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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Disorders

EPILEPSY
Seizure Disorders





  • Epilepsy & Seizure Disorder Description
  • Epilepsy & Seizure Disorder Frequent Signs & Symptoms
  • Epilepsy Causes
  • Epilepsy Medical Diagnosis
  • Epilepsy Conventional Medical Treatment
  • Herbal Recommendations
  • Diet, Nutrition & Lifestyle Recommendations
  • Nutritional Supplement Recommendations
  • Notify Your Health Care Provider
  • Epilepsy & Seizure Disorder Supplements & Products




  • "For Informational Use Only"
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    epileptic seizure


    EPILEPSY & SEIZURE DISORDER DESCRIPTION

    Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurring seizures. Seizures are a symptom of epilepsy, but not all people who have seizures have epilepsy. Even those that do may also have seizures that are not epileptic in nature. This seizure disorder is a temporary malfunction of the brain caused by uncontrolled abnormal electrical discharges from brain cells, often in the cerebral cortex. The seizures rarely damage the brain, but they can make life difficult. It is not a distinct disease, it is a group of disorders for which recurrent seizures are the main symptom. Different forms of epilepsy are either secondary to a particular brain abnormality or neurological disorder, or are said to be "idiopathic," without any clear cause. For about 80-percent of those diagnosed, seizures can be controlled with medication and surgical techniques. The other 20-percent continue to have seizures despite treatment. This is called intractable epilepsy.

    Normally, nerve transmission in the brain occurs in an orderly way, allowing a smooth flow of electrical activity. A seizure occurs when these neurons generate uncoordinated electrical discharges that spread throughout the brain. This can occur with both normal and abnormal nerve cells.

    THE PHYSIOLOGY OF A SEIZURE

    In order to understand the process of electrical transmission within nerve cells, it is important to review the structure and function of a nerve. A nerve cell can be thought of as a tube, having an inner section, and bounded by a cell wall (membrane). Importantly, the chemical composition of the inside of the cell and the outside of the cell are very different. Specifically, there is a difference in the concentration of sodium and potassium salts, with sodium being much higher on the outside, and potassium being much higher on the inside. In a normal resting state, special pumps (called membrane pumps) are continually at work to maintain each salt in its proper location.

    When a nerve is called upon to transmit an electrical signal, a sudden movement of these salts from one side of the cell's membrane to the other occurs. This movement spreads like a wave from one end of the nerve to the other, until it reaches the end. At this point, the nerve's signal may be transmitted to the next nerve cell either by a direct extension of this process, or, more commonly, by releasing a special chemical called a neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters generally have one of two special functions. One type is responsible for encouraging cell-to-cell communication and is referred to as an "excitatory" neurotransmitter. The second type is able to slow down, or even stop cell-to-cell communication and is called an "inhibitory" neurotransmitter. In some cases, overactivity of excitatory neurotransmitters or underactivity of inhibitory neurotransmitters may lead to seizure activity by allowing an uncoordinated flow of electrical activity in the brain.

    Interestingly, certain areas of the brain are more likely than others to be the source of a seizure. These include the motor cortex (responsible for the initiation of body movement) and the temporal lobes (including a special deep area called the hippocampus, which is involved in memory). The reason for this likelihood may be that nerve cells in these areas are particularly sensitive to certain situations that can provoke abnormal electrical transmission. Examples include sensitivity to decreased oxygen levels, metabolic changes, and infection, any of which may lead to a seizure.

    Many types of brain abnormalities can be responsible for producing seizure activity. Abnormal discharges may spread to other cells in a local area or to remote areas of the brain, resulting in intermittent disturbance in the brain's normal functions. Changes in brain biochemistry and communication between brain cells occur. These basic neurofunctional abnormalities that lead to epilepsy produce the clinical symptoms that are seen. In turn, recurrent seizures or prolonged seizures can cause injury to the brain. Seizures that last longer than 20 to 30 minutes can damage the brain's neurons.

    A seizure is often divided into different parts. The aura is a period or warning prior to a seizure. Patients may experience unusual smells, visual symptoms, or feelings. The seizure itself is known as the ictus. The period of time after the seizure is called the postictal state.

    Seizures were depicted by prehistoric man in cave paintings. Hippocrates wrote of epilepsy and of its relationship to the brain. Epilepsy also is described in the biblical writings. Writings from 4,000 years ago depict epileptics as possessed by demons. Julius Caesar, the great Russian novelist Dostoyevsky, and King Charles II all are said to have had seizures.

    SEIZURE DISORDER INCIDENCE

    Seizure disorders are a common neurological problem. In the United States alone, it has been estimated that more than 4 million people have some form of epilepsy.

    The incidence of epilepsy, that is the number of newly diagnosed cases over a specific period of time (e.g., one year), depends somewhat on the age of the individual. The risk of epilepsy from birth through age 20 is approximately 1 percent. Within this group, the risk is highest during the first year of life and increases somewhat at the onset of puberty. From age 20 to 55 it decreases again, but increases after age 55. The prevalence of epilepsy (defined as the total of the population suffering from a disorder at a particular time) has been estimated to be about 5 to 8 in every 1,000 people.





    EPILEPSY & SEIZURE DISORDER FREQUENT SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

    TYPES OF SEIZURES

    There have been many attempts to categorize seizures, based on both the causes of seizures as well as the different seizure subtypes. A well-recognized classification system is the International Classification of Epileptic Seizure. This divides seizure types by the location in the brain that they originate from.

    There are more than 30 different types of seizure, divided into two basic groups: focal seizures and generalized seizures:

    PARTIAL SEIZURES: Partial seizures are those that begin in a focal or discreet area of the brain. This type can be further subdivided into:
    • Simple Partial (Jacksonian). Jerking begins in the fingers and toes and progresses up through the body. No change in consciousness occurs. The person remains conscious. Patients may experience weakness, numbness, and unusual smells or tastes. Twitching of the muscles or limbs, turning the head to the side, paralysis, visual changes, or vertigo may occur. When motor symptoms spread slowly from one part of the body to another, this "epileptic march" has been termed Jacksonian epilepsy (first described by Hughlings Jackson).

