Polyps are benign (non-cancerous) growth of tissue (tumor) projecting from a mucous membrane. They are often seen in various sizes that are found on stalk-like structures growing from the epithelial lining of the large intestine (colon), small intestine, cervix, uterus, stomach, urinary bladder, nose, and other body structures. If it is attached to the surface by a narrow elongated stalk it is said to be pedunculated. If no stalk is present it is said to be sessile. They are most common in the rectum and sigmoid colon, and usually occur in groups.
COLON & RECTAL POLYPS
Most polyps of the colon and/or rectum cause no symptoms at all and are discovered only during routine physical examinations that include examination of the colon, or during examination or treatment of other disorders. If they are very large, however, they may cause rectal bleeding, cramping, or abdominal pain. The relationship between polyps and cancer is not fully understood. Some health care providers believe most colon cancers begin as polyps. However, most polyps probably do not turn into cancer. On the other hand, it is true that many people who have a cancerous growth in the colon also have multiple polyps surrounding that growth, and it does appear that the larger a polyp grows, the greater the chance that it will become malignant.
Familial polyposis is a hereditary disease in which large numbers of growths (100 or more) develop in the colon. If removed, they grow back. Rectal bleeding and mucous drainage are common symptoms. This disorder is more closely linked to cancer than ordinary polyps are; unless it is treated, it virtually always leads to colon cancer.
Inherited Polyposis Syndromes:
- Familial adenomatous polyposis. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a group of rare inherited disorders of the gastrointestinal system. Initially it is characterized by benign growths (adenomatous polyps) in the mucous lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include diarrhea, bleeding from the end portion of the large intestine (rectum), fatigue, abdominal pain, and weight loss. If left untreated, affected individuals usually develop cancer of the colon and/or rectum. Familial adenomatous polyposis is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
- Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by intestinal hamartomatous polyps in association with mucocutaneous melanocytic macules. Although the intestinal lesions are hamartomas, patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome have a 15-fold increased risk of developing intestinal cancer compared to that of the general population. Cancer location includes gastrointestinal and extraintestinal sites. The gastrointestinal polyps found in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome are typical hamartomas. Their histology is characterized by extensive smooth muscle arborization throughout the polyp. This may give the lesion the appearance of pseudoinvasion, because some of the epithelial cells, usually from benign glands, are surrounded by the smooth muscle. Nevertheless, cancer may develop in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with a higher frequency than in the general population.
- Turcot syndrome. Turcot syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the association of benign growths (adenomatous polyps) in the mucous lining of the gastrointestinal tract with tumors of the central nervous system. Symptoms associated with polyp formation may include diarrhea, bleeding from the end portion of the large intestine (rectum), fatigue, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Affected individuals may also experience neurological symptoms, depending upon the type, size and location of the associated brain tumor. Some researchers believe that Turcot syndrome is a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. Others believe that it is a separate disorder. The exact cause of Turcot syndrome is not known.
- Juvenile polyposis syndrome. Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is characterized by predisposition to hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The term "juvenile" refers to the type of polyp rather than to the age of onset of polyps. Most individuals with JPS have some polyps by age 20 years; some may have only four or five polyps over their lifetime, whereas others in the same family may have more than a hundred. If the polyps are left untreated, they may cause bleeding and anemia. Most juvenile polyps are benign; however, malignant transformation can occur. Risk of GI cancers in families with JPS ranges from 9 to 50 percent. Most of this increased risk is attributed to colon cancer, but cancers of the stomach, upper GI tract, and pancreas have been reported. A combined syndrome of JPS and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) (termed JPS/HHT) may be present in 15-22 percent of individuals with an SMAD4 mutation.
- Cowden disease. Cowden disease (CD) is a rare inherited disorder of multiple hamartomas (non-cancerous tumor-like growths) and an increased risk of a number of types of cancer. CD's mode of inheritance was identified in 1972 and the alternative name of Multiple Hamartoma syndrome was suggested. It is estimated that CD affects 1 in 300,000 individuals but is underdiagnosed. Both males and females are affected by CD. Onset is usually by the late twenties. CD is caused by mutations of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 10.
- Bannayan-Zonana syndrome. This syndrome is very closely related to Cowden's syndrome with multiple hamartomas. Individuals with this syndrome frequently present with macrocephaly with developmental delay and hypotonia, which are recognized during the first few years of life. Hamartomatous growths such as intestinal polyposis, subcutaneous and visceral lipomas, and vascular malformations are common findings. Skin findings include pigmented macules of the penis. Because of recently discovered genetic findings, there is evidence that Cowden's syndrome and this disease share a common genetic abnormality. Prior to this discovery, there was no increased risk of malignancy in kindreds. However, in light of this new discovery, it has been suggested that there may be an increased risk of malignancy.
Non-inherited Polyposis Syndromes:
- Cronkhite-Canada disease. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a very rare disease with symptoms that include loss of taste, intestinal polyps, hair loss, and nail growth problems. It is difficult to treat because of malabsorption that accompanies the polyps. CCS occurs primarily in older people (the average age is 59) and it is not believed to have a genetic component. There have been fewer than 400 cases reported in the past 50 years, primarily in Japan but also in the U.S. and other countries.
Types of Colon Polyps:
- Malignant polyp. A malignant polyp is a neoplasm that contains malignant cells that have penetrated through the muscularis mucosae. Usually the term is used to describe an endoscopically resected polyp that appears benign, but on histologic analysis contains invasive carcinoma.
- Adenomatous. An adenoma is a type of polyp which is pre-malignant. These should all be removed through the endoscope. These polyps start out as small nodules on the bowel wall. As polyps grow, they may develop a stalk and look like a small mushroom.
- Hamartomatous. The term hamartoma implies a non-neoplastic tumor or tumor-like condition composed of tissue elements normally present in the particular area. In many of these syndromes, it is now recognized that hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract coexist with adenomas and that adenomas may develop within hamartomatous polyps.
- Hyperplastic. Hyperplastic (or metaplastic) polyps are usually small, pale curved elevations of the colon lining. These are very common. Although hyperplastic polyps themselves do not turn into colorectal cancer, occasionally hyperplastic polyps (particular those which are large and multiple) will contain adenomas, known as mixed hyperplastic adenomatous polyps. In these polyps, development of cancer may occur but it is very rare.
- Inflammatory. An inflammatory polyp is exactly that, a mass of inflammation projecting into the bowel from the bowel wall. An inflammatory polyp occurs in the presence of the disease, ulcerative colitis, and occasionally in Crohn's disease. These polyps have a characteristic appearance. When seen from a distance, they may look like an ordinary adenoma type polyp which should be removed as noted in this Image. When seen up close, they have a whitish surface in many places indicating exudate or pus. There may be many of these scattered throughout the entire colon. These polyps do not become malignant.
