats and vaporizes the top shallow layer of skin. The procedure is very specific and appears to minimize any damage to other areas of the skin.
Radiofrequency Resurfacing. A new technique uses low radiofrequency energy to resurface the skin. Preliminary research indicates that this procedure may eventually be as effective as laser surgery in reducing severe wrinkles around the eyes and mouth, with minimal pain and a shorter recovery time.
A number of materials are currently being used for deep wrinkles, depression under the eyes, lip enhancements, and for acne scars. None to date are wholly satisfactory. Biologic fillers from animal, bacterial, or human sources do not last. Synthetic fillers are permanent but may provoke an allergic reaction, which can cause chronic problems. Such reactions are not common but they can be painful and unattractive.
Implant Procedure &
Procedure Specific Areas Affected Benefits Drawbacks
Microlipoinjection: Fat tissue from the patients' own thigh or abdomen.
Injected into target wrinkles with needle and syringe.
Deep wrinkles around the nose and mouth, folds in the forehead, and wrinkles on the hands.
No allergic or immune reaction because substance is patient's own fat.
Body eventually absorbs the fat, so multiple injections are needed. Some studies suggest that 70 percent of the fat may still be viable after at least a year.
Collagen implants. Collagen is the protein that forms the structures in the body (e.g., skin, bones, cartilage). The implant procedure uses bovine (cow) collagen. A form of human collagen will be available soon.
Injected into target wrinkles with needle and syringe. Several weeks after injection, the cow collagen breaks down and is replaced by newly created human collagen.
Wrinkles around the eyes and mouth; used to give lips greater fullness.
Very simple with faster recovery than many other implant techniques.
Wrinkles reform and repeat treatments are needed three to 12 months later. Rarely, severe allergic reactions. Should not be used by children, pregnant women, and people with a history of autoimmune disease.
Gore-Tex. Highly porous and inert (not chemically active) synthetic material.
Requires some surgery. Tiny patches are inserted under the skin to fill out wrinkles. Skin cells and blood vessels penetrate the porous material easily, reducing the risk of severe inflammation.
Material does not degrade.
Possible scarring from surgical procedure. Allergic reactions are rare but can occur even with chemically inactive materials.
Artecol. Highly porous and inert (not chemically active) synthetic material.
Material is injected, enclosed in tiny droplets of natural collagen.
Although part of the implant is natural collagen implant, it does not degrade as quickly as a full collagen implant.
Repeat treatments still may be needed. Possible allergic reaction.
Hyaluronic acid (Hylaform, Restylan). Natural substance acts like a molecular sponge to absorb water.
Material is injected under the skin.
Low risk for allergic reaction (but still can occur). May last longer than bovine collagen.
Repeat treatments needed.
Botulinum, the deadly toxin found in uncooked foods, is also a powerful muscle-relaxant, and tiny amounts of a purified form (Botox) are being injected into wrinkles to relax the surrounding muscles. It may benefit forehead and frown lines, crow's feet, lower eyelids, lines on the side of the nose, and the area between the upper lip and the nose. It is also useful for treating involuntary muscle movements that can occur after a face-lift.
The injections need to be repeated every few months, since the effects wear off. The treatment decreases the ability to frown or squint and may cause the corners of the mouth to turn down. When used for areas around eyes, it produces a rounder appearance afterward, which patients should be aware of before they undertake the procedure.
The drug does not cross the blood-brain barrier, and, to date, the only side effects are temporary muscle weakness near the injection site. Although there have been some reports that Botox can reduce migraine and tension headaches, Botox also causes headaches in about 1 percent of cases. In some cases, the headaches can be very severe and long lasting (from eight days to a month). Some experts suggest that either a contaminated batch of Botox or a specific injection technique may be the cause, but additional investigation is needed.
PLASTIC SURGERY FOR WRINKLES
Face Lifts (Rhytidectomy): A number of face-life procedures (called rhytidectomies) are available. Face lifts can provide individuals with a more youthful, if not necessarily younger, look. The degree of improvement, however, depends on a number of factors including age, bone structure, skin type, and personal habits, such as smoking and sunbathing.
When a face-lift is a relatively simple procedure, it can take about two hours under local anesthetic in a health practitioner's office. Complicated face-lifts are done under general anesthesia in a hospital and can take three to six hours. The face lift procedure may be one of the following:
Neither SMAS nor the endoscopic version is effective for the middle part of the face, particularly the deep lines (naso-labial folds) that run down from the nose beside the mouth. Some time after the SMAS face lift, the upper face begins to age again while the lower area still retains its shape, causing the face to look imbalanced. Other approaches, such as one called composite face lifts that lift most muscles in the face are being investigated.
- SMAS (Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System) is the most common face-life procedure. The surgeon makes an incision at the hairline and separates the skin from the underlying tissue and muscles. The muscles are tightened and excess fat and tissue, such as fat under the chin and neck, are removed.
- The Endoscopic Subperiosteal or Subgaleal Face-Lift is a less invasive surgical technique. The surgeon raises facial structures rather than cutting away flaps of skin. Only a few half-inch incisions are made, and scarring is minimal.
Recovery normally lasts from several weeks to several months. Swelling and discoloration are common. Some patients report tingling or numbing sensations after surgery, which generally subside as damaged nerves regenerate.
Rhytidectomy is not without risks. A postsurgical hematoma is a collection of blood that can occur after a rhytidectomy. In one study major hematomas occurred in 2.2 percent and minor hematomas in 6.65 percent of patients. They generally develop within two weeks of the surgery and require drainage. Even minor hematomas need fast treatment to prevent greater complications, including infection, changes in pigmentation, fluid buildup, and prolonged recovery time.
Other less common complications may include the following:
It should be noted that these complications are rare, particularly with a skilled surgeon, but the more complex the face lifts, the greater the risk.
- Excessive bleeding.
- Asymmetrical facial muscles.
- Delayed healing.
- Permanent injury to the nerves that control facial movements.
PROCEDURES FOR EYES
PROCEDURES FOR THE NECK
- Blepharoplasty. Blepharoplasty is the primary surgical procedure for eye lifts. Results usually last between five and ten years. Although simple, it has potential complications, including permanent difficulty in closing the eyes or making a stern expression. Newer techniques, however, are preventing this complication. Assuming the surgeon is experienced, laser surgery is now preferred to the standard surgical scalpel approach; bleeding and bruising are reduced, and both the operation and recovery are faster.
- Transconjunctival Upper Blepharoplasty. An innovative procedure called transconjunctival upper blepharoplasty removes fat from the membrane that lines the eyelids (the conjunctiva) and is an effective technique for treating both the upper and lower eyelids. Unlike traditional blepharoplasty, this procedure does not cause scarring in the nasal area. In patients who have scars from previous surgeries, transconjunctival removal of fat can also make existing scars less obvious. Long-term side effects and efficacy of this procedure have not been studied.
- Laser Liposculpture and Platysma Resurfacing. A procedure called laser neck and jowl liposculpture and platysma resurfacing may prove to be an alternative to face lifts. The procedure requires only a one-inch incision under the chin and removing excess fat. After the fat is removed, the surgeon tightens the platysma, the thin muscular sheet under the skin of the neck, which improves the shape of the neck. Only local anesthetic is needed and the patient can return to normal activities in two days. The patient's skin should be elastic enough to be able to reform without sagging.
HOME TREATMENT FOR SKIN WRINKLES
Needless to say, the best long-term prevention for overly wrinkled skin is a healthy lifestyle including the following:
DAILY PREVENTIVE SKIN CARE
- Eat Healthy. A diet with plenty of whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, and the use of healthy oils (such as olive oil) may protect against oxidative stress in the skin. In fact, a 2001 study reported that people over 70 years old had fewer wrinkles if they ate such foods. Diet played a role in improving skin regardless of whether the people in the study smoked or lived in sunny countries. Benefits from these foods may be due to high levels of anti-oxidants found in them. (See more about Dietary & Lifestyle Recommendations below.)