    • Simple Partial (Sensory). The person may see, hear, or sense things that do not exist. This may occur as a preliminary symptom of a generalized seizure.

    • Complex Partial (Temporal Lobe). Consciousness is altered during the event. People with this type of seizure may have some symptoms similar to those in simple partial seizures but have some change in their ability to interact with the environment. A blank stare, random activity, and a chewing motion are characteristic of this type of seizure. The person may be dazed and unaware of his or her surroundings, and may act oddly. The person may exhibit automatisms (automatic repetitive behavior) such as walking in a circle, sitting and standing, or smacking their lips together. Often accompanying these symptoms are the presence of unusual thoughts, such as the feeling of deja vu (having been someplace before), uncontrollable laughing, fear, visual hallucinations, and experiencing unusual odors. A person may experience a distinctive warning sign called an "aura" before this type of seizure. This is an unusual feeling that often warns the person that they are about to have a seizure. The aura is itself a form of partial seizure, but one in which the person retains awareness. The aura may be experienced as a peculiar odor, "butterflies" in the stomach, or a sound. One man with epilepsy, an ardent racetrack gambler, said that he always heard the roar of a crowd, followed by the name of a favorite racehorse, just before he lost consciousness. Another person I knew would detect the odor of oranges before he had his seizure. These interesting symptoms are thought to be caused by abnormal discharges in the temporal lobe. There is no memory of this seizure.
    GENERALIZED SEIZURES: Generalized seizures involve larger areas of the brain, often both hemispheres (sides), from the onset. They are further divided into many subtypes. The more common include:
    • Generalized Tonic-Clonic (Grand Mal). This subtype is what most people associate with seizures. Specific movements of the arms and legs and/or the face may occur with loss of consciousness. This type of seizure is characterized by sudden cry or yell which often precedes the loss of consciousness. Prior to this patients may have an aura (an unusual feeling that warns the person they are about to have a seizure). The person will abruptly fall and begin to experience rigidity and jerking of the muscles of their body and head. Drooling and biting of the tongue may occur (never stick your fingers into the mouth of someone having a seizure to prevent them from biting their tongue, you could lose a finger! Instead use a padded tongue depressor or a popsicle stick or something similar). Shallow breathing, and bluish skin may also be present. Loss of bladder control (incontinence) is possible. The seizure usually lasts 2 to 5 minutes but can last up to 20 minutes. The person may remain unconscious for a period of time after the jerking movements stop. Upon awakening, the seizure is followed by confusion and/or memory loss. They will experience fatigue and may sleep for a period of time. There can be prolonged weakness after the event (termed Todds paralysis). It can be frightening to witness, especially for the first-time observer.

    • Absence (Petit Mal). This type of seizure is most common in children. Loss of consciousness only occurs, without associated motor symptoms. Usually there is no aura, or warning. It is characterized by a blank stare. The loss of consciousness is brief; the person may appear to be involved with the environment or unaware of their environment and briefly stop what they are doing, as if daydreaming. The stare may last for 5 to 10 seconds to about half a minute, and then the person continues their activity. No memory of the event exits. Subtle motor movements may accompany the alteration in consciousness.

    • Atonic (Drop Attack). A childhood seizure in which the child loses consciousness for about 10 seconds and usually falls to the ground because of a complete loss of muscle tone.

    • Myoclonic. Myoclonic seizures are characterized by a brief jerking movement that arises from the central nervous system, usually involving both sides of the body. The movement may be very subtle or very dramatic. There are many different syndromes associated with myoclonic seizures, including juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Most cases of myoclonic epilepsy occur during the first 5 years of life.

    • West Syndrome. West syndrome involves a group of symptoms including infantile spasms, retardation of psychomotor development, and a particular abnormality on the electroencephalogram (EEG) known as hypsarrhythmia. Infantile spasms are characterized by a particular posturing of the infant's body, in which the child assumes a jack-knife, or folded, position. These spasms may occur frequently in the course of the day or may be continuous. Neurological problems are ultimately found in most of these children. The hypsarrhythmia pattern seen on the EEG is a grossly disorganized pattern of electrical brain activity. It is often difficult to control the seizures in this syndrome because they usually respond poorly to most anticonvulsant medications.

    • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is characterized by the early onset of a common seizure type called minor motor seizures. These seizures include the aforementioned myoclonic seizures, atypical absence seizures, and atonic seizures. Atypical absence seizures may involve staring and brief episodes of unconsciousness. They may occur in cycles and are associated with EEG findings different from those seen in typical absence seizures. Atonic seizures may be associated with sudden loss of muscle tone.

    • Status Epilepticus. Status epilepticus is prolonged, repetitive seizure activity that lasts more than 20 to 30 minutes, during time which the patient is unconscious. Status epilepticus is a medical emergency with a significantly poor outcome; it can result in death if not treated aggressively. Its causes include improper use of certain medications, stroke, infection, trauma, cardiac arrest, drug overdose, and brain tumor.
    NEOCORTAL EPILEPSY: Another epilepsy syndrome, Neocortal Epilepsy, can be either focal or generalized in nature. Symptoms include strange sensations, hallucinations, emotional changes, muscle spasms, and convulsions, all of which can vary depending on the location, or focus, of the seizure.

    febrile seizure


    SEIZURES IN CHILDREN

    Seizures in children can be particularly disturbing. They are the most common neurological problem affecting children - indeed, one-third of people with seizure disorders are children. Idiopathic epilepsy (seizures of unknown cause) or febrile seizures (non-epileptic seizures induced by fever) affect about 3 percent of children. Angelman syndrome (a rare congenital disorder seen in children) is associated with seizures or tremors. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a severe seizure disorder that usually develops in children between the ages of one and eight. The old fashioned treatment was to start a course of anticonvulsant drug after any seizure, including febrile seizure. The hope was that this would prevent epilepsy from developing in the future. However, long-term use of such drugs in children has proven to be harmful, and certainly febrile seizures generally require a less dramatic therapy.