Anyone can get polyps, but certain people are more likely than others. You may have a greater chance of getting polyps if:
- You are over 50. The older you are, the more likely you are to develop polyps.
- You have had polyps before.
- Someone in your family has had polyps.
- Someone in your family has had cancer of the large intestine (colon cancer).
You may also be at risk for developing polyps if you:
- Eat a lot of fatty foods.
- Drink alcohol.
- Do not exercise.
Most small polyps do not cause or are associated with symptoms. Often, people do not know they have one until their health care provider finds it during a regular checkup or while testing them for something else. But when symptoms do occur in some people, the symptoms include:
- Bleeding from the anus (rectal bleeding). You might notice blood on your underwear or on toilet paper after you have had a bowel movement. Blood in the stool can make stool look black, or it can show up as red streaks in the stool. However, bleeding can be signs of other problems such as hemorrhoids, cancer and ulcers. If you have bleeding or find blood in your stool, you should get it checked out and find the cause.
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- Abdominal pain and fatigue.
- A change in bowel habits may occur including constipation or diarrhea that lasts more than a week. Occasionally, if a polyp is large enough to cause a bowel obstruction, there may be nausea, vomiting and severe constipation. If you have used various methods to resolve either constipation or diarrhea and they do not resolve themselves with lifestyle and dietary changes, or if you experience pain with signs of bowel obstruction, you should see your health care provider for evaluation.
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MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Constipation
Polyps are either pedunculated (attached to the intestinal wall by a stalk) or sessile (grow directly from the wall). Your health care provider can use these tests to check for polyps:
- Fecal Occult Blood Test: This is a simple test to see if there is blood in your stool.
- Digital Rectal Exam: The health care provider wears gloves and checks your rectum, the last part of the large intestine, to see if it feels normal. This test would find polyps only in the rectum, so your health care provider may need to do one of the other tests listed below to find polyps higher up in the intestine.
- Barium Enema: Your health care provider puts a liquid called barium into your rectum before taking x-rays of your large intestine. Barium makes your intestine look white in the pictures. Polyps are dark, so they are easy to see.
MoonDragon's Health Therapy: Barium Enema
- Sigmoidoscopy: With this test, your health care provider can see inside your large intestine. The practitioner puts a thin flexible tube into your rectum. The device is called a sigmoidoscope, and it has a light and a tiny video camera in it. The sigmoidoscope is used to look at the last third of your large intestine.
- Colonoscopy: This test is like sigmoidoscopy, but your health care provider looks at all of the large intestine. It usually requires sedation.
The usual treatment is to remove the polyp. Sometimes this is performed during a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy or through a surgical incision in the abdomen. Polyps can be removed during a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy involves using a wire loop that cuts the stalk of the polyp and cauterizes it to prevent bleeding. Many "defiant" polyps - large, flat, and otherwise laterally spreading adenomas - may be removed endoscopically by techniques that involve injection of fluid underneath them, to lift them and thus enable them to be taken out. These techniques, when they may be employed, are an alternative to a much-more-invasive colectomy. The polyp is then sent to the lab to be tested for cancer. If you previously have had polyps, your health care provider may want you to be tested regularly in the future.
There is not any one sure way to prevent polyps. But you might be able to lower your risk of getting them if you eat more fruits and vegetables and less fatty food, do not smoke, avoid alcohol, exercise every day and lose any excess weight. Eating more calcium and folate can also lower your risk of getting polyps. Some foods that are rich in calcium are milk, cheese, and broccoli. Some foods that are rich in folate are chickpeas, kidney beans, and spinach. Some health care providers think that aspirin might help prevent polyps. Studies are under way. See Holistic Recommendations below for more discussion.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons
85 West Algonquin Road, Suite 550
Arlington Heights, IL 60005
National Cancer Institute
Cancer Information Service
Building 31, Room 10A16
31 Center Drive, MSC 2580
Bethesda, MD 20892-2580
Phone: 1-800-422-6237 or 301-496-6631
A cervical polyp is a common benign polyp or tumor on the surface of the cervical canal. Cervical polyps are smooth, bright red in color, finger-like growths generally less than 1 cm in diameter with a spongy texture. They may be attached to the cervix by a stalk (pedunculated) and occasionally prolapse into the vagina where they can be mistaken for endometrial polyps or submucosal fibroids. They are in the passage extending from the uterus to the vagina (cervical canal), lining the inside of the cervix.
Cervical polyps often show no symptoms. Where there are symptoms, The most common symptoms a woman will notice is:
- A heavy, watery blood discharge from the vagina.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding that occurs between menstrual periods (intermenstrual bleeding).
- Abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia).
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding after menopause (post-menopausal women).
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding after douching.
- Thick white vaginal discharge (leukorrhea). Cervical polyps may be inflamed and rarely can become infected, causing vaginal discharge of yellow or white mucus.
The cause of cervical polyps is not entirely understood. The cause of cervical polyps is uncertain, but they are often associated with inflammation of the cervix. They may also occur as a result of or an abnormal response to raised levels of estrogen. Congestion or clogged blood vessels in the cervical canal may be a cause of polyps. The growth of cervical polyps may be caused by or a result of infection, injury to the cervix, or hormonal changes during pregnancy.
Cervical polyps are most common in women who have had children and peri-menopausal women. They are rare in pre-menstrual women and uncommon in post-menopausal women.
Cervical polyps almost never occur prior to the onset of menstruation at menarch and are seen in approximately 4 percent of women of reproductive age. Cervical polyps most often occur in women older than 20, most commonly in women in their 40s and 50s, who have had several pregnancies and more than one child. Additionally, cervical polyps are common during early pregnancy, presumably due to higher levels of circulating hormones. Women with diabetes also have a higher than normal chance of developing polyps.
Most cervical polyps are first discovered during a routine pelvic exam and are seen as red or purple projections from the cervical canal (cervical os). Usually only a single polyp develops, though sometimes two or three are found during an examination. A pap smear may or may not detect cervical polyps. Diagnosis can be confirmed by a cervical biopsy which will reveal the nature of the cells present.
Treatment consists of simple removal of the polyp and prognosis is generally good. They rarely return once removed.