- Exercise. Daily exercise keeps blood flowing, which brings oxygen to the skin, an important ingredient for healthy skin.
- Reduce Stress. Reducing stress and tension may have benefits on the skin.
- Quit Smoking. Smoking not only increases wrinkles, but smokers have a risk for squamous cell cancers that is 50 percent higher than nonsmokers' risk. Smokers should quit to prevent many health problems, not just unhealthy skin. (For more detailed information, see Smoking and Smoking Cessation & Weight Gain: Quit & Keep The Pounds Off.)
Some daily measures for skin protection are as follows:
ANTIOXIDANT PRODUCTS: GENERAL INFORMATION
- Do not wash face too often with tap water. (Once a day is enough.) It strips the skin of oil and moisture. In addition, chlorinated water, particularly at high temperatures, poses special risks for wrinkles.
- Wash the face with a mild soap that contains moisturizers. Alkaline soaps, especially with deodorant, should be avoided.
- Pat the skin dry and immediately apply a water-based moisturizer.
- Always apply Sunscreen, even if going outdoors for short periods.
- Avoid drinking alcohol within three hours of bedtime. Alcohol increases the risk for leaks in the capillaries, which allows more water in and causes sagging and puffiness. Capillary leakage increases when one is lying down.
- Lie on the back when sleeping. This helps offset the effects of gravity.
Antioxidants are substances that act as scavengers of oxygen-free radicals, the unstable particles that can damage cells and which are implicated in sun damage and even skin cancers. Antioxidants in the skin are depleted when exposed to sunlight and must be replaced. Antioxidant topical products (such ointments, creams, and lotions) may help reduce the risk of wrinkles and protect against sun damage. Unlike sunscreens, they accumulate in the skin and are not washed away, so the protection may last. The antioxidants marketed for skin protection include Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10), and Alpha-Lipoic Acid.
Some research has been conducted on the effects on wrinkles using oral antioxidant supplements. One small study found that taking a combination of vitamins oral C and E supplements may help reduce sunburn reactions, although the protection is much less than from sunscreens. (Taking the vitamins singly does not appear to have the any effect.)
ANTIOXIDANTS: VITAMIN A TOPICAL PRODUCTS
Vitamin A is important for skin health and UV radiation produces deficiencies in the skin. Topical products containing natural forms of vitamin A (retinol, retinaldehyde) or vitamin A derivatives called retinoids (tretinoin, tazarotene) have proven to be beneficial for skin damaged by the sun and also by natural aging.
Tretinoin (Retin-A). Tretinoin (known commercially as Retin-A) is the only topical agent approved for treating photoaging and is available in prescription form (Avita, Renova, Differin). This agent produces a rosy glow and reduces fine and large wrinkles, liver spots, and surface roughness. It also may help prevent more serious effects of ultraviolet radiation. Tretinoin may be applied to face, neck, chest, hands, and forearm and should be applied at least twice a week. Noticeable improvement takes from two to six months. Because Retin-A increases a person's sensitivity to the sun, a thin coat is best administered at bedtime. A sunblock should be worn during the day, and overexposure to the sun should be avoided.
Almost all patients experience redness, scaling, burning, and itching after two or three days that can last up to three months. In women who experience irritation, a daytime moisturizer or low-dose corticosteroid cream, such as 1 percent hydrocortisone, may help. There is some concern that overuse of high-dose tretinoin may cause excessive skin thinness over time. Studies now suggest that low concentrations (as low as 0.02 percent) of tretinoin can produce significant improvements in wrinkles and skin color, with less irritation than at higher doses. Oral tretinoin causes birth defects, and women should avoid even topical Retin-A when pregnant or trying to conceive.
Retinol. Retinol, a natural form of vitamin A, could not, until recently, be used in skin products because it was unstable and easily broken down by UV radiation. Stable preparations are now sold over the counter. In the right concentrations, retinol may be as effective as tretinoin and studies indicate that it has fewer side effects. An animal study suggests that adding antioxidant creams (such as those containing vitamins C or E) may offer added protection against degradation of retinol, but not tretinoin. The FDA warns that over-the-counter retinol skin products are unregulated; the amount of active ingredients is unknown, and some preparations, in fact, may contain almost no retinol.
Tazarotene. Tazarotene (Tazorac, Zorac) is a retinoid used for acne and psoriasis. One short-term study suggested that it may be as effective as tretinoin and even slightly better at high doses. At such high doses, however, it can cause very severe irritation. Redness and peeling may be reduced by administering tretinoin first to get the skin acclimated. More research is needed to determine if it produces any long-lasting significant benefits. As with any vitamin A derivative, it should be avoided by pregnant women and those who may become pregnant.
ANTIOXIDANTS: OTHER TOPICAL PRODUCTS
Although there are wide claims about the benefits of antioxidants for wrinkles when used in skin creams, to date, only Vitamin E, Vitamin C and Selenium applied topically have been proven to have any benefits for reducing sun damage in the skin. Even with these antioxidants, however, most available brands contain very low concentrations of them. In addition, they are also not well absorbed and they have a short-term effect. New delivery techniques, however, may prove to offset some of these problems.
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid. This is a very potent antioxidant and most studies on the effects of antioxidants on the skin have used this vitamin. In laboratory studies, large amounts reduced skin swelling and protected immune factors from sunlight. It may even promote collagen production. Vitamin C by itself is unstable, but products that solve the delivery problem are now available (e.g., Cellex-C, Avon's Anew Formula C Treatment Capsules, and others). One 2002 study using Cellex-C reported reduction in wrinkles around the mouth, on the cheek, and around the eyes. The product also appeared to improve skin thickness.
Vitamin E. Studies suggest that topical Vitamin E, particularly alpha tocopherol (a form of vitamin E) cream decreased skin roughness, length of facial lines, and wrinkle depth. Studies on mice have also reported reductions in UV-induced skin cancer with its use.
Selenium. In the form of L-selenomethionine, Selenium has protected against sun damage and even delayed skin cancer in animal studies. It is not known if such benefits apply to people.
One 1999 study found that topical application of the antioxidant Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10) improved the skin's resistance to the oxidative stress of UV radiation, and when applied long-term, could reduce crow's feet.
ALPHA HYDROXY ACID & HOME EXFOLIATION
One of the basic methods for improving skin and eliminating small wrinkles is exfoliation (also called resurfacing), which is the removal of the top layer of skin to allow regrowth for new skin. Methods for doing this run from simple scrubs to special creams to intensive peeling treatments, including laser resurfacing. People with darker skin are at particularly higher risk for scarring or discoloration with the more powerful exfoliation methods.
Abrasive Scrubs. Scrub gently with a mildly abrasive material and a soap that contains salicylic acid to remove old skin so that new skin can grow. The motion should be perpendicular to the wrinkles. Use textured material or cleansing grains with microbeads. Organic materials, such as loofahs or sea sponges may harbor bacteria. Avoid cleansing grains that contain pulverized walnut shells and apricot seeds, which can lacerate skin on a microscopic level. Cleansing grains with microbeads do not have sharp edges and remove skin without cutting it. Exfoliation using scrubs, however, can worsen certain conditions, such as acne, sensitive skin, or broken blood vessels.
Topical Alpha Hydroxy Acid and Similar Substances. Alpha Hydroxy Acid facilitates the shedding of dead skin cells and may even stimulate the production of collagen and elastin. They are found naturally as follows:
Lactic and glycolic acids are used most often in commercial products. The preparations containing lactic acid may be slightly more effective than those made with glycolic acid. Products have also been developed that are made from larger molecules called poly-alpha-hydroxy acids and others from beta-hydroxy acids or BHAs (usually containing salicylate acid, the primary ingredient in aspirin). Manufacturers claim that such products are less likely to irritate the skin.
- Lactic acid (milk).
- Glycolic acid (sugar cane).
- Malic acid (found in apples and pears).
- Citric acid (oranges and lemons).
- Tartaric acids (grapes).