    Seizures in very young children, often stem from brain injury at birth, damage to the central nervous system, or metabolic inconsistencies. In older children, epilepsy is more likely to result from genetic factors, infections of the central nervous system, or head injury.

    PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF SEIZURE DISORDERS

    The word epilepsy is used when more than one seizure has occurred, and, if someone has a single seizure, they usually are not said to have epilepsy. Unfortunately, epilepsy connotes something very negative to many people. The terms epilepsy and seizure disorders are often used interchangeably.

    Seizure disorders can have a profound effect on many aspects of normal daily living. An individual's perception of his or her own health or illness may be dramatically changed when they have a seizure disorder. For some patients, epilepsy carries a stigma that may cause them to alter plans regarding their future educational, employment, or social opportunities. Awareness of these issues is key to developing a treatment and counseling plan for patients and their families. Important issues to address and include when educating patients about managing epilepsy are:
    • What seizures are, and what symptoms may warn of their onset.
    • When to notify a health care provider about any change in symptoms.
    • Details of medication dosing, side effects, and importance of medication compliance (taking medications exactly as they are directed and not missing doses).
    • Importance of laboratory monitoring tests with some drugs.
    • Advice on living a healthy lifestyle and avoiding things that may trigger seizure activity (sleep deprivation, increased stress, alcohol and drug abuse).
    • Counseling women of childbearing age about epilepsy, medications, and pregnancy.
    DRIVING & SEIZURE DISORDERS

    Although the laws vary somewhat from state to state, most states have rules regarding when seizure patients can legally resume driving. Typically, patients must have been seizure-free 6 months to a year. While health care providers generally are not required to report patient seizures to their state motor vehicle departments, patients usually are expected to comply with the laws in their state.

    PREGNANCY & EPILEPSY

    Nutritional supplementation is important for people with epilepsy. Pregnant women with epilepsy should take Prenatal Vitamins and get plenty of sleep to avoid seizures. They should take Vitamin K after 34 weeks of pregnancy to reduce the risk of the blood-clotting disorder called neonatal coagulopathy, which can result from the fetal exposure to epilepsy medication.



    EPILEPSY & PREGNANCY


    Approximately 1,000,000 women of childbearing age in the United States suffer from epilepsy. Complications arise during conception and pregnancy that involve the choice and use of medication, dosing schedules, and seizure management. These complications have social as well as medical ramifications for pregnant women and their families. During pregnancy, factors such as anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment, hormonal changes, and vitamin deficiency can influence seizure patterns, even for women who have had excellent seizure control in the past. These complications combined with genetic factors also lead to a greater risk for major and minor birth defects for babies born to epileptic mothers. Although this risk is not typically significant enough for neurologists and epileptologists (epilepsy specialists) to advise their patients against pregnancy, health care specialists advocate a conscientious and careful pregnancy for all prospective mothers who suffer, or have suffered, from epilepsy.

    SEIZURE FREQUENCY INCIDENCE DURING PREGNANC

    For most epileptic women, seizure frequency remains unchanged during pregnancy. However, approximately 20-percent will experience an increase in seizure frequency during pregnancy. And some women experience seizures only during birth. The physiological changes that may play a role in the increased incidence of seizures for some women include changes in hormone production, metabolism, stress, and alteration in sleeping patterns.

    Hormones such as estrogen and progesterone increase naturally and steadily during normal pregnancy. Estrogen has been shown to be epileptogenic (increases seizure activity) for epileptics, while progesterone is thought to have an anti-seizure effect. Fluctuations in the levels of these hormones can make it more difficult for epileptic mothers to predict and control their seizures.

    Generally, sleep deprivation influences seizure frequency for those who suffer from epilepsy. A significant increase in seizure occurrence may result during pregnancy when sleep patterns change. Stress, and the associated changes in eating and sleeping habits, may also contribute to an increase in seizures in some cases.

    AEDs like phenobarbital, valporate (Depakene), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) are used to treat epilepsy. In most cases, the level of AEDs in the blood decreases during pregnancy, despite adherence to the proper dosage. For many women, this does not translate into an increased seizure frequency. However, in most cases, where seizures are seen to increase, the levels of AED in the blood are found to be lower than the recommended therapeutic range. It is therefore very important to monitor levels closely during pregnancy and to adhere to a health care provider-prescribed treatment.

    AED MEDICATION DURING PREGNANCY

    Many women are concerned about the effects of AED therapy on the health of their developing fetus. Although many medications, including anti-epileptic drugs, have teratogenetic potential (causing abnormal embryo development), most women continue to need treatment to prevent seizures during this period of time. In order to maintain optimum seizure control and minimize risk to the fetus, women should educate themselves about medication and pregnancy prior to conception.

    It is necessary for women who are treated with AEDs to continue medication when they learn they are pregnant. A health care provider may decide to discontinue drug therapy if a patient has not experienced seizures for several months. But this decision should be made at the discretion of the health care provider only. Often, patients who are not having seizures wrongly decide on their own to minimize dosage or to discontinue taking their medication entirely. This is unsafe because seizures can adversely affect a developing baby by decreasing vital oxygen or blood supply to the womb. Changes in treatment can immediately alter the balance of medication in the body, which could lead to sudden changes in condition, especially when pregnancy is involved.