The most common treatment is removal of the polyp during a pelvic examination. This can be done simply by gently twisting the polyp using a ring forceps, tying it tightly at the base with surgical string around the polyp and cutting it off. The remaining base of the polyp can then be removed using a laser or by electrocauterization. A solution may be applied to the base of the polyp to stop any bleeding. If the polyp is infected, an antibiotic may be prescribed. Polyps do not need to be removed unless they bleed, are very large, or have an unusual appearance.
Almost all (99 percent) of cervical polyps are non-cancerous (benign), but all polyps should be evaluated. About 1 percent of cervical polyps will show neoplastic change which may lead to cancer. They are most common in post-menstrual, pre-menopausal women who have given birth. Cervical polyps are unlikely to regrow.
Endometrial polyps or uterine polyps are growths attached to the inner lining of the uterus and protruding into the uterine cavity. The overgrowth of cells in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) leads to the formation of uterine polyps. They may have a large flat base (sessile) or be attached to the uterus by a thin stalk known as an elongated pedicle (pedunculated). Pedunculated polyps are more common than sessile ones. The sizes of uterine polyps range from a few millimeters (no larger than a sesame seed) to several centimeters (golf ball sized or larger). If pedunculated, they can protrude through the cervix into the vagina. Small blood vessels may be present, particularly in large polyps.
You can have one or many uterine polyps. They usually stay contained within your uterus, but occasionally, they may slip down through the opening of the uterus (cervix) into your vagina. Although they can happen earlier, uterine polyps most commonly occur in women in their 40s and 50s.
SYMPTOMS UTERINE POLYPS
Uterine polyps often cause no signs or symptoms. However, when symptoms do occur, they include:
- Irregular menstrual bleeding including frequent, unpredictable periods of variable length and heaviness.
- Bleeding between menstrual periods.
- Excessively heavy menstrual periods (menorrhagia).
- Vaginal bleeding after menopause.
Uterine polyps can develop in pre- or post-menopausal women. Bleeding from the blood vessels of the polyp contributes to an increase of blood loss during menstruation and blood "spotting" between menstrual periods, or after menopause. Post-menopausal women may experience only light bleeding or spotting. If the polyp protrudes through the cervix into the vagina, pain (dysmenorrhea) may result.
Endometrial polyps can be solitary or occur with others. They are round or oval and measure between a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They are usually the same red/brown color of the surrounding endometrium although large ones can appear to be a darker red. The polyps consist of dense, fibrous tissue (stroma), blood vessels and gland-like spaces lined with endometrial epithelium. If they are pedunculated, they are attached by a thin stalk (pedicle). If they are sessile, they are connected by a flat base to the uterine wall. Pedunculated polyps are more common than sessile ones.
CAUSES OF UTERINE POLYPS
Although the exact cause of endometrial or uterine polyps is unknown, hormonal factors appear to play a role. Uterine polyps are estrogen-sensitive, meaning that they respond to estrogen in the same way that the lining of your uterus (endometrium) does - growing in response to circulating estrogen.
Endometrial polyps usually occur in women in their 40s and 50s. Risk factors include:
- High blood pressure (hypertension).
- A history of cervical polyps.
- Taking tamoxifen, a drug therapy for breast cancer, or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can also increase the risk of uterine polyps. The use of an IntraUterine System containing levonorgestrel in women taking Tamoxifen may reduce the incidence of polyps.
- Endometrial polyps occur in up to 10 percent of women. It is estimated that they are present in 25 percent of women with abnormal vaginal bleeding.
If you experience irregular bleeding, bleeding between periods or bleeding after menopause, seek prompt medical attention.
TESTS & DIAGNOSIS
If your health care provider suspects that you have uterine polyps, he or she might perform one of the following tests or procedures:
- Endometrial polyps can be detected by transvaginal ultrasound (sonohysterography). A slender, wand-like device placed in your vagina sends out sound waves and creates an image of your uterus, including its interior. A related procedure, known as hysterosonography, involves having salt water (saline) injected into your uterus through a small tube (catheter) threaded through your vagina and cervix. The saline expands your uterine cavity, which gives the health care provider a clearer view of the inside of your uterus. Detection by ultrasonography can be difficult, particularly when there is endometrial hyperplasia (excessive thickening of the endometrium).
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- Hysteroscopy. Health care providers may perform a procedure called hysteroscopy to diagnose and treat uterine polyps. In a hysteroscopy, your health care provider inserts a thin, flexible, lighted telescope (hysteroscope) through your vagina and cervix into your uterus. Hysteroscopy allows your health care provider to examine the inside of your uterus and remove any polyps that are found. This eliminates the need for a follow-up procedure.
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- Curettage, also known as a dilation & curettage (D & C). Your health care provider uses a long metal instrument with a loop on the end (curet) to scrape the walls of your uterus. This may be done to collect a specimen for laboratory testing (biopsy) or to remove a polyp. Curettage may be performed on its own (blind curettage) or with the guidance of a hysteroscope. Larger polyps may be missed by curettage.
MoonDragon's ObGyn Procedures: Dilation & Curettage (D & C)
- Biopsy. Most uterine polyps are non-cancerous (benign). However, some pre-cancerous changes of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia) or uterine cancers (endometrial carcinoma) appear as uterine polyps. Your health care provider may send a tissue sample for laboratory analysis to be certain you do not have uterine cancer.
Whether uterine polyps lead to infertility remains controversial. However, if you have uterine polyps and you have been experiencing infertility, removal of the polyps might boost your fertility. In one study, infertile women who underwent surgical polyp removal (hysteroscopic polypectomy) had much higher pregnancy rates (63 percent versus 28 percent) after intrauterine insemination (IUI) than did women with uterine polyps who underwent IUI alone.
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Uterine polyps also may present an increased risk of miscarriage in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are undergoing IVF treatment and you have uterine polyps, your health care provider will probably recommend polyp removal before embryo transfer.
MoonDragon's ObGyn Pregnancy: Miscarriage
MoonDragon's ObGyn Pregnancy: Habitual Miscarriage
Possible treatments for uterine polyps include:
- Watchful waiting. Small, asymptomatic polyps may resolve on their own. Treatment is unnecessary unless you are at risk of uterine (endometrial) cancer.
- Medication. Certain hormonal medications, including progestins and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, may shrink a uterine polyp and lessen symptoms. But taking such medications is usually a short-term solution at best. Symptoms typically recur once you stop taking the medicine.
- Surgical removal (excision). Polyps can be surgically removed using curettage or hysteroscopy.
When curettage is performed, polyps may be missed. To reduce this risk, the uterus can be first explored using grasping forceps at the beginning of the curettage procedure.