Acid concentrations in over-the-counter AHA preparations are 2 to 10 percent. One clinical study suggested that 8 percent concentrations showed modest improvement. Some examples include Avon's Anew Intensive Treatment (8 percent glycolic), Pond's Age Defying Complex (8 percent), Elizabeth Arden's Alpha-Ceramid Intensive Skin Treatment (3 to 7.5 percent), and BioMedic's home product (10 percent). Prescription strength creams contain at least 12 percent glycolic acid, and glycolic acid peels of 30 to 70 percent concentration may be administered in a health care provider's office at weekly or monthly intervals.
Response to AHA varies, and the treatment is not without risk, particularly in high-concentration products. Side effects from over-the-counter creams, prescription products, and professional AHA peels can include burns, itching, pain, and possibly scarring. Studies also suggest that AHA may increase sun damage, even at concentrations as low as 4 percent. Experts advise that people should purchase products with AHA concentrations of 10 percent or less. If any adverse effects occur, the product should be stopped immediately. In all cases, people are advised to avoid sunlight or use proper sun protection when using them.
Experts are further concerned because part of the wrinkle-reducing effects of alpha hydroxy involves calcium loss, which in turn may promote cell growth and impair differentiation. Theoretically, this might increase the risk for skin cancer. There is no evidence of this at all, but more research is warranted on long-term effects of AHA.
Moisturizers help prevent dryness, bruising, and tearing but have no effect on wrinkles by themselves. They should be applied while the skin is still damp. These products retain skin moisture in various ways:
Most moisturizers contain combinations of these and usually have other ingredients, such as AHA, sunscreens, collagen, and keratin. (Collagen and keratin leave a protein film and temporarily stretch the skin.) They range widely in price, and a major consumer organization found little difference in general between the more and less expensive products.
- Occlusives, such as petroleum jelly, prevent water from evaporating.
- Humectants, including glycerin, act by pulling water up to the surface of the skin from deep tissues. People with oily skin generally should use the humectant type.
- More powerful compounds, such as one called monolaurin (Glylorin), contain mixtures of fatty molecules called lipids, which may help restore the skin's natural barriers against moisture loss and damage.
The skin under the eyes is very thin and does not produce as much of the protective oils that keep skin soft and supple. Under-eye gels are aimed at reducing puffiness and dark circles. They typically work in one of two ways:
Never rub under the eyes, as this may cause more wrinkles to form. Instead, apply these products with a light tapping motion to stimulate the skin.
- Temporarily constricting blood vessels to prevent the build-up of fluids.
- Firming the skin with an invisible film.
OTHER SKIN TREATMENTS
Other Natural Anti-Wrinkle Remedies. The following natural substances have antioxidant properties and are being tried for wrinkle-protection.
- Both Green Tea and Black Tea as well as Ginger appear to have properties that may provide some protection against skin cancers and photoaging. A 2001 study using extracts of topical green tea suggested that it might protect against ultraviolet damage. More research is warranted. Green Tea skin care products are now available, but their quality is unregulated.
- The substance Silymarin, found in Milk Thistle and its family (which includes Artichokes), may inhibit UVB-promoted cancers in animals.
- Aloe Vera, Lemon Oil, and Grape Seed Extract contain antioxidants and are promoted as being healthy for the skin, although evidence of their effects on wrinkles is weak. Warning Note: A wide range of herbal products, both oral and topical, may contribute to dermatological problems. Some Chinese herbal creams have been found to contain corticosteroids, and some may contain mercury or arsenic contaminants have been reported in some Ayurvedic therapies. In addition, a number of oral herbal remedies used for medical or emotional conditions may produce irritation in reaction to sunlight (photosensitivity). The include but are not limited to St. John's Wort, Kava Kava, and Yohimbe. St. John's Wort, in fact, has been associated with severe toxicity in a patient who had laser treatments.
- Furfuryladenine. Furfuryladenine (Kinetin, Kinerase) is a naturally occurring growth hormone found in plant and animal DNA; it has antioxidant and anti-aging properties. Some small laboratory studies suggest that it may both delay the onset and decrease the effects of aging on skin. However, no well-conducted human trials have been performed.
- Vitamin K. Microsponge-based Vitamin K is being promoted to clear bruises spider veins, and other small blood vessel damage. Vitamin K is important for blood clotting.
Cosmetics, if properly applied, can be surprisingly effective in camouflaging the signs of aging skin, including wrinkles and age spots. Moreover, they offer additional benefits by retarding water loss and providing a physical barrier to UV radiation. However, as women age, less is more. Here are some suggestions for older women:
- Moisturizers. Moisturizers should be applied before foundation. If reddish discoloration is extensive or the skin is sallow, tinted moisturizers may be helpful and can be worn alone or under foundation.
- Foundations. Caking on make-up will cause cracks at the wrinkle lines and only increase the appearance of aging. Large areas of the face are best covered with a moderate-coverage foundation with a matte or semi-matte finish. Facial powder reflects light and thus minimizes wrinkles but should be avoided by people with dry skin.
- Correcting Color. When blemishes are especially prominent, applying color correctors under the foundation can be very effective:
- Green neutralizers mask red lesions.
- Yellow will camouflage dark circles and bruises.
- Mauve (a purplish-pink color) helps neutralize sallow skin or yellowish blemishes.
- A white, pearled base helps to minimize wrinkles.
- Blushes. Blushes and color washes can help conceal the spidery network of dilated capillaries on the nose and cheeks. Powder blushes are preferred because they blend easily on top of foundation.
- Eyes. Powder eye shadows applied on top of a moisturizer are preferred to cream-based shadows. The appearance of deep-set eyes is best offset with light-colored shadow, which should be applied along the upper eyelid crease and above the iris. A slightly deeper shade of the same color should then be applied to the lower part of the eyelid and drawn out to the corner.
- Lips. A lip-setting cream or facial foundation should be applied before lipstick to help prevent it from bleeding into surrounding wrinkles. Try using a stiff bristle brush instead of a lip pencil. The brush will help keep the lipstick on and prevent bleeding. (Some women use the pencil itself for the full lip, which gives color but appears natural.) Some make-up artists recommend cream lipsticks instead of matte.
Acerola (West Indian Cherry) hydrates the skin. The fruit of the Acerola is the richest known source of natural vitamin C in the world and is extremely high in antioxidants. Acerola fruit is also high in iron, calciuim, beta carotenes and phosphorus. Acerola juice is as popular in Brazil as orange juice is in America. A study published in 2002 reported that the fruit of the acerola can cause an allergic reaction in people who are also allergic to latex. There are also several reports that the leaves may be irritating to some people, but this should not affect consumption of the powdered form.
Alfalfa, Burdock Root, Chamomile, Horsetail, Oat Straw, and Red Raspberry, Thyme are all good for general nourishment of the hair, skin, and nails.
Aloe Vera has soothing, healing, and moisturizing properties. Apply pure Aloe Vera Gel to dry skin as directed on the product label. It is helpful for sunburned, irritated, or itchy damaged skin.
Comfrey is good for alleviating dry skin. Comfrey can be blended into a nourishing salve or skin cream made of natural butters, such as Shea Butter, Kokum Butter, Mango Butter or Cocoabutter
Calendula and Comfrey have skin-softening properties. They can be sued in a facial sauna or to make herbal or floral waters. Comfrey reduces redness and soothes irritated skin. Allantoin, an ingredient in many skin care products, is derived from Comfrey. Note: Comfrey is recommended for external use only.
Calendula Oil for chapped skin. Calendula is a type of marigold that's very easy to grow and has skin-healing properties. Pick a handful of the barely opened Calendula flowers (also known as Pot Marigold) on a dry day and put them in a blender. Add enough Olive Oil to cover the flowers and puree. Store in a glass jar away from direct heat, and shake daily for several weeks. You can add more blossoms and olive oil over the weeks. When the oil has taken on a deep orange color, strain it a few times. Apply to chapped skin as needed.
Olive Oil moisturizer for supple skin. The fatty compounds in olive oil soothe chapped hands, promote the regeneration of skin cells and help to seal in the skin's natural moisture. Each night before you go to sleep, coat your hands with a thick layer of olive oil. Put on a pair of light, cotton gloves. In the morning, rinse your hands.