    For example, a period known as status epilepticus may occur, during which a series of seizures can result in intermittent consciousness or an indefinite period of unconsciousness. Considering that epilepsy symptoms can include collapse during loss of consciousness, the risk to a mother and a developing baby is high. So negligent discontinuation of medication is perhaps less safe than continuing medication until counseling and re-evaluation can begin. The reality is that epileptic women find themselves in a double bind concerning pregnancy. On one hand, it is broadly known that taking various medications while pregnant poses certain risks to the fetus. However, for women with epilepsy, it is usually necessary to take this otherwise avoidable risk, because discontinuing medication might result in uncontrollable symptoms and permanent damage to both mother and child.

    In fact, while it is generally understood that medication is necessary for epileptics to function safely in life, complications that can affect fetal development deter many epileptic mothers from conceiving.

    CAUSES & RISK FACTORS FOR MOTHER & CHILD

    It is generally thought that women with epilepsy have at least a 90-percent chance of having a normal, healthy baby. All women have roughly a 2 to 3-percent chance of giving birth to a baby with some type of malformation. Although the exact causes for an increased incidence of abnormality are not fully known, a number of factors are thought to increase congenital malformations in the children of women with epilepsy.

    These factors include genetic predisposition, seizures that occur during pregnancy, and the effects of AEDs. It is estimated that mothers with epilepsy have approximately twice the risk of having a baby born with a malformation than women in the general population, an approximately 4 to 6-percent risk. The most common malformations include neural tube defects such as spinal bifida (characterized by the protrusion of spinal cord membranes through abnormal gaps between vertebrae), cleft palate, cleft lip, and congenital defects that affect the heart. Some minor abnormalities, including developmental delay, speech abnormalities, widened eye set, flattened nasal bridge, small fingernails, and other structural features have also been described in association with AED treatment. These minor abnormalities have no long-term medical ramifications.

    Also, fertility rates (giving birth to live offspring) are lower in persons with epilepsy. This may be related partially to hormonal changes and menstrual irregularities associated with the disease.

    For many years, researchers of epilepsy have hypothesized that a main mechanism of abnormal fetal development is an AED-based folate disturbance. Folate (Folic Acid, a B-Vitamin) is an important component in many chemical reactions in the body. It is necessary in the transfer of carbon, which is used to make the amino acids that form proteins in the body. Many AEDs can decrease the level of folate in the blood, which might lead to metabolic dysfunction, abnormal fetal developmental, and malformations.

    THE MORE MEDICATIONS, THE MORE RISK INVOLVED

    Other evidence also suggests that the risk of giving birth to a child with major malformations increases with the number of medications used simultaneously to treat seizure disorders, including epilepsy. The extent to which AED combination influences such a risk is not specifically known at this time. Epilepsy patients, whether pregnant or not, are usually treated with as few medications as possible. Combinations of Tridione and Paradione, as well as those drugs mentioned above, are thought to cause more frequent and extensive congenital birth defects. Some of these drugs are being prescribed less and less by health care providers because of their association with such defects. Also, AED use is restricted for patients who have a family history of neural tube defects. Again, pregnant women should consult with their health care provider prior to adjusting dosage of any or all AEDs.

    PREGNANCY MANAGEMENT

    In addition to the traditional means of promoting healthy pregnancy, such as proper nutrition, exercise, good sleep, and substance avoidance, there is a disease-specific regimen often prescribed to mothers afflicted with epilepsy.

    Early planning, management, and education is especially essential for all women of childbearing age who suffer from epilepsy. It is best if prior to conception, when pregnancy is being planned, that a woman see her health care provider, and that a full evaluation is performed. A thorough neurological exam is necessary to teach women all the major issues of potential concern. Women might consider involving an epileptologist or a neurologist who has experience treating issues and complications surrounding pregnancy, as well as a midwife or obstetrician. Ultimately, an epileptic woman must have the right to make an educated decision regarding conception. Indeed, the risks often deter couples from having children. However, should an epileptic woman decide to conceive a child, she can utilize several management strategies to reduce the risk of abnormal pregnancy and birth.

    For example, a major component to healthy pregnancy for sufferers of epilepsy is Multivitamin therapy with Folate (Folic Acid) and an excellent prenatal diet. Research has indicated that the use of folate can help minimize the risk of some of the major congenital malformations, specifically those involving the spinal cord. Even women with a seizure disorder who are not using AEDs (which diminish folic acid levels) during pregnancy should take daily folate supplements. In fact, it is suggested that women should begin folic acid supplementation before conception. Specialists recommend that a minimal dose of 2 mg (2,000 mcg) a day is sufficient to maintain proper folate balance before and during pregnancy. See Folic Acid Facts for more information about Folic Acid and Pregnancy.

    As mentioned earlier, compliance with medication is essential. Many clinicians also believe that even before becoming pregnant, if at all possible, women should switch to monotherapy (treatment with just one AED). Doing so, and using the lowest possible dose, can help minimize risks. Again, seizures can potentially affect a developing baby by decreasing oxygen or blood supply to the womb. So the decision to reduce dosage should only be made at the discretion of a health care provider who understands the biological and physiological patterns of epilepsy.

    Many clinicians suggest a thorough ultrasonography examination at 16 to 18 weeks of gestation. This exam, which produces internal sonographic photos of the fetus, can help rule out spina bifida, limb abnormalities, and heart abnormalities. Amniocentesis, with testing for alpha-fetoprotein (a protein that is elevated in spina bifida), is often suggested for epileptic mothers.

    Furthermore, an increase in vaginal hemorrhaging, early labor, and eclampsia (toxemia of pregnancy with postpartum convulsions) has been reported in epilepsy-related pregnancies.

    POSTPARTUM MANAGEMENT, EFFECTS & INCIDENCE

    Treatment for epileptic mothers does not stop after birth. Careful monitoring of AED levels should be performed throughout pregnancy and after delivery postpartum. The risk of seizure while attending to a newborn is significant enough for most epileptic parents to create alternative ways of care. For example, parents are often advised to change and feed their babies while sitting in secure, protective areas. Continued medication after pregnancy is especially important, as the effects of proper care now influence a baby who requires it.