If you undergo hysteroscopy, instruments inserted through the hysteroscope, the device your health care provider uses to see inside your uterus. This procedure makes it possible to cut away and remove polyps once they are identified. During hysteroscopy, the polyp can be visualized and removed through the cervix. If it is a large polyp, it can be cut into sections before each section is removed. The removed polyp may be sent to a laboratory for microscopic examination. If cancerous cells are discovered, a hysterectomy may be performed.
Hysterectomy. If closer examination reveals that a uterine polyp contains cancerous cells, surgery to remove your uterus (hysterectomy) becomes necessary. A hysterectomy would usually not be considered if cancer has been ruled out.
Whichever method is used, polyps are usually treated under general anesthetic.
MoonDragon's ObGyn Procedures: Hysteroscopy
MoonDragon's ObGyn Procedures: Dilation & Curettage (D & C)
MoonDragon's ObGyn Procedures: Hysterectomy, Abdominal
MoonDragon's ObGyn Procedures: Hysterectomy, Vaginal (With Bladder & Rectal Repair)
MoonDragon's ObGyn Procedures: Hysterectomy, Vaginal (With Ovary/Tube Removal and Repairs)
Uterine polyps, once removed, can recur. It is possible that you might need to undergo treatment more than once if you experience recurring uterine polyps.
PROGNOSIS & COMPLICATIONS
Endometrial polyps are usually benign although some may be precancerous or cancerous. About 0.5 percent of endometrial polyps contain adenocarcinoma cells. Polyps can increase the risk of miscarriage in women undergoing IVF treatment. If they develop near the fallopian tubes, they may lead to difficulty in becoming pregnant. Although treatments such as hysteroscopy usually cure the polyp concerned, recurrence of endometrial polyps is frequent. Untreated, small polyps may regress on their own.
SYMPTOMS Bladder polyps produce blood in the urine. Unless they are removed, cancer of the bladder may follow.
Bladder polyps are growths in the lining of the bladder. They may cause bleeding, but commonly they do not cause any symptoms. In some cases, bladder polyps cause painful or frequent urination. Because such growths can be cancerous, health care providers usually recommend removing them with surgery.
The cause of most benign and cancerous bladder polyps is unknown.
Risk factors include smoking and being exposed to industrial chemicals. Men are affected more often than women. Bladder cancer is unusual in adults under age 55. A parasitic infection (called Schistosomiasis) can cause bladder polyps (and an increased risk of bladder cancer) when the parasite eggs accumulate in the wall of the bladder. This infection is more common in developing countries, such as parts of Africa, South America, and the Caribbean.
TESTS & DIAGNOSIS
Bladder polyps are most commonly discovered when a person has blood in the urine. The person either sees the urine has turned red or the health care provider tests the urine and finds red blood cells.
A cystoscopy is the most useful test to detect bladder polyps. With a cystoscopy, a health care provider inserts a device through the urethra (the opening through which you urinate) into your bladder. This allows the practitioner to inspect the lining of your bladder. During a cystoscopy, the practitioner may remove a tissue sample for a biopsy or remove a polyp.
TREATMENT Benign bladder polyps may require removal to confirm they are not cancerous and to prevent bleeding or other urinary symptoms.
Early detection and treatment of cancerous bladder polyps are associated with the best outcomes. So, if you see blood in your urine, if urine tests repeatedly show microscopic amounts of blood in the urine, or if you have urinary symptoms (such as frequent or painful urination), see your health care provider for medical evaluation.
OVERVIEW Nasal polyps usually form in the back of the nose, near the openings into the sinuses. They too can bleed and interfere with normal breathing. People with hay fever and other nasal allergies are most prone to nasal polyps, as are people who overuse nose drops and nasal sprays.
It is hard to breathe, your nose drips constantly, and your sense of smell just is not what it used to be. If this sounds like you, you probably blame allergies or a chronic sinus infection. But in some cases, your signs and symptoms may be due to nasal polyps. Nasal polyps are soft, non-cancerous (benign) growths that develop on the lining of your nose or sinuses.
Small nasal polyps usually cause few problems, but larger ones can affect your breathing and diminish your sense of smell. Sometimes they may cause dull headaches or snoring, and in rare cases, massive nasal polyps can alter the shape of your face.
Nasal polyps result from chronic inflammation in the lining of your nose or sinuses, but just what triggers the inflammation is not always clear. Although nasal polyps can affect anyone, they are more common in people older than 40 and in adults and children with conditions such as asthma, chronic sinus infections, hay fever and cystic fibrosis.
Medications are the most common treatment for small nasal polyps. Surgery may be needed to remove larger growths, but polyps frequently return.
You may have a single nasal polyp or several, clustered together like grapes on a stem. The polyps are generally soft and pearl colored, with a consistency like jelly. Very small single or multiple polyps may not cause any problems, but larger ones are likely to obstruct the airways in your nose, making it difficult to breathe. This may lead to mouth breathing, especially in children.
Other signs and symptoms of nasal polyps include:
- A runny nose.
- Persistent stuffiness or nasal blockage.
- Chronic sinus infections (sinusitis).
- Loss or diminishment of your sense of smell (anosmia).
- Dull headaches from secondary infections.
Although you may think of your nose mainly in terms of its appearance, it filters, warms and moistens the air you breathe, and it transmits scent-related information to your brain. Your nose is mainly composed of bone, cartilage and mucous membrane. Each nasal cavity contains three or four bony shelves (turbinates) that curve from the outer part of your nose toward the septum - a thin, cartilage-and-bone divider that separates your nasal cavity. A thick mucous membrane covers both the turbinates and septum. This acts as a filter to remove bacteria and dirt particles, which are swept out of your nose by tiny hairs called cilia. When incoming air is cold or dry, the highly sensitive tissue that lines the turbinates swells, narrowing your nasal passages and slowing the flow of air so that it becomes warm and moist before reaching your lungs. Your nose also contains olfactory nerves that pick up scents and send the information to your brain, where the scents are identified. Without the nose-brain connection, you could not smell a baking apple pie or the ripeness of a fresh peach or a cantaloupe melon. In fact, without the olfactory nerves, you would not be able to taste those foods either because most of your ability to taste depends on your sense of smell.
Nasal polyps can develop in the mucous lining of your nose or in one or more of your sinuses - four hollow cavities above and behind your nose. But polyps are not a disease. Rather, they are the end product of ongoing inflammation that may result from viral or bacterial infections, from allergies or from an immune system response to fungus. The pathogenesis of nasal polyps is unknown. Nasal polyps are most commonly thought to be caused by allergy and rarely by cystic fibrosis although a significant number are associated with non-allergic adult asthma or no respiratory or allergic trigger that can be demonstrated. Chronic inflammation causes the blood vessels in the lining of your nose and sinuses to become more permeable, allowing water to accumulate in the cells. Over time, as gravity pulls on these waterlogged tissues, they may develop into polyps.