Spray an herbal or floral water mist on your skin throughout the day to replenish lost moisture. Almost all skin types, but particularly dry skin, benefit from lavender. You can purchase Lavender Water already made, or you can make your own by adding a few drops of Lavender Essential Oil to 4 ounces of distilled water, or by making an infusion of fresh Lavender leaves and flowers.
A weekly facial sauna using the herbs Chamomile, Lavender, and Peppermint is good for dry skin. Using a glass or enameled pot, simmer a total of 2 to 4 tablespoons of dried or fresh herbs in 2 quarts of water. When the pot is steaming, place it on top of a trivet or thick potholder on a table, and sit with your face at a comfortable distance over the steam for 15 minutes, splash your face with cold water and allow your skin to air dry or pat it dry with a towel. Then either apply a good natural moisturizer or facial oil, or apply a clay mask. After the sauna, you can allow the herbal water to cool and save it for use as a toning lotion to be dabbed on your face with a cotton ball after cleansing.
ALL-PURPOSE HEALING SALVE
To make an all-purpose healing salve for dry, irritated or inflamed skin, mix in a pot:
4 tablespoons Calendula Oil
4 tablespoons Comfrey Oil
4 tablespoons Arnica Oil
4 tablespoons Vitamin E Oil
Gently warm the oils on the stove or in a microwave oven. Melt 1/3 ounce of Beeswax in a double boiler. Mix the herbal oil and beeswax together, pour into glass jars and cool.
Mountain Rose Herbs: Bulk Organic Carrier & Vegetable Oils
MoonDragon's Health Therapy: Herbal Preparations - Making Your Own Preparations
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Dry Skin
Other herbs that are beneficial for skin tone include Borage seed, Cranberry, Flaxseed, Ginger Root, Lavender, Lemongrass, Parsley, and ">Pumpkin seed.
Witch Hazel is very useful in skin care.
Super Greens like Barley Grass help with digestion, elimination, detoxification, internal cleansing, tissue repair, skin problems and healing.
Black Salve ointment has a strong drawing power to promote healing. It has been used on such skin ailments as boils, abscesses, splinters, carbuncles, felons, skin infections, skin cancer, cysts and tumors.
Black Seed Oil is an excellent healer, and its areas of application range from external skin care (psoriasis, eczema, dry skin, joints & scalp massage) and to internal use as a treatment for various complaints (asthma, arthritis, immune system).
Borage Oil, extracted from the seeds of the plant, is a natural source of gamma-linolenic Acid (GLA), an important OMEGA-6 fatty acid which the body uses in making skin cells. Without sufficient GLA, cell membranes can not retain enough moisture and skin becomes dry and rough. Ordinary moisturizers work only on the skin's surface, but borage oil penetrates deeper and delivers GLA and its benefits to the cells. As a result, skin cells retain more moisture. Studies show that when Borage oil is applied to the skin, it has a positive effect on serious disorders such as atopic dermatitis and eczema. The Journal of American Academy of Dermatology and The British Journal of Dermatology agree that Borage is beneficial to the skin's health and appearance.
Cocoa Butter is used in confections and in the manufacture of tobacco, soap, and cosmetics. By itself, it is used to improve skin elasticity and to reduce wrinkles.
Coconut Oil can be used in recipes as it is food grade, but also as an excellent hair and skin treatment.
Pure Emu Oil is a natural skin softener and protector. Pure Emu Oil supports skin hydration and elasticity and improves skin surface blood flow and healing. Unscented or lightly scented Emu oil soap is moisturizing, conditioning, non-irritating, and accompanied with all the benefits of Emu oil.
Acerola Vera Herbal Products Alfalfa Herbal Products Aloe Vera Herbal Products Barley Grass Herbal Products Beeswax Bee Products Black Salve Ointment Products Borage Herbal Products Burdock Herbal Products Calendula Herbal Products Chamomile Herbal Products Cocoa Butter Herbal Products Coconut Oil Herbal Products Comfrey Herbal Products Cranberry Herbal Products Emu Oil Products Flaxseed Herbal Products Horsetail (Shavegrass) Herbal Products Lavender Herbal Products Lemongrass Herbal Products Oat Straw Herbal Products Olive Oil Products Parsley Herbal Products Peppermint Herbal Products Pumpkin Herbal Products Red Raspberry Herbal Products Thyme Herbal Products Witch Hazel Herbal Products
SKIN CARE CONSIDERATIONS
Selecting good skin care products can be confusing. You should seek out products containing natural ingredients and avoid those that contain petroleum, mineral oil, or any hydrogenated oils. Do not use any product if you have allergic sensitivities to that product. Some good ingredients to look for in skin care products include the following:
SKIN CARE INGREDIENTS
ALLANTOIN & COMFREY
Comfrey, an herb that aids healing and soothes chapped, irritated, or blemished skin. Comfrey hydrates dry skin when used topically. Allantoin, a soothing agent derived from Comfrey helps to heal wounds and to stimulate growth of healthy tissue.
Aloe Vera, which is rich in nutrients and softens the skin. Aloe Vera soothes, heals and moisturizes skin.
ALPHA-HYDROXY & ALPHA LIPOIC ACIDS
Alpha-Hydroxy Acid, natural fruit acids that encourage the shedding of dead surface skin cells and the formation of fresh, new skin cells.
Alpha Lipoic Acid is a completely natural molecule that exists inside every human cell, making it naturally present in our skin. ALA is a gentle but powerful antioxidant that is soluble in both water and fat, resulting in rapid availability to the skin. Thus, ALA promotes a healthy, youthful, glowing appearance.
Arnica, an herb with astringent and skin-soothing properties. Arnica is often used as a healing and soothing remedy for the relief of bruising and sore muscles.
Burdock, an herb that helps the body eliminate poisons from the skin. Alfalfa, Borage and Burdock are good for the hair, skin and nails.
Calendula, an herb that promotes skin cell formation and stimulates tissue growth, and also soothes and softens sensitive skin.
Chamomile, an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial herb that is good for sensitive skin.
Collagen, a protein found in healthy young skin tissue.
Cucumber, which contains amino and organic acids that cool and refresh the skin and tighten the pores.
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Essential Fatty Acids, (including linolenic, linoleic, and arachadonic acids), which smooth rough skin, protect against moisture loss, and prevent invasion by free radicals.
Ginkgo Biloba, an antioxidant that helps skin stay younger looking.
Glycerin, a soap by-product that attracts and holds moisture in the skin.
Liposomes, microscopic bubbles that deliver active ingredients deep into the skin.
Panthenol (Provitamin B-5), a nutrient that builds moisture and soothes irritation.
Retinoic Acid, a form of Vitamin A that soothes skin, promotes cell renewal, and improves circulation to the skin.
Sage, an herb with astringent properties that tones the skin.
Witch Hazel, a natural astringent that tones the skin and healing properties.
Yarrow, an astringent herb that acts as an anti-inflammatory and tightens and firms saggy skin.
Aloe Vera Herbal Products Alpha-Hydroxy Acid Supplement Products Alpha Lipoic Acid Supplement Products Arnica Herbal Products Burdock Herbal Products Calendula Herbal Products Chamomile Herbal Products Collagen Supplement Products Comfrey Herbal Products Cucumber Herbal Products Flaxseed Herbal Products Gingko Biloba Herbal Products Glycerin (Vegetable Glycerine) Products Liposomes Supplement Products Panthenol (Provitamin B-5) Retinoic Acid & Vitamin A Supplement Products Sage Herbal Products Witch Hazel Herbal Products Yarrow Herbal Products
HOME REMEDY FACIAL TREATMENTS FOR SKIN THERAPY
There are many excellent home facial treatments that can help with specific skin problems. Do not use any item that you may have allergic sensitivities. Some of the best include:
To add color to sallow skin, mash approximately 1/2 cup Strawberries in a blender and apply them to your face. Leave them on for ten minutes, then rinse with tepid water.