    Also, there is a chance that a baby born to a woman who has been treated with AEDs will be affected by the medication. Sometimes, newborns experience sedation as well as withdrawal symptoms for the first few weeks of life. Although alarming, these symptoms are usually temporary. They pose no significant medical problem, unless they prohibit the baby from eating properly.

    AED TREATMENT & BREASTFEEDING

    Anti-epileptic drugs do show up in fairly low levels in breast milk, some higher than others, but pose no serious health threat to a nursing baby. However, health care providers often advise caution for mothers who have been treated with certain AEDs that tend to remain at higher levels in breast milk. Generally, mothers with epilepsy can expect to breastfeed their babies without complication, though counseling with a midwife, pediatrician, obstetrician, or breastfeeding consultant familiar with epilepsy and epileptic medications is advised.

    INFANT EPILEPSY & PARENTAL EPILEPSY

    Because the causes for most types of seizure disorder are varied, the occurrence of epilepsy in children born to epileptic parents varies. Children whose mothers have epilepsy have about a 3-percent chance of getting the disease. If just the father is affected by epilepsy, the risk is the same as it is for anyone in the general public. If both parents are epileptic, the risk rises to approximately 5-percent.

    Often, those who suffer from epilepsy gain an advanced knowledge of their disease as a result of planning a pregnancy. Certainly, preconception planning is just as important as the 9 months that follow. With the assistance of a health care provider, women with epilepsy can experience a healthy pregnancy and childbirth.





    EPILEPSY CAUSES

    Epilepsy is not associated with any particular disease. Many abnormalities of the nervous system can result in seizure activity. Seizures can also occur in the normal nervous system when its metabolic balance is disturbed. Seizures are caused by electrical disturbances in the nerve cells in a section of the brain. In 75-percent of cases, the seizures begin in childhood and are characterized by staring spells and a few seconds of mental absence. In the remaining 25-percent of cases, seizures start later in life. The cause (etiology) or causes of most cases of epilepsy are unknown (idiopathic - not clearly known) or related to a particular disease state. About 35-percent of all cases of epilepsy have no clearly definable cause.

    The condition is thought to be hereditary; however, a genetic predisposition alone probably does not cause most cases of the disorder. Other factors, such as oxygen-deprivation at birth or a later head injury, are probably also present in most cases.

    With epilepsy, seizures may be triggered by a wide range of things, including exposure to allergens; drug or alcohol withdrawal; fever; flashing lights; hunger; hypoglycemia; infection; lack of sleep; metabolic or nutritional imbalances; or trauma, especially head injury. Epilepsy is the most common cause of seizures; it strikes 1 out of every 100 people in the U.S.

    The following summarizes some of the more common factors leading to seizure activity:

  • Genetic Factors: It is now accepted that some persons may have a genetic predisposition to the development of seizures. There is also an increased incidence of epilepsy in relatives of those with a seizure disorder.

  • Head Injury: Seizures may develop at or around the time of injury or years after (usually not more than two years later). They may occur with either an "open" or "closed" head injury.

  • Stroke/Cerebrovascular Disorders: Seizures can occur at the time of a stroke or many years later. They may occur with strokes that result in lack of blood flow to the brain or with those that involve bleeding into or around the brain.

  • Metabolic Disturbances: This group of disorders changes levels of various metabolic substances in the body. These disease states sometimes result in seizures. Electrolyte disturbances (altered levels of Sodium, Calcium, or Magnesium).

  • Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) or hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar).

  • Renal Failure (Kidney Disease) with uremia (increased urea in the blood) or changes that occur around the time of kidney dialysis .

  • Hepatic Failure (Severe Liver Disease) and elevation of associated toxins.

  • Hypoxia (Lowered Oxygen Delivery To The Brain).

  • Toxic Causes: The presence of certain drugs can cause seizure activity. In addition, abrupt withdrawal of some substances can lead to seizure activity. These substances that may induce seizures include the tricyclic antidepressants, lithium, antipsychotic medications, aminophylline, and high doses of penicillin. Illicit drug use, particularly cocaine, heroine, amphetamines, and PCP, can cause seizures. Alcohol withdrawal can be associated with seizure activity. These seizures usually occur 12 to 24 hours after the last drink but can occur up until 48 hours or more after binge drinking. Withdrawal from prescription drugs and agents such as barbiturates and narcotics can result in seizure activity.
  • Infections: Infections of the nervous system may result in a lowered seizure threshold. These may include meningitis (infections of the coverings of the brain and spinal fluid), encephalitis (infection of the brain itself), and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and related infections.

  • Tumors & Space-Occupying Lesions: Brain tumors, both malignant (cancerous) and benign, may be associated with seizures. The anatomic location of the abnormality influences the likelihood of having seizures.

  • Degenerative Disorders: There are many neurodegenerative disorders that are accompanied by seizures. These include tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, Tay-Sachs disease, phenylketonuria (PKU), and Sturge-Weber syndrome.

  • Brain Damage In Infancy: Cerebral palsy secondary to lack of oxygen, infection, or trauma is associated with epilepsy.

  • Febrile Seizures: These are an age-associated form of epilepsy that may present as a single seizure or may be recurring. They are associated with a high fever in children 3 months to 4 years of age and occur in 3 to 4-percent of children.

  • Disorders That Mimic Seizure Disorders: True seizure disorders must be differentiated from a variety of problems whose symptoms approximate or closely resemble those of epilepsy. These include cerebrovascular (stroke-related) disorders, migraine, narcolepsy, syncope (fainting), and anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. Another type of spell well known to health care providers is the so-called pseudoseizure, or more properly nonepileptogenic seizure. These spells are not triggered by nerve cell discharges that cause true epilepsy, although the patient may experience muscle twitching and even apparent loss of consciousness. These spells have a psychiatric component and often coexist in persons who have true epilepsy. EEG monitoring can help distinguish disorders that mimic epilepsy from true seizures.