Nasal polyps are polypoidal masses arising mainly from the mucous membranes of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely moveable and non-tender. Nasal polyps are usually classified into antrochoanal polyps and ethmoidal polyps. Antrochoanal polyps arise from the maxillary sinuses and are much less common, ethmoidal polyps arise from the ethmoidal sinuses. Antrochoanal polyps are usually single and unilateral whereas ethmoidal polyps are multiple and bilateral.
These polyps have no relationship with colonic or uterine polyps. Irregular unilateral polyps particularly associated with pain or bleeding will require urgent investigation as they may represent an intranasal tumor.
Having a condition that causes chronic inflammation in your nose or sinuses is the greatest risk factor for nasal polyps. Children with cystic fibrosis and people with allergic fungal sinusitis, which is a serious allergy to environmental fungus, are especially likely to be affected. Nasal polyps also occur in people with Churg-Strauss syndrome, a rare disease that inflames the blood vessels (vasculitis). You are also at high risk if you have asthma, chronic hay fever or chronic sinus infections.
Other risk factors for nasal polyps include:
- Sensitivity to aspirin or NSAIDs. If you are sensitive to aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), you are more likely to develop polyps than are people who do not have this sensitivity. And if you have nasal polyps and asthma, it is important to avoid aspirin because it can cause a sudden, severe shortness of breath. Many medications, most of them available without a prescription, contain aspirin or related medications, so read labels carefully or talk to your pharmacist.
- Age. Multiple nasal polyps tend to be more common in people older than 40.
A stuffy, runny nose and diminished sense of smell are the hallmarks of nasal polyps. But they also may be signs of many other conditions, including the common cold. Colds, however, generally clear in about a week, whereas signs and symptoms of nasal polyps do not go away on their own. See your health care provider if your breathing problems and runny nose persist.
TESTS & DIAGNOSIS
To help diagnose nasal polyps, your health care provider will ask about your medical history and examine your nasal passages. Sometimes you may also have a computerized tomography (CT) scan to help determine the size and exact location of the polyps, including any polyps in your sinuses.
- If you have a young child diagnosed with multiple nasal polyps, your health care provider may suggest testing for cystic fibrosis, an inherited condition affecting the glands that produce mucus, tears, sweat, saliva and digestive juices. The standard diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis is a non-invasive sweat test, which measures the amount of sodium and chloride in your child's perspiration.
- Children who have both nasal polyps and hay fever are candidates for allergy skin testing, which can provide important information about allergic sensitivities. Allergy skin tests are not uncomfortable for most children and can usually be completed in 30 minutes or less.
A single, small nasal polyp rarely causes complications, but a large polyp or many smaller polyps (polyposis) may lead to the following:
- Acute or chronic sinus infections.
- Obstructive sleep apnea. This is a potentially serious condition in which you stop and start breathing a number of times during sleep.
- Altered facial structure leading to double vision or unusually wide-set eyes. This complication is rare and is most likely to occur in people with cystic fibrosis.
TREATMENTS & DRUGS
Nasal polyps are most often treated with steroids, topical or oral, but can also be treated with surgical methods.
If you have one or more small polyps, your health care provider is likely to prescribe a corticosteroid nasal spray such as fluticasone (Flonase), triamcinolone (Nasacort), budesonide (Rhinocort), flunisolide (Nasarel) or mometasone (Nasonex). These medications relieve inflammation, increase nasal airflow and may help shrink polyps.
Side effects of steroid nasal sprays are far less serious than are those of oral steroids, but may include nosebleeds, headache or sore throat.
Other medications for nasal polyps include:
- Oral Corticosteroids: Sometimes your health care provider may prescribe an oral corticosteroid, either alone or in combination with a nasal spray. Because oral steroids can cause serious side effects, you usually take them for a brief period, usually no longer than a few weeks.
- Medications To Control Allergies or Infection: In addition to treating your polyps, your health care provider may prescribe medications to control allergies or infection. Antihistamines, for instance, counteract histamine, an inflammatory substance released when your immune system encounters an allergen. If you have hay fever or other allergies, antihistamines may help relieve your congestion, although they will not eliminate polyps. In addition, your health care provider may prescribe antibiotics for an acute sinus infection.
- Mometasone furoate, commonly available as a nasal spray for treating common allergy symptoms, has been indicated in the United States by the FDA for the treatment of nasal polyps since December 2004.
- Anti-fungal Medications: Researchers have discovered that some cases of chronic sinusitis may be caused by an unusual immune system response to environmental fungus. For that reason, anti-fungal medications may be useful, though surgical removal of fungal debris also may be necessary.
Treatment for nasal polyps may also involve surgery. When medications are not effective, your health care provider may recommend removing your polyps. This is often the only option for people with cystic fibrosis who usually do not respond to steroids. The type of operation depends on the size, number and location of the polyps. Options for nasal polyps surgery include:
- Polypectomy: Small or isolated polyps can often be completely removed using a small mechanical suction device or a microdebrider. This is an instrument that cuts and extracts soft tissue. The procedure, called a polypectomy, is performed on an outpatient basis. After polypectomy, you will be treated for any underlying inflammation, usually with corticosteroid nasal sprays and sometimes with antibiotics or oral steroids. Even so, polyps frequently return, and you may need additional surgery.
- Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: This is a more extensive procedure that not only removes polyps, but also opens the part of the sinus cavity where polyps usually form. If your sinuses are very blocked or inflamed, your health care provider may open even more of your sinus cavity. In both cases, your surgeon uses a thin, rigid tube and a camera called a video endoscope. Because endoscopic surgery requires small incisions, you generally heal more quickly and with less discomfort than with other types of surgery. Still, full recovery may take several weeks, and polyps often return.
Pre- & post-surgical sinus rinses with a warm water (8 ounces) mixed with a small amount (a teaspoon) of salts (sodium chloride & sodium bicarbonate) can be very helpful to clear the sinuses. This method can be also used as a preventative measure to discourage the polyps from growing back and should be used in combination with a nasal steroid.
The removal of nasal polyps via surgery lasts approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour. The surgery can be done under general or local anesthesia, and the polyps are removed using endoscopic surgery. Recovery from this type of surgery is anywhere from one to three weeks.
In many cases, nasal polyps can not be prevented. But if you have asthma, hay fever or chronic sinus infections, managing your symptoms may reduce any nasal congestion or trouble breathing. That means taking medications as your health care provider suggests and avoiding, as much as possible, indoor and outdoor allergens and pollutants.