To alleviate puffiness in the eye area, place cool Cucumber slices over your eyes for ten minutes or more, as needed.
To cleanse the pores, rub mashed Tomato over your face.
To help protect your skin from free radical damage, add a few drops of Green Tea extract to your lotions, astringents, and other beauty products.
To moisturize your skin, mash together Grapes (a natural source of collagen and alpha-hydroxy acids) with enough Honey to make a paste, and apply the mixture to your face as a mask. Leave it in place for twenty to thirty minutes while you relax, then rinse it off.
To remove dead surface skin cells and improve skin texture, gently rub a small handful of dry short-grain Rice against your face for a few minutes. This technique has been used by Japanese women for centuries.
To soften and nourish the skin, mash half of an Avocado and apply it to your face. Leave it on until it dries, then rinse off with warm water. Avocado contains essential fatty acids and other nutrients that help prevent premature wrinkling.
To tighten and refine pores, whip up the white of an Egg with a pinch of Alum and apply it to your face as a mask. After fifteen to twenty minutes, rinse it off with lukewarm water.
Wrinkle lines from the lips toward the nose may be due to a deficiency of Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin).
Researchers studying premature aging have found that Vitamin E may help prevent wrinkling.
Hyaluronic Acid Chemical Peels, used by many dermatologists and skin care professionals, trigger collagen production deep underneath the skin by destroying the upper layer of skin cells. The new collagen produced helps to improve elasticity and give the skin a more youthful look. Chemical peels can irritate the skin, and they can also cause sun sensitivity.
Alpha-Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) are acids derived from various fruits that act in much the same way, but they are natural, less irritating to the skin, and do not produce sun sensitivity. Glycolic Acid (the best for exfoliation), Tartaric Acid, Citric Acid, and Malic Acid are all AHAs. While these are gentler than chemical peels, they still can irritate sensitive or fair skin.
Ester-C Gel with Vitamin E in a skin recovery complex is a good product that combines Esterified Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Borage Oil, Green Tea Extract, and herbs that help repair dull, aging, and sun-damaged skin.
Dermatologists are constantly searching for ways to prevent or treat wrinkles. Health care providers perform a wide range of treatments for wrinkles, including facial peels; cosmetic skin surgery; laser resurfacing; local injections with purified botulinum toxin (Botox), collagen injections, or new soft-tissue fillers such as Hyaluronic Acid (Restylane); and fat transfers, to name a few. Many, if not all, of these treatments can cause unpleasant side effects. If you are considering medical treatment for this condition, do plenty of research and discuss your options with a qualified dermatologist. The heirloom French Charentais Melon extract has been used in skin care products to help keep skin youthful in appearance.
DIETARY & LIFESTYLE RECOMMENDATIONS
Eat a well-balanced diet that includes many and varied fruits and vegetables, preferably raw, to provide your skin with the nutrients it needs. Also eat whole grains, seeds, nuts, and legumes.
Drink at least 2 quarts of water every day, even if you do not feel thirsty. This helps to keep the skin hydrated and to flush away toxins, discouraging the formation of wrinkles.
Obtain Essential Fatty Acids from cold-pressed vegetable oils. Avoid saturated and animal fats.
Do not smoke, and avoid alcohol and caffeine. All of these substances dry out the skin, making it more vulnerable to wrinkling. In addition, the smoking habit means pursing one's lips hundreds of times each day. The creases that form when you inhale from a cigarette often develop into wrinkles at a comparatively early age.
No matter what your age or skin type, protect yourself from the sun. Always apply a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15 to all exposed areas of skin, especially your face, regardless of the season or the weather. Sun exposure is the single greatest source of skin damage.
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Sunburn
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Skin Cancer
Get regular exercise. Like other organs of the body, skin gets its nourishment from the bloodstream. Exercise increases the circulation of blood to the skin.
Exercise your face. Sit in a chair and extend your jaw in an exaggerated chewing motion. Stretch the muscles under your chin and the front of your neck. Lying on a slant board for fifteen minutes a day is also good to briefly reverse the force of gravity.
Avoid alcohol-based toning products. Use Witch Hazel or an herbal/floral water instead.
Pay attention to your facial expressions. If you find yourself squinting, raising your eyebrows, or making some other potentially wrinkle-producing expression over and over again, you can make a conscious effort to stop. If you must make facial expressions, it is always better to have smile lines than frown lines around your mouth. So smile and laugh frequently.
Practice good skin care and keep your skin well lubricated, especially if it is dry.
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Dry Skin
Avoid using harsh soaps or solid cleansing creams such as cold cream on your face. Use natural oils such as Avocado Oil instead to remove dirt and old makeup. Apply it gently to your face and rinse it off with warm water. Use a facial sponge or loofah several times a week to remove dead, dry skin cells and stimulate circulation.
After cleansing your skin, apply a moisturizing lotion, preferably while the skin is still damp. A non-greasy Vitamin A moisturizing gel is a good moisturizer that is quickly absorbed and diminishes the appearance of fine lines.
Open a capsule of ACES plus Zinc (Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Zinc) and add the contents to your moisturizing cream before applying. This will help protect the skin from free radical damage. Do the same with your sunscreen.
Do not apply heavy oils around the eye area before going to bed. This may cause eyes to be puffy in the morning.
Limit your use of cosmetics, and choose the ones you do use carefully. Do not share your cosmetics, and replace them every three months.
Unless otherwise specified, the following recommended doses are for adults over the age of 18. For children between the ages of 12 and 17, reduce the dose to 3/4 the recommended amount. For children between the ages of 6 and 12 years old, reduce the dose to 1/2 the recommended amount. For children under 6 years old, use 1/4 the recommended amount.
NUTRIENTS Supplement Suggested Dosage Comments Very Important Methylsulfonylmethane
As directed on label. A powerful cancer prevention agent. MSM has been shown to prevent wrinkles and may be used as a lotion and internal supplement. Essential Fatty Acids
1,000 mg 3 times daily or as directed on label. Essential fatty acids and linolic acid are good healers of the skin tissue, for dermatitis, acne, and most other skin disorders. Use oils containing linoleic acid, which is needed by the skin. Vitamin A 25,000 IU daily for 3 months, then reduce to 15,000 IU daily. If you are pregnant, do not exceed 10,000 IU daily. Necessary for healing and repair of damaged skin tissue. Needed for the development and construction of new skin tissue. Beta Carotene & Carotene Complex As directed on label. Antioxidants and Vitamin A precursors Vitamin B-Complex As directed on label. Anti-stress and anti-aging vitamins. Sublingual forms are best. Plus Extra
1,000 to 2,000 mcg daily. Anti-stress and anti-aging vitamins. Sublingual forms are best. Important Kelp 1,000 to 1,500 mg daily. Supplies balanced minerals needed for good skin tone. Selenium 200 mcg daily. If you are pregnant, do not exceed 40 mcg daily. An antioxidant that works synergistically with Vitamin E. Silica
As directed on label. Important for skin strength and elasticity. Stimulates collagen formation. Topical Vitamin C As directed on label. Apply topically to the face after washing and before applying moisturizer for best absorption. Studies have shown that applying Vitamin C topically promotes collagen production, improves skin tone, and can slightly reduce the appearance of wrinkles. Vitamin C
3,000 to 5,000 mg daily, in divided doses. Necessary for the formation of collagen, a protein that gives the skin its flexibility. Also fights free radicals and strengthens capillaries that feed the skin. Vitamin E Start with 200 to 400 IU daily and increase slowly to 800 IU daily. Protects against free radicals that can damage the skin and contribute to aging. Use d-alpha-tocopherol form. Zinc
Zinc: 50 mg daily. Do not exceed a total of 100 mg Zinc.
Copper: 3 mg daily.