  • WHAT TO DO WHEN SOMEONE IS HAVING A SEIZURE


    Seeing someone having a seizure can be disturbing and frightening, and many if not most people do not know exactly what to do. Complicating that are the may myths that surround seizure treatment. If you witness someone having a seizure, do the following:

  • Do Not restrain the person.

  • Do Not try to put anything in the person's mouth (especially your own fingers since you may end up getting bitten). A person having a seizure may bite his or her tongue, but this is not life-threatening.

  • Try to restrain a fall so that the person does not hit something as he or she collapses. Often, the person knows he or she is about to have a seizure, and you can ask him or her to sit on the floor, or help him or her to sit down, before a fall. Move any objects and people away from the person, clearing a safe area around him or her to prevent injury to the person having the seizure.

  • Leave the person lying flat on a safe surface. Do not put anything under the person's head. If possible, turn the person onto his or her side in a recovery position, propping him or her in that position with cushions at the back during the seizure. This way, any saliva or blood from a bitten tongue will be able to flow freely out of the mouth.

  • recovery position


  • In case of loss of bladder or bowel control, if possible, loosely cover the person with a blanket to protect his or her privacy.

  • Do Not Panic. Loosen any tight clothing to make the person more comfortable. Stay with the person until the seizure has stopped. He or she may be confused and tired immediately after the seizure.

  • If the person has repeated seizures, one after the other, seek medical assistance. With a baby or a young child, medical help should be sought immediately.





  • EPILEPSY MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS

    EXAMINATION & HEALTH HISTORY

    Patients should be evaluated thoroughly after an initial seizure. It is imperative that the clinician take a complete and detailed patient history, including details of birth, childhood, family history, and medication regimen; and a thorough medical history, including any illnesses of the nervous system. A thorough history of drug and alcohol use is equally important.

    It also is helpful to distinguish seizure subtypes, partial or generalized; time of day of the event, including whether the seizure occurred during wakefulness or sleep; and any known triggers, such as a flickering light, severe sleep deprivation, or dehydration.

    Thorough general physical and detailed neurological examinations also should be performed.

    DIAGNOSTIC TESTING

    Laboratory data utilized in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with seizure disorders may include CAT scan imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography (EEG). A complete blood laboratory panel, including drug-toxic screening, and urinalysis are usually performed.

    CAT scan brain imaging is often the first radiological study obtained, especially in the emergency room setting. It can indicate pathology such as a brain tumor, stroke, brain hemorrhage, acute or remote trauma, and infection. Limitations include inability to evaluate certain structures in the brain in detail, particularly the temporal lobes of the brain, often the first sites of seizure activity.

    MRI brain imaging is performed for many patients with seizure disorders. It has the ability to visualize in great detail much of our brain anatomy. Subtle asymmetries in relevant structures, as well as undetected mass lesions, small strokes, and evidence of trauma may be uncovered. The use of a contrast agent (injected into the vein) can enhance the ability to show underlying abnormalities.

    EEG (also known as "brain wave") provides information about the electrical activity in the brain. Unlike CAT or MRI, it does not produce an image of the brain, but supplies information about the function or dysfunction of parts of the brain. Multiple small electrodes are placed at specific points on the scalp on both sides of the head to record activity generated mainly by the cerebral cortex. Brain wave activity is usually recorded for 30 to 45 minutes. Many patients will also be tested while hyperventilating (breathing rapidly and deeply), when flashing lights are flashing, while sleeping, or when sleep deprived. The brain normally exhibits particular patterns on the EEG during wakefulness, drowsiness, and sleep. The duration and character of normal brain-wave activity can be used as a baseline for comparison with abnormal waves on an EEG.

    Some of the findings on EEG are specific to particular disorders and subtypes of epilepsy. Activity during a seizure can be identified by a pattern on the graph indicating epilepsy called epileptiform. Correlating this type of data with clinical symptoms of seizures often helps make an accurate diagnosis. The EEG recording between seizures is often abnormal in patients with epilepsy, and so can be helpful in this setting.

    EEG can be combined with video monitoring to record activity both electrically and visually. EEG can also be performed in a long-term care setting with a portable ambulatory unit, to monitor patients for up to many days at a time.

    Other uses of the EEG include evaluation of altered states of consciousness, brain damage, metabolic-toxic injury, and suspected brain death.





    EPILEPSY CONVENTIONAL MEDICAL TREATMENT

    The medications used to treat patients with epilepsy are called anticonvulsants. Many of these drugs are available and each has a different mechanism of action, but all serve to reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures. These medications can be given for long periods of time.

    Treatment options are evaluated initially based on seizure subtype, as certain anticonvulsants may be indicated for treating some forms of epilepsy and contraindicated for others. When making decisions about treatment with a particular agent, the health care provider should always take into account the patient's entire medical and medication histories, age and gender, and side-effect profile. It is important to evaluate the risks and benefits of treatment for each individual. That said, some general principles apply to treatment.

    Monotherapy, treatment with a single agent, is the goal. Seizures can be controlled with one agent in approximately 75-percent of patients. Management becomes complicated when patients are given medications in combinations. This also risks increasing the number and frequency of side effects, making it less likely that patients will take their medication appropriately.

    For medications to work effectively, a relatively constant level of medication must be maintained in the body. This is accomplished by taking medication regularly as directed, without missing doses. The consequences of missed doses may be a single seizure, more devastating multiple seizures, or status epilepticus.

    Divided doses may be preferable with some medications, ensuring a more constant level of medication in the bloodstream.

    Appropriate dosing levels depend on many factors, including the patient's body weight, concomitant medications, and reaction to treatment.

    Many neurologists believe brand-name medications are preferable to generic products. Generic medications may be produced by different companies without rigorous standards regarding adequate drug level at a particular dose. Patients who use these medications may therefore be exposed to fluctuating levels of medication. For some people with epilepsy, this can result in loss of seizure control. Brand-name anticonvulsants, meeting stringent standards, provide more confidence in the dose-blood level relationship.