Irrigating your sinuses with salt water may help relieve mild nasal congestion and eliminate mucus. Avoid over-the-counter (OTC) saline sprays that contain additives, such as benzalkonium, which can actually inflame the mucous lining of your nose and exacerbate your symptoms. Instead, look for preservative-free saline sprays.
To make your own saline solution, mix 1/4 teaspoon salt in 8 ounces of warm water. Pour some of the solution into your cupped hand and sniff into your nostrils. You can also inject the solution using an ear bulb or syringe. Then gently clear your nose with a tissue. Use any remaining solution within 24 hours or discard.
VOCAL CORD NODULES & POLYPS
The vocal cords are the folds of mucous membrane in the larynx. The superior pair are called the false, and the inferior pair are the true vocal cords. These thin, reed-like bands vibrate to make vocal sounds during speaking and are capable of producing a vast range of sounds. One end of each cord is attached to the front wall of the larynx. The opposite ends are connected to two tiny cartilages near the back wall of the larynx.
Vocal cord nodules and polyps are small growths that develop on the vocal cords of some people. A nodule differs from a polyp in that it is a growth of the epithelium that covers the mucous membrane, not of the mucous membrane itself. Thus, it has a structural resemblance to a corn on a toe or a callus on the hand. If one has vocal cord nodules, the voice will become breathy and hoarse.
A vocal cord nodule is a small, inflammatory or fibrous growth that develops on the vocal cords of people who constantly strain or abuse their voices by such methods as repeated and prolonged episodes of screaming or improper vocal technique, especially among singers. These growths are also called screamer's nodule, singer's nodule and teacher's nodule. A vocal cord polyp is a small swelling in the mucous membranes covering the vocal cords. As they grow, they take on a rounded shape. They may run the whole length of the vocal cords or be localized.
CAUSES & RISK FACTORS
Polyps are lesions that develop from voice abuse, chronic laryngeal allergic reactions and chronic inhalation of irritants, such as industrial fumes and cigarette smoke, and often in the presence of an infection. It may also be seen in hypothyroidism. People who smoke or have allergies are more susceptible to developing polyps. Vocal cord polyps usually cause painless hoarseness.
People who use their voices a great deal, such as professional singers, teachers, auctioneers, lecturers, and members of the clergy, are prone to have nodules on their vocal cords. Like polyps, nodules may develop as a result of excessive use of the voice
it is important to rule out squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Your health care provider may recommend indirect laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords.
Treatment requires modification of voice habits, and referral to a speech therapist may be indicated. Resting the vocal cords by allowing little or no speaking for several weeks may permit the nodules to shrink. Children occasionally have screamer's voice nodules and these can be treated by voice therapy alone.
Inhaled steroid spray may be helpful. Sometimes biopsy and surgical removal are necessary. They can be removed during the course of a special examination (a laryngoscopy) in which a metal tube with a light on the end is passed through the mouth and into the throat. A small, sharp, cup-shaped punch is threaded through the tube and used to clip off the polyps. Biopsy of the polyp may be performed in order to be certain that there is no cancer. Removal of a polyp should be followed by voice therapy to correct the underlying cause.
Good preventive practices include:
- Properly use the voice to eliminate strain.
- Avoid screaming, loud shouting or yelling, and loud talking.
- Speak in a normal range that is comfortable.
- Do not whisper or speak at a higher or lower pitch than is natural.
- Release neck tension by gently tipping the head forward and to each side while keeping the shoulders down.
QUESTIONS FOR YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER
Do any tests need to be done to establish the cause?
How severe is the condition?
What is the prognosis (expected outcome)?
What treatment is recommended?
How effective is this treatment for the condition?
How long will it take for relief of symptoms?
If conservative treatment fails, is surgery necessary?
What can be done to prevent this from recurring?
Do you recommend speech therapy?
HOLISTIC & NUTRITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS
A high fiber diet with no animal fats is important. Include in your diet apricots, broccoli, brown rice, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cauliflower, garlic, oatmeal, onions, green peppers, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds, spinach, sunflower seeds, and whole grains. Fruits with edible seeds, such as figs, raspberries, strawberries, and even bananas tend to contain lots of fiber.
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Take some form of supplemental fiber daily. Barley, legumes, oat bran, psyllium husks and rice bran are good sources of fiber. Note: Always take supplemental fiber separately from other supplements and medications.
Herbal Remedies: Whole Psyllium Husks, Vegetarian, NOW Foods, 24 oz.
Herbal Remedies: Psyllium Husk Powder (Plantago Asiatica), NOW Foods, 100% Pure, Vegetarian, 12 oz.
Herbal Remedies: Psyllium Husk Powder, NOW Foods, 100% Pure Bulk Fiber, Orange Flavor, Vegetarian, 12 oz.
Herbal Remedies: Oat Bran Extract, Standardized 54% Beta Glucan, Vegetarian, Nature's Way, 60 VCaps
Herbal Remedies: Forti-Flax, 100% Certified Organic, Ground Flaxseed, Barlean's, 16 oz.
Herbal Remedies: Flax Seed Meal, Cold Pressed, NOW Foods, Certified Organic, 12 oz.
Be sure to increase your water intake when increasing your fiber consumption. If you do not, it may result in bloating, gas, pain, and constipation.
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Exclude from your diet fried foods, highly processed foods, caffeine, and alcohol. Do not use tobacco. These can irritate the linings of the stomach and colon.
Regular physical examinations are important, particularly after age 40. A digital rectal exam is easily performed in the health care provider's office and can quickly determine if there are any abnormalities along the colon wall.
If you experience rectal bleeding, or if blood appears in the stool, consult your health care provider. A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) should be done to identify the source of the blood. Bleeding can be a symptom of polyps, but it also can be a sign of cancer.
The treatment of choice for most polyps, regardless of location, is surgical removal. In most cases, this is a relatively minor procedure, often performed on an outpatient basis.
Vocal cord polyps may be treated with humidification, speech therapy, and rest. Surgical removal of the polyps may be necessary.
For familial polyposis, a surgical procedure called a colectomy (removal of the colon) may be necessary. In some cases, the rectum is left in place and connected to the small intestine to allow for bowel evacuation. However, in most cases, polyps return in the rectum.
Research has found that men with the highest consumption of saturated fat were twice as likely to develop potentially malignant polyps as men who limited their fat intake.