Zinc is needed for tissue strength and repair. Use zinc gluconate lozenges or OptiZinc for best absorption. Copper is needed for collagen production and healthy skin and collagen repair. Also needed to balance with Zinc. Skin Care Antioxidants As directed on label. Protects the skin from free radical damage. Alpha Lipoic Acid, DMAE, Vitamin C, Ester & Tocotrienol provide an all natural antioxidant program for skin protection and repair. Aloe Vera Apply pure Aloe Vera gel to dry skin as directed on the product label. Soothing, healing and moisturizing properties for the skin. Calcium 1,500 mg daily. Calcium deficiency contributes to fragility of skin. Needed for skin strength and repair. Magnesium 750 mg daily. Needed to balance with Calcium. Collagen Cream Apply topically as directed on label. Good for very dry skin. A nourishing cream. Elastin Cream Apply topically as directed on label. Helps smooth existing wrinkles. Prevents formation of new ones. Flaxseed Oil 1,000 mg daily or 1 teaspoon daily or as directed on the label. To supply needed essential fatty acids. GH3 Cream Apply topically as directed on label. Excellent for the prevention of wrinkles. Also good for any discoloration of the skin. Glucosamine Sulfate
As directed on label. Important for the formation of healthy skin and connective tissue. Grape Seed Extract As directed on label. An antioxidant that protects the skin from damage. Herpanacine As directed on label. Contains antioxidants, amino acids, and herbs that promote skin health. Pycnogenol As directed on label. A free radical scavenger that also strengthens collagen. Super Oxide Dismutase
As directed on label. A free radical destroyer. Good for brown age spots. Tretinoin (Retin-A) As prescribed by a health care provider. Removes fine lines and smoothes out wrinkles. Also excellent for age spots, precancerous lesions, and sun-damaged skin. Available by prescripiton. Takes about 6 months to show results. Vitamin D 400 IU daily. Deficiency can contribute to aging of the skin.
NOTIFY YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER
If you want further information about the various medical procedures available that may help you to treat wrinkling of skin. If you have any pain, swelling, inflammation or other signs of infection of skin tissue. If you have any unexpected or unusual symptoms. Some people may have sensitivity, allergies, or other health conditions which would prevent them from using certain cosmetics, lotions, creams, herbs or other products and/or treatments. If you have reactions to any product, herb, or treatment, immediately discontinue treatment and consult with your health care provider or dermatologist.
SKIN CARE RELATED LINKS & HELPFUL INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Skin Cancer
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Sunburn
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Dehydration
MoonDragon's Health Therapy: Pain Control
American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, Inc.
444 East Algonquin Road
Arlington Heights, IL 60005
This group offers educational materials on choosing a qualified surgeon and referral listings of plastic surgeons. They will also verify the credentials of a plastic surgeon.
American Academy of Dermatology & American Society for Dermatologic Surgery
930 E. Woodfield Rd.
Schaumburg, IL 60168-4014
Or to locate a dermatologist: 888-462-3376
Website: www.aad.org and www.asds-net.org
FDA Office of Consumer Affairs
Office of Cosmetics and Colors
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
5100 Paint Branch Parkway
College Park, MD 20740-3835
The Food and Drug Association (FDA) offers relatively good, mostly reliable information on a number of skin products and cosmetic procedures.
The Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the UV Index.
The UV index ranges from 1 to 10+; the higher the index number the greater the exposure to UV rays. This index is valid for about a 30-mile radius around the city from which the broadcast originates. Currently, the computation of the UV Index does not include the effects of variable surface reflection (e.g., sand, water, or snow), atmospheric pollutants, or haze.
Society of Cosmetic Chemists
120 Wall St., Suite 2400
New York, NY 10005-4088
American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
11081 Winners Circle, Suite 200
Los Alamitos, CA 90720
American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery Inc.
2404 Stewart Square
Wausau, WI 54401
The following two companies offer sun-protective clothing. Other companies also offer similar products.
Sun Precautions, Inc.
2815 Wetmore Avenue
Everett, Washington 98201
For a catalog phone: 800-882-7860
Sun Protective Clothing
598 Norris Court
Kingston, Ontario K7P 2R9
Phone: 613-384-3230 or 800-353-8778
Heather Kleinman's Cosmetic Connection. A site for objective reviews of skin care products.
National Association of Physicians for the Environment
WRINKLES & SKIN CARE SUPPLEMENTS & PRODUCTS
Information, supplements and products on wrinkles on the skin, face and lips. Products are included that will help protect the skin from skin damage by overexposure to UV radiation.
Acerola Vera Herbal Products Alfalfa Herbal Products Aloe Vera Herbal Products Alpha-Hydroxy Acid Supplement Products Alpha Lipoic Acid Supplement Products Antioxidant Supplement Products Arnica Herbal Products Barley Grass Herbal Products Beeswax Products Beta Carotene Supplement Products Bioflavonoid Supplement Products Black Currant Herbal Products Black Salve Ointment Products Black Tea Herbal Products Borage Herbal Products Burdock Herbal Products Calcium Supplement Products Calendula Herbal Products Carotene Complex Supplement Products Chamomile Herbal Products Cocoa Butter Herbal Products Coconut Oil Herbal Products Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10) Products Collagen Supplement Products Comfrey Herbal Products Copper Supplement Products Cranberry Herbal Products Cucumber Herbal Products Elastin Supplement Products Emu Oil Products Essential Fatty Acid Supplement Products Evening Primrose Herbal Products Flaxseed Herbal Products Flaxseed Oil Herbal Products GH3 / GH9 Supplement Products Ginger Herbal Products Gingko Biloba Herbal Products Glucosamine Supplement Products Glycerin (Vegetable) Products Grape Seed Herbal Products Green Tea Herbal Products
Herpanacine Supplement Products Honey Products Horsetail) Herbal Products Kelp Seaweed Herbal Products Lavender Herbal Products Lemongrass Herbal Products Lemon Essential Oil Products Lemon Herbal Products Liposomes Supplement Products Magnesium Supplement Products Milk Thistle Herbal Products MSM Supplement Products NAG Supplement Products Oat Straw Herbal Products Olive Oil Herbal Products Parsley Herbal Products Peppermint Herbal Products Pumpkin Herbal Products Red Raspberry Herbal Products Pycnogenol Supplement Products Retin-A Supplement Products Retinoic Acid Products Sage Herbal Products Selenium Supplement Products Silica Supplement Products Skin Care Supplement Products SOD Supplement Products Thyme Herbal Products Vitamin A Supplement Products Vitamin B-2 Supplement Products Panthenol (Provitamin B-5) Products Vitamin B-12 Supplement Products Vitamin B-Complex Products Vitamin C Supplement Products Vitamin D Supplement Products Vitamin E Supplement Products Vitamin K Supplement Products Witch Hazel Herbal Products Yarrow Herbal Products Zinc Supplement Products
QUALITY SUPPLIES & PRODUCTS
FTC Advertising & Affilate Disclosure: This website has an affiliate relationship with certain merchants selling products and we recieve commissions from those sales to help support this website. Any products listed here are not listed by any rating system. We do not rate any product or post any feedback about products listed here. We leave this to the individual merchants to provide. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit. All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual.
LIPOSOMES SKIN CARE PRODUCTS
HerbsPro: Alpha Lipoic Acid Night Cream With DMAE & Vitamin C, Reviva Labs, 0.25 oz (12 Pack)
Reviva Labs now offers a new answer to helping firm, tighten and lift skin with DMAE as Alpha Lipoic Acid and Vitamin C Ester fight free radicals and future skin aging. As a special Reviva boost, this dramatic trio is encased in a soy liposome for deeper, time release action during the night. Allantoin and Aloe Vera are added to soothe and calm stressed skin, contributing to a healthy, vibrant glow. For supple, more youthful skin.
HerbsPro: Dermo-Expertise Eye Defense Gel, LOreal, 0.5 oz.
Recommended for all skin types. A light, non-greasy gel cream is specially formulated to defend against signs of premature aging around the eyes. Liposomes penetrate the skin's surface to deliver hydrating and nurturing ingredients. Reduces puffiness, smoothes fine lines and wrinkles. Diminishes dark circles. Dermatologically tested for gentleness. Safe for contact lens wearers. Opthalmologist tested and fragrance free.