    Any medication can cause an allergic reaction. Dermatological problems, including rashes, are not uncommon. Life-threatening reactions, such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, can occur. It is essential that patients report any suspected reactions to their health care provider.

    When medications are to be discontinued, it is almost always recommended that they be slowly tapered down in dosage strength because abrupt withdrawal can produce seizures.

    Kidney and liver function testing should be performed to evaluate the ability of these organs to metabolize the medication; some drugs will require changing the dosage if function is impaired.

    There is still some controversy over whether to treat a patient who has had only a single seizure. Approximately 75-percent of seizure sufferers have only one seizure and no reoccurrence. In making treatment decisions, it is helpful to look at risk factors that may predict a second seizure. These include lesions of the brain, an abnormal EEG, or a family history of seizure disorders. Anticonvulsants can reduce the risk of further seizure activity. People who have had more than one seizure should probably be treated with anticonvulsants.

    It is convenient to divide some of the existing medications into first-generation anticonvulsants - older medications - and second-generation - more recently developed - drugs. Pharmaceutical research of new drugs is ongoing, with exciting developments in progress. The following medications are commonly prescribed for epilepsy.

    First-Generation Anticonvulsants
    • Phenytoin (Dilantin) was first used in the late 1930s. It has become one of the more commonly used agents and often is considered the first-line drug to treat seizures. It is thought to work by suppressing electrical activity in brain nerve cells. It can be given orally or intravenously (IV), and a newer form of the drug, fosphenytoin (Cerebryx®) can be injected into muscle. The oral form has the benefit of once-a-day dosing. Phenytoin is a first-line agent for treating partial and generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures. It is also one of the main agents used with patients who present with status epilepticus. Phenytoin drug levels need to be monitored with laboratory testing. The therapeutic concentration recommended is between 10 to 20 mg/L. In addition, liver function testing and a complete blood count (CBC) need to be followed. Phenytoin has many interactions with other medications, and its own level can fluctuate when other drugs are taken. Some of the side effects associated with its use include gingival hyperplasia (overgrowth of the gums), hirsuitism/hypertrichosis (excessive hair growth), imbalance, lethargy, anemia, and, in long-term use, peripheral neuropathy (weakness).

    • Carbamazepine (Tegretol/Carbatrol) has been in use for over 30 years. It is commonly prescribed for the treatment of partial and generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures. The mechanism by which it works is not well understood. In oral form, it can be taken 2 to 3 times a day; a recent development of the drug in sustained-release form allows for twice-a-day dosing. Carbamazepine levels need to be followed with laboratory testing. The recommended therapeutic level is between 8 to 12 mg/L. Liver function tests and CBC also need to be checked routinely. Carbamazepine can affect the levels of a number of other drugs in the body, and its own level can fluctuate when other agents are taken. Recognized side effects include drowsiness, imbalance, nausea, anemia, and neutropenia (low, white blood cell count). Carbamazepine is also used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, or tic douloureux, a painful nerve disorder of the face, and other neuropathic pain syndromes.

    • Phenobarbital is the oldest of this group of anticonvulsants. It can be used to treat both partial and generalized seizures. It also is used as part of the protocol after phenytoin use in status epilepticus as well as in neonatal epilepsy. It is available in oral and intravenous forms. Levels need to be monitored. The recommended therapeutic level is 15 to 40 mg/L. A complete blood analysis also should be routinely conducted. Phenobarbital can cause changes in the metabolism of other drugs through its actions on liver enzymes. Side effects may include drowsiness, cognitive impairment, and irritability.

    • Valproate (Depakote) has been in use for more than 20 years. It can be prescribed for a broad spectrum of anticonvulsant needs, including partial seizures, generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures, absence (petit mal), and myoclonic epilepsy. Its mechanism of action is thought to be related to the effect of a brain substance known as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). It is available in oral form and must be taken 2 to 3 times per day for adequate dosing. Drug levels must be monitored, as well as liver function, and blood count. The drug's suggested therapeutic window is 50 to 100 mg/L. Side effects include hepatotoxicity (liver damage), nausea, weight gain, alopecia (hair loss), and tremor.

    Second-Generation Anticonvulsants
    • Topiramate (Topamax) is used with other anticonvulsant drugs in the treatment of partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults and children aged 2 to 16. Although its precise mechanism of action is unknown, one theory suggests that its anticonvulsant activity may be due in part to increasing GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), a neurotransmitter that inhibits excitation of nerve cells in the brain. It is available in oral form, including sprinkles for children, and should be taken twice daily. Major side effects include drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, and coordination problems. Children may have difficulty concentrating and may become aggressive. Acute glaucoma and visual abnormality, a potentially very serious complication, has been reported in a small number of patients. If any abnormal visual symptoms occur, patients should notify their health care provider immediately. There are few drug interactions between Topamax and other medications or other anticonvulsants.

    • Gabapentin (Neurontin) is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures, with or without secondary generalization. Although it is structurally related to the substance GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), it does not interact with GABA receptors in the brain, and its mechanism of action is unknown. It is available in oral form and should be taken three times daily. No laboratory monitoring of liver, kidney, or hematologic (blood) function is necessary with Neurontin. Its major side effects are fatigue, dizziness, and imbalance. Neurontin also has been used successfully in patients with neuropathic pain syndromes.

    • Lamotrigine (Lamictal) is used for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures. Its precise mechanism of action is unknown. It is presently available in oral form. Lamictal should be taken twice daily. No laboratory monitoring of Lamictal levels are necessary. Its major side effect is the appearance of a potentially life-threatening skin rash, particularly for patients who also are taking valproate (Depakote). Any patient taking Lamictal who develops a rash should immediately report it to his or her health care provider. Other side effects include headache, nausea, and dizziness.