Aloe Vera is healing to the digestive tract. Aloe Vera juice improves digestion and cleanses the digestive tract. When Used in combination with Aerobic Bulk Cleanse (ABC) from Aerobic Life Industries, it helps to keep the colon walls clean of excess mucus and slow down food reactions. Take 1/2 cup of aloe vera juice 3 times daily, on an empty stomach.
Herbal Remedies: Aloe Vera Supplements & Products
Butcher's Broom, Cardamom, Cayenne, Cinnamon, Garcinia Cambogia, Ginger, Green Tea, and Mustard Seed are thermogenic herbs that improve digestion. Caution: Do not use cinnamon in large quantities during pregnancy.
Herbal Remedies: Butcher's Broom Supplements & Products
Herbal Remedies: Cardamom Supplements & Products
Herbal Remedies: Cayenne Supplements & Products
Herbal Remedies: Cinnamon Supplements & Products
Herbal Remedies: Ginger Supplements & Products
Herbal Remedies: Green Tea Supplements & Products
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Cascara Sagrada is a colon cleanser and laxative.
Herbal Remedies: Cascara Sagrada Supplements & Products
Coloklysis from PhysioLogics contains herbs and a blend of soluble and insoluble fiber to support healthy digestion.
Unless otherwise specified, the following recommended doses are for adults over the age of 18. For a child between 12 and 17 years, reduce the dose to 3/4 the recommended dose. For a child between 6 and 12 years old, use 1/2 the recommended dose, and for a child under 6, use 1/4 the recommended dose.
NUTRIENTS Supplement Suggested Dosage Comments Essential Multi-vitamin & Mineral Complex As directed on label. Provides a balance of necessary nutrients.
Super Multi-Vitamin & Multi-Mineral, Pure Vital Earth, 32 fl. oz. (98% Bio-Available for Absorption),
Damage Control Master Formula, High Potency, Multi-Vitamin & Mineral, 60 Packets (30 Day Supply),
Multi-Vitamin With Minerals, Hi-Tech, 90 Tabs,
Liquid Multi-Vitamin & Mineral Complex With Trace Minerals, Orange Mango, 32 fl. oz.,
Liquid Multi-Vita-Mineral, Strawberry Raspberry, Trace Minerals, 32 fl. oz.,
Multi-Vitamin & Mineral Complete, Trace Minerals, 120 Tabs,
Maxi Multi-Liquid Vitamin With Trace Minerals, 32 fl. oz.,
Alive! Whole Food Energizer, Liquid Multi-Vitamin & Trace Minerals, Citrus Flavor, Nature's Way, 30 oz.,
Hypo-Allergenic Multiple Vitamin & Mineral, Nutribiotic, 180 Caps
1,000-1,500 mg daily. Protects against colorectal polyps and colon cancer.
Calcium Ionic Mineral Supplement, Fully Absorbable, 700 +/- ppm, 16 fl. oz.,
Liquid Calcium W/ConcenTrace, Orange Vanilla, Trace Minerals, 1000 mg, 32 fl. oz.,
Cal-Mag Pre-Chelated Calcium & Magnesium, Vital Earth, 240 Gelcaps
750 mg daily. Assists in the absorption of calcium.
Magnesium Ionic Mineral Supplement, Fully Absorbable, 350 +/- ppm, 16 fl. oz.,
Just An Ounce Calcium & Magnesium Liquid, Almond Flavor, 16 fl. oz.,
Calcium & Magnesium Mineral Complex, 100% Natural, Nature's Way, 500 mg / 250 mg, 250 Caps
Vitamin A 25,000 IU daily. If you are pregnant, do not exceed 10,000 IU daily. Protects the membranous linings. Use emulsion form for easier assimilation and greater safety at high doses.
Vitamin A, 10,000 IU, 100% Natural, Nature's Way, 100 Softgels,
Vitamin A, Fish Liver Oil, NOW Foods, 25,000 IU, 250 Softgels,
Dry Vitamin A & D, Nature's Way, 15,000 IU / 400 IU, 100 Caps
15,000 IU daily.
As directed on label.
An antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A. Antioxidant and free radical scavengers.
Beta Carotene (Natural Dunaliella Salina), Nature's Way, 100% Natural, 25,000 IU, 100 Softgels,
Multi-Carotene Antioxidant, Nature's Way, 60 Softgels
Vitamin C With Bioflavonoids 5,000-10,000 mg daily, in divided doses. See Ascorbic Acid Flush. Can reduced the number of polyps, and may eliminate them altogether.
Vitamin C Liquid w/ Rose Hips & Bioflavonoids, Kosher, Natural Citrus Flavor, Dynamic Health, 1000 mg, 16 fl. oz.,
Ester C With Bioflavonoids, Nature's Way, 1000 mg, 90 Tabs,
Vitamin C 1000 With Bioflavonoids, Nature's Way, 100% Natural, 1000 mg, 250 VCaps,
The Right C, Nature's Way, 1000 mg, 120 Tabs
Very Important Vitamin E 200 IU daily or 400 IU every other day. A potent antioxidant that protects against the effects of lipid peroxidation; if deficiency occurs, cells are vulnerable to damage. Use alpha-d-tocopherol form.
Ester E Natural Vitamin E, California Natural, 400 IU, 60 Softgels,
Vitamin E, 400 IU, 100% Natural, NOW Foods, 100 Gels,
Vitamin E-1000, NOW Foods, 1000 IU, 100 Gels,
Vitamin E, d-alpha-tocopherol, 400 IU, 100 Softgels
Important Aloe Vera 1/2 cup 3 times daily, on an empty stomach. Helps keep the colon walls clean of excess mucus and slow down food reactions.
Aloe Vera Juice, Herbal Aloe Force, Organically Grown, Unprocessed Whole Raw Aloe Vera, 33.8 fl. oz.,
Aloe Vera Gel, NOW Foods, 32 oz.
Aerobic Bulk Cleanse (ABC) As directed on label. Take with Aloe Vera juice. Cleanses the colon, assisting in normal stool formation to aid in removing harmful toxins. Fiber
(Oat Bran, Psyllium, Flax Seed)
Aerobic Bulk Cleanse (ABC)
(Aerobic Life Industries)
As directed on label. Has both a healing and cleansing effect. Avoid wheat bran, as it may be too irritating.
Psyllium Husk, Nature's Way, 525 mg, 180 Caps,
Psyllium Husk Powder, NOW Foods, 100% Pure, vegetarian, 24 oz.,
Herbal Remedies: Oat Bran Extract, Standardized 54% Beta Glucan, Vegetarian, Nature's Way, 60 VCaps,
Herbal Remedies: Forti-Flax, 100% Certified Organic, Ground Flaxseed, Barlean's, 16 oz.,
Herbal Remedies: Flax Seed Meal, Cold Pressed, NOW Foods, Certified Organic, 12 oz.,
Helpful Coenzyme Q-10 60 mg daily. Enhances cellular oxygenation. An important antioxidant.