HerbsPro: A/B Hydroxy Night Rejuvenator, Earth Science, 1 oz.
Beta-Ginseng A/B Hydroxy Acid Rejuvenator is a time-released formula specifically designed for relieving existing wrinkles and contains alpha and beta hydroxyacids, antioxidants and ceramides to rejuvenate and smooth skin without irritation. Beta-Ginseng A/B Hydroxy Acid Rejuvenator is specifically for relieving existing wrinkles. A high concentration of Alpha and Beta Hydroxy Acids rejuvenate skin without irritation. This is accomplished by time-releasing the acids in a mixture of anti-irritant Polyprepolymer-2 and by encapsulating them in Liposomes for complete delivery into the deeper skin layers. The slower diffusion creates much less irritation and better penetration of the acids. Powerful anti-oxidants help protect from further aging and rich plant-derived Ceramides replace lost skin lipids for smoother, more moist skin.
HerbsPro: System Absolute Day Cream, Annemarie Borlind, 1.7 fl. oz.
The Annemarie Borlind system absoluteDay Cream is a special day cream for mature skin which has a tendency to form wrinkles. The main purpose of a day cream is to protect the skin against negative environmental factors. Today, the main negative influences are ,attack by free radicals and the strong tendency of the skin to dry out due to factors like heat and air-conditioning. . Liposomes and nanoparticles in the Annemarie Borlind system absolute Day Cream provide the skin with precious natural active substances that penetrate into the deeper layers of the epidermis.
HerbsPro: Rose Dew Day Cream, Annemarie Borlind, 1.7 fl. oz.
A special day cream for the mature skin that has a tendency to form wrinkles. Liposomes and nanoparticles provide the skin with precious natural active substances that penetrate into the deeper layers of the epidermis. Contains UV protection. Helps avoid free radical damage.
HerbsPro: Green Tea Moisturizer, Jason Natural Products, 4 fl. oz.
Tea Time Moisturizing Creme is fortified with green tea, grape seed, SOD, beta-carotene and vitamins A, C and E to relieve free radical damage and promote younger looking and softer skin. Jason Natural Cosmetics Tea Time. Super Anti-Oxidant Youth Enhancing, Anti-Aging Moisturizing Creme. Enriched with Liposomes that carry Grape Seed Extract, S.O.D., Beta-Carotene and Pro-Vitamins A, C & E right to where your skin needs them. Goodbye free-radical damage, hello to younger-looking, softer-feeling skin. Results are noticeable in just three weeks. 100% Certified Green Tea Extract Standardized.
HerbsPro: Celadrin Topical Liposome Lotion, Now Foods, 4 oz.
Topical liposome lotion with natural menthol plus MSM and Arnica helps to relieve joint discomfort.
HerbsPro: Almond-Aloe Facial Moisturizer, Earth Science, Regular Formula, 5 fl. oz.
The perfect facial moisturizer. Ultra-light, non-greasy and can be worn night or day, and under make-up. Helps avoid premature ageing and wrinkling due to dry skin or sun, with tocopherol, beta-carotene, aloe, soya sterols and a unique sunscreen. Helps protect against the ravaging effects of wind and pollution and strengthens the skin's own ability to moisturize and defend itself. This non-greasy formula has a pH of 5.2. SPF 15.
HerbsPro: Almond-Aloe Facial Moisturizer, Earth Science, Unscented Formula, 5 fl. oz.
Almond-Aloe Facial Moisturizer with Beta-Liposomes Fragrance Free Formula lightly hydrates skin, protects against the sunís harmful rays, and helps avoid premature aging. Light and silky. Sun protective moisturizer. Beta Liposomes are nature's high tech skin softeners, soothers and moisturizers. In addition, they dramatically increase absorption of other soothers and moisturizers into your skin. These Liposomes, combined with Beta-Carotene, herbal moisturizers and a PABA free sunscreen, help protect skin from signs of premature aging and wrinkling due to dry skin and sun exposure. Almond-Aloe also contains Alpha-hydroxy Acids to improve wrinkled areas. Non-irritating, non-greasy, non-comedogenic formula, pH 5.0.
HerbsPro: Glucosamine MSM & Arnica Liposome Lotion, Now Foods, 8 oz.
Liposome delivery system aids in maintaining skin health. Supports joints and cartilage. Paraben free.
HerbsPro: MSM Liposome Lotion, Now Foods, 8 fl oz.
Fast acting liposome lotion for healthy cartilage. GMP quality assured, joint sulfur liposome delivery system.
Amazon: Lipsomes Supplement Products
Amazon: Liposome Skin Care Products
Amazon: Lypo-Spheric Vitamin C, LivOn Labs, 0.2 fl. oz. (30 Packets)
Perfect Vitamin C support to help maintain a healthy immune system. Can assist with muscle repair for those with active lifestyles. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that can help protect cells from the damage caused by harmful freeradicals. Vitamin C supports collagen production for healthier, firmer skin.Most ordinary forms of oral Vitamin C, tablets, capsules, powders, liquids and even Vitamin C from your diet, are not processed and absorbed efficiently by your body. As a result, much of this Vitamin C is never transferred into your bloodstream and even less of it makes it into your cells. When you take 1,000 milligrams or more of regular oral Vitamin C, more than half of it is passed as waste by your body. Lypo Spheric products use liposomes made from Essential Phospholipids to maximize absorption. Phospholipids are primary building blocks of the cellular membrane: the thin, protective wall around each cell in your body. The phospholipid wall functions as a skin for each cell, keeping things in or out. While your body can make some phospholipid compounds on its own, others must be supplied by your diet. These are called essential phospholipids. Lypo Spheric Vitamin C gives you 1,000 milligrams of Vitamin C and 1,000 milligrams of Essential Phospholipids in each packet, including Phosphatidylcholine, an important phospholipid required for maintaining a healthy cardiovascular, reproductive, immune, and nervous system.
Amazon: Liposomal Serum, Osmosis Stem Factor, 1 oz.
Over 150 different skin growth factors derived from adult stem cells create this magical serum that improves all aspects of skin aging and skin damage. Advanced technology utilizing exosomes that encapsulate the growth factors and proteins increasing penetration, stability and activating more receptors to enhance results. It gently restores the repair process and stimulates new cells to build collagen and elastin, heal hyperpigmentation and reverse aging. Advanced technology utilizing exosomes that encapsulate the growth factors and proteins increasing penetration, stability and activating more receptors to enhance results. Gluten-free.
Amazon: Natural Progesterone Lipsomal Skin Cream With Lavender, Now Foods, 3 oz.
Liposomal skin cream with calming lavender for women seeking a gentle natural hormone solution, a natural progesterone cream with Wild Yam and balancing herbs to support hormone levels. Each pump contains 20 mg of natural USP progesterone. No artificial colors or fragrances. Paraben free, gluten free, vegan and non-GMO. Use 1 full pump dispenses about 1.3 grams of cream. This container yields approximately 65 pumps. Rotate application between abdomen, hands and thighs. Use once or twice daily. For external use only. Other ingredients include water (aqua), organic aloe barbadensis leaf juice, glyceryl stearate SE, glycerin, stearic acid (vegetable source), cetearyl alcohol, caprylic/capric triglyceride, helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil, simmondsia chinensis (jojoba) seed oil, cetearyl alcohol & cetearyl glycoside, natural progesterone (USP grade), glucose & lactoperoxides & glucose oxidase (natural preservative), natural aroma blend or organic Lavender (lavandula angustifolia) oil, natural vanilla fragrance, Chamomile (anthemis nobilis) flower oil, Bergamot (citrus aurantium bergamia) fruit oil, Rosemary (rosmarinus officinalis) leaf extract, xanthan gum, potassium sorbate, panthenol, retinyl palmitate (Vitamin A), soy-free tocopherol (Vitamin E), Sarsaparilla (smilax aristolochiaefolia) root extract, Dong Quai (angelica polymorpha sinensis) root extract, Saw Palmetto (serenoa serrulata) fruit extract, chamomilla recutita (matricaria) flower extract, and citric acid.