CoQ10 With Hawthorn Berry, Vegetarian Supplement, NOW Foods, 100 mg, 30 VCaps,
CoQ10, NOW Foods, 400 mg, 60 Softgels,
CoQ10, Vegetarian Coenzyme, NOW Foods, 30 mg, 60 VCaps,
CoQ10, CoEnzyme Q10, Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals, 100 mg, 60 Tabs,
CoQ10 Liquid, NOW Foods, 4 oz.,
CoQ10 Supplement, Vegetarian, Herbal Remedies USA, 100 mg, 60 Liquid VCaps
As directed on label. Works effectively with Coenzyme Q-10 to support adrenal glands and boost the immune system's detoxification of many dangerous substances.
Pantethine (Coenzyme A Precursor), Highly Active Form of Vitamin B-5, NOW Foods, 300 mg, 60 Softgels,
ConcenTrace Mineral Drops As directed on label. Normalizes electrolytes after bowel cleansing.
ConcenTrace Trace Mineral Supplement Drops, Original Flavor, Trace Minerals, 8 fl. oz.
Essential Fatty Acids As directed on label. Needed to protect mucous lining and tissues and to reduce inflammation. Improves stamina, speeds recovery, and boosts immunity.
Ultimate Oil, Essential Fatty Acids Supplement, Nature's Secret, 90 SoftGels,
Essential Fatty Acids For Baby & Children, Organic, 8 fl oz.,
Salmon Oil Capsule, NOW Foods, 120 EPA/80 DHA, 2000 mg, 250 Softgels,
Evening Primrose Oil With Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA), Barlean's, 1300 mg, 120 Softgels,
Barlean's Flax Oil, 100% Highest Lignan Content, Organic, Pesticide & Herbicide Free, 16 fl. oz.,
Barlean's Flax Oil, Highest Lignan, 1000 mg, 250 Caps
Garlic (Kyolic) 2 Capsules 3 times daily, between meals. Acts as a natural antibiotic and enhances immune factors.
Kyolic Aged Garlic Liquid Extract, Vegetarian, Wakunaga Kyolic, 4 fl. oz.,
Kyolic Aged Garlic One-Per-Day, Vegetarian, Wakunaga Kyolic, 1000 mg, 30 Caps,
Homozon - Mag O-2
As directed on label. Supplies oxygen to the intestines to cleanse the colon. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
As directed on label.
As directed on label.
An important antioxidant and free radical destroyer.
An antioxidant complex that contains SOD.
GliSODin Antioxidant Catalyst, NOW Foods, 100 mg, 90 VCaps,
POLYPS SUPPLEMENTS & PRODUCTS
Supplements and products for polyps, non-cancerous growths that develop on finger-like structures.
Alive! Whole Food Energizer, Multi-Vitamin & Mineral, With Naturally Occurring Iron (No Iron Added), Nature's Way, 90 VCaps
No other supplement contains more life-giving nutrients than Alive multi-vitamin. Alive multi-vitamin is better absorbed into your blood stream because its vegetable capsules dissolve up to 5X faster than other leading brands.
Butcher's Broom Tincture, 2 fl. oz.
Butchers Broom is a laxative and diuretic and it is also used to improve circulation problems, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, and blood clots.
CapsiCool Cayenne Supplement, Nature's Way, 390 mg, 100 Caps
CapsiCool is a special cayenne supplement that provides the benefits of Cayenne Pepper without the burning feeling and discomfort in the stomach that otherwise may be experienced.
Cayenne & Ginger Supplement, Nature's Way, 465 mg, 100 Caps
Cayenne and Ginger supplement from Nature's Way is a blood warming herb that has an invigorating effect on several body systems.
Cinnamon Tincture, 100% Organic, 1 fl. oz.
Cinnamon bark is warming to the body, an analgesic, carminative, antiseptic, and antibacterial.
Clear Head & Neck Comfort, TCM Formula, Toufengning, 100% Natural, 60 Caps
Clear Head & Neck Comfort formula is made of snidium, angelica root, notopterygium rhizome and root, asarum, siler, wild mint, schizonepeta and licorice, herbs for headache.
Stabilized Oxygen OxyDrops, Liquid Electrolytes, Sodium Chlorite Solution, 4 fl. oz.
WaterOz stabilized oxygen is the highest quality, strongest and most stable of all the liquid electrolytes of oxygen available on the market.
Vitamin A, 100% Natural, Nature's Way, 10,000 IU, 100 Softgels
Nature's Way vitamin A is 100% natural from fish liver oil. It contains no artificial ingredients or preservatives.
Vitamin C 1000 With Bioflavonoids, Nature's Way, 100% Natural, 1,000 mg, 250 VCaps
Nature's Way Vitamin C with Bioflavonoids provides antioxidant protection for many of the body's important enzyme systems.
Vitamin E, Natural D-Alpha-Tocopherol, Nature's Way, 400 IU, 100 Softgels
Vitamin E has potent antioxidant activity, supplies oxygen to the blood, aids in strengthening capillary walls, and plays a beneficial role in cancer and cardiovascular disease prevention, anti-aging benefits, circulation, wound-healing, immune function, nervous system function, PMS, hot flushes, diabetes, vascular disease, eye health, tissue repair, athletic performance, leg cramps, skin and hair health, and alleviating fatigue.
Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice, 99.7% Pure, Certified Organic, Nature's Way, 1 Liter
Nature's Way Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice offers you the rich benefits of the most potent part of the aloe plant. Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice contains an abundance of advantageous components not found in most aloe gel filler products.
Herbal Remedies: Polyps Information
Herbal Remedies: Polyps Supplements & Products
NOTIFY YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER IF...
You have abdominal pain that is not associated with changes in bowel function or that is not relieved when you pass gas or a stool.
You have abdominal pain that is now in one area (localized) more than any other area. You see blood in your stool.
If you have abnormal bleeding or other symptoms of polyps, regardless of location, or have a history of polyps and need to consult with your health care provider.
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HELPFUL PRODUCTS & FURTHER EDUCATION
Prescription for Nutritional Healing: The A-To-Z Guide To Supplements
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Prescription for Nutritional Healing: The A-To-Z Guide To Supplements
-- by Phyllis A. Balch, James F. Balch - 4th Edition
Prescription for Herbal Healing: The A-To-Z Reference To Common Disorders
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The Complete Guide to Natural Healing
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