Nutrition Basics: Skin Care Supplement Products
RETIN-A / RETINOL / RETINOIC ACID RELATED PRODUCTS
Retin-A Gel, Cream and Liquid, containing tretinoin are used for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. This is considered a prescription medication marketed by Ortho Dermatologics. Retin-A Gel contains tretinoin (retinoic acid, vitamin A acid) in either of two strengths, 0.025% or 0.01% by weight, in a gel vehicle of butylated hydroxytoluene, hydroxypropyl cellulose and alcohol (denatured with tert-butyl alcohol and brucine sulfate) 90% w/w. Retin-A (tretinoin) Cream contains tretinoin in either of three strengths, 0.1%, 0.05%, or 0.025% by weight, in a hydrophilic cream vehicle of stearic acid, isopropyl myristate, polyoxyl 40 stearate, stearyl alcohol, xanthan gum, sorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, and purified water. Retin-A Liquid contains tretinoin 0.05% by weight, polyethylene glycol 400, butylated hydroxytoluene and alcohol (denatured with tert-butyl alcohol and brucine sulfate) 55%. For more information about this product, see this link: DailyMed: Current Medication Information For Retin-A (Tritinoin) Products. Items listed below are OTC products used for skin care.
HerbsPro: Retinol A 1-Percent Roll-On, Life-Flo, 7 ml.
HerbsPro: Retinol A 1-Percent, Life-Flo, 3 X 7 ml.
HerbsPro: Retinol Lip Conditioner, Life-Flo, 0.15 oz.
HerbsPro: Retinol Lip Conditioner, Life-Flo, 4 X 0.15 oz.
HerbsPro: Retinol Lip Conditioner, Life-Flo, 90 X 0.15 oz.
HerbsPro: Retinol Lip Conditioner, Life-Flo, 150 X 0.15 oz.
HerbsPro: Retinol A 1% Oil, Life-Flo, 3 X 1 oz.
HerbsPro: Retinol A 1% Oil, Life-Flo, 6 X 1 oz.
HerbsPro: Super Retinol Cream, Slow Release, Skin By Ann Webb, 3 X 1 oz.
Helps skin regeneration, anti-aging peptides, meadowfoam, hyaluronic, paraben free, vegan, phthalate free.
HerbsPro: Super Retinol Cream, Slow Release, Skin By Ann Webb, 6 X 1 oz.
Helps skin regeneration, anti-aging peptides, meadowfoam, hyaluronic, paraben free, vegan, phthalate free.
HerbsPro: Super Retinol Cream, Slow Release, Skin By Ann Webb, 12 X 1 oz.
Helps skin regeneration, anti-aging peptides, meadowfoam, hyaluronic, paraben free, vegan, phthalate free.
HerbsPro: Retinol Cream 1% Citrus, Allvia, 3 X 1.7 oz.
HerbsPro: Retinol Cream 1% Citrus, Allvia, 6 X 1.7 oz.
HerbsPro: Retinol A 1% Advanced Revitalization Cream, Life-Flo, 1.7 oz.
Retinol A 1% cream delivers a high concentration of retinol to moisturize the skin and to diminish the appearance of fine lines wrinkles and skin irregularities. Formulated with Green Tea, Vitamin E and Vitamin C to focus on intensive moisturizing and softening of the skin. Leaves skin moisturized, toned and refined. Formulated to defy the visible signs of aging. Non-greasy and formulated for excellent absorption. Discover natural anti-aging with Retinol A 1% cream. Apply a pea-sized amount of cream to cleansed, dry skin. If skin is sensitive, limit use to twice a week, and increase frequency gradually to every other night, and finally to each night if tolerated. Keep away from the corners of the nose, mouth, and eyes. A tingling sensation when applied is expected.
HerbsPro: Retinol A 1% Advanced Revitalization Cream, Citrus, Life-Flo, 3 X 1.7 oz.
Ingredients that focus on intensive moisturizing and softening of the skin. No animal testing. Radiant skin.
HerbsPro: Retinol A 1% Advanced Revitalization Cream, Citrus, Life-Flo, 6 X 1.7 oz.
Ingredients that focus on intensive moisturizing and softening of the skin. No animal testing. Radiant skin.
HerbsPro: Hydrating Reginol Night Cream, White Egret, 2 oz.
HerbsPro: Retinol & Green Tea Advanced Renewal Creme, Derma-E, 2 oz.
Retinol & Green Tea Advanced Renewal Creme (Vitamin A) is one of the most effective natural exfoliants used for skin cell renewal. It will help diminish the appearance of fine lines, crows feet, and wrinkles. Green Tea is a powerful anti-oxidant and helps protect cells at all levels from free radical damage. Green Tea is also anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and is especially beneficial for sun damaged skin. Daily application of this unique blend will leave the skin more toned, refined and the visibility of skin irregularities will be diminished. No animal testing. No artificial color or synthetic perfumes.
HerbsPro: Age Defying Anti-Wrinkle Night Cream, Olay, 2 oz.
Renews skins appearance at night when it needs it most while visibly reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Skin looks younger, smoother, and overall firmer. Replenish skin's moisture overnight. With pro-retinol and beta-hydroxy - A wrinkle fighting formula that works deep within the skin's surface to significantly reduce the appearance of fine lines. Intense moisture with Vitamin E replenishes skin without added oil, leaving skin soft and smooth. Dermatologist tested.
HerbsPro: Timeless Skin Ultra Moisturizer Skin Cream, World Organics, 2 oz.
Timeless Skin is an ultra moisturizer body lube for beautiful and hydrated skin. Timeless skin cream is a high potency cream for wrinkles that contains 1-percent each of Alpha Lipoic Acid, Ascorbyl Palmitate, DMAE, Aloe Vera gel, plus high potencies of Vitamin E, Retinyl Palmitate, Green Tea Extract, Capric Acid and all 72 trace minerals of the earth. It helps you defend against damaging free radicals with the latest in scientific research.
HerbsPro: Goji Berry Facial Cream, Home Health, 4 oz.
Anti-Aging hydration formula with hyaluronic acid, retinol & organic botanicals. Fragrance and paraben free.
HerbsPro: Vitamin A Retinyl Palmitate, Thompson, 10,000 IU, 30 Softgels
Vitamin A is intended to provide nutritive support for healthy skin, bones, teeth and eyesight. It also supports normal bone and hair synthesis, and a healthy reproductive system.
HerbsPro: Vitamin A Retinyl Palmitate, Thompson, 10,000 IU, 12 X 30 Softgels
Vitamin A is intended to provide nutritive support for healthy skin, bones, teeth and eyesight. It also supports normal bone and hair synthesis, and a healthy reproductive system.
HerbsPro: Vitamin A, Sundown Naturals, 10,000 IU, 100 Caps
Vitamin A is essential for good vision, healthy hair and skin, from retinyl palmitate and fish liver oil. Guaranteed quality, laboratory tested vitamin supplement.
Amazon: Retinol Beauty & Personal Care Products
Amazon: Botanic Spa Retinol Gel, Botanic Choice, 1 oz. Jar
Renews skin and softens appearance of wrinkles. Reduces signs of aging by softening the appearance of wrinkles and sagging skin. Stimulates and rejuvenates skin cells. Eases redness. Reveals firmer, younger looking skin.
Amazon: Organic Night Renewal Cream, 2.5% All-Trans Encapsulated Retinol, Babyface, 1.8 oz.
High potency 2.5-percent pure all-trans retinol performs best and without irritation. Encapsulated Retinol releases a little at a time, benefiting the skin, but not shocking it into inflamed irritation. Encapsulation also preserves the potency of the Retinol molecule, ensuring it remains effective long term. Resurfaces for an even complexion and smooth skin. Shrinks pores and helps control certain types of acne. Effective for hair loss when used with Minoxidil. Paraben free, certified organic ingredients, cruelty free.
Nutrition Basics: Skin Care Information
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY
A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.