    • Tiagabine (Gabitril) is indicated for adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures. Its mechanism of action may be related to its effect on the brain substance GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). It is available in oral form and should be given in divided doses two to four times daily. No laboratory monitoring of Gabitril levels are necessary. Some interaction likely exists when Gabitril is taken with other anticonvulsants, in that its metabolism may be altered. Side effects include dizziness and somnolence.

    • Keppra (levetiracetam) is approved for use in adults as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial seizure disorders. The side effects can include fatigue, imbalance and behavioral changes, which often dissipate after the first month of treatment.

    • Trileptal (oxcarbazepine) is indicated for monotherapy (used alone) in adults who have partial seizures and can be used in children as add-on therapy for partial seizures. The most common side effects include dizziness, sleepiness, nausea, and imbalance, but these do not warrant clinical observation.

    • Zonegram (Zonisamide) is approved for use in adults as adjunctive therapy for partial seizures. It has however, been used fairly extensively in other countries for use in other seizure types including generalized seizures, myoclonic seizures and absence seizures. Side effects can include dizziness, imbalance and fatigue. Individuals who are allergic to sulfonamide drugs should not use Zonisamide since it is a derivative of this class of drug.

    Surgery
      Surgical resection of epileptogenic areas of the brain in patients with partial seizures sometimes is considered when seizure activity fails to respond to even the most aggressive medical management. Patients considered for these procedures are those with intractable seizures, even when given high levels of anticonvulsant drugs. Video-EEG monitoring on a long-term basis is used to determine where in the brain the seizures occur. In some patients, placing electrodes beneath the scalp may help to define epileptogenic areas of the brain. Specialized centers throughout the country have multidisciplinary teams to aid in the evaluation of potential candidates for these procedures.

    TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS

  • Most people who have epilepsy are aware of their condition and take medication to control the seizures. Possible side effects of anti-seizure medications include blood disorders, fatigue, liver problems, and mental fatigue and/or fogginess.

  • Other types of drugs can interact with anti-seizure medications, lessening or intensifying the effects of one drug or the other. Alcohol, birth control pills, the antibiotic erythromycin, and some types of asthma, ulcer, and heart medicines are known to interact with certain epilepsy drugs. Caution: Anyone who takes medication for epilepsy should always check with his or her health care provider or pharmacist before taking other drugs, whether prescription or over-the-counter.

  • Epilepsy is not the only cause of seizures. They can be brought on by other factors, including alkalosis, excessive consumption of alcohol; arteriosclerosis; brain disorders such as a brain tumor, encephalitis, meningitis, or stroke; high fever (especially in children); the use of drugs; the formation of scar tissue as a result of an eye injury or a stroke; a lack of oxygen; and spasms of the blood vessels.

  • MoonDragon's Women's Health Disorders: Alcoholism
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Alcoholism
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Alkalosis
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Stroke
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Drug Addiction (Substance Abuse)

  • High levels of aluminum have been found in the brains of people with epilepsy. Studies in animals have shown that trace amounts of aluminum in the brain may initiate the type of disordered electrical activity that causes seizures.

  • According to research done by Arizona State University's Biochemical Department, the artificial sweetener aspartame (NutraSweet) has been associated with seizures in some people. Toxic agents such as aluminum and lead may contribute to the problem. People with epilepsy could be sensitized to the components in aspartame, os it might be a good idea to avoid the sweetener if you have this disorder.

  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Aluminum Toxicity
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Lead Toxicity (Lead Poisoning)
    MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Aspartame: Is It A Safe Sugar Substitute?


  • Doses of Folic Acid in excess of 400 mcg (micrograms) per day may increase seizure activity in people with epilepsy, especially if they are taking the commonly prescribed anticonvulsant phenytoin (Dilantin).

  • A Manganese deficiency in a pregnant woman may result in the birth of a child with epilepsy.

  • Women taking epilepsy medication during pregnancy have about 2 to 3 times the standard risk of bearing a child with birth defects. Nevertheless, at least 90-percent of women who take epilepsy drugs during pregnancy give birth to normal, healthy infants. Because a seizure during pregnancy carries its own risks, most health care providers advise pregnant women with epilepsy to continue taking their medication unless it is likely they will be seizure-free without it.

  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Disorders: Seizure Disorders During Pregnancy

  • Some good results have been reported using hyperbaric (high-pressure) oxygen therapy in treating people with epilepsy.

  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness Therapy: HyperBaric Oxygen Therapy

  • In a Japanese study, the drug clorazepate dipotassium (Tranxene) helped 21 out of 29 people with epilepsy. The only side effect was a slight impairment in memory.

  • Surgeons at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota have pioneered a surgical technique that gives them access to the most remote and sensitive areas of the brain. Using a computer, a surgeon can view and vaporize the tiny tumors that cause some cases of epilepsy. This technique, called lesionectomy, can be performed with minimal damage to healthy tissue in the brain.

  • Diastat, a gel form of diazepam (better known as Valium) designed for rectal administration, may be prescribed for people who suffer from multiple seizures on a regular basis. The gel takes only minutes to work and should be administered 2 to 3 minutes into a seizure.

  • A specialized dietary program called the Ketogenic diet has been used with considerable success to control seizures in children. This is a rigidly controlled diet that is high in fats and extremely low in carbohydrates and proteins, which forces the body to use fats rather than the usual carbohydrates to generate cellular energy. When fats are burned, byproducts called ketones are formed. Normally, ketosis - the presence of high levels of ketones in the body - occurs only in cases of starvation or uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Eating a diet containing virtually no carbohydrates, however, can produce essentially the same effect, and also causes biochemical changes that enable the body's tissues to burn these ketones for needed energy. Although it is not known exactly how, this process appears to control seizure activity. The mechanism may be a ketosis byproduct with a tongue-twisting name, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), but no human studies have yet confirmed this link. You should discuss this in detail with a health care provider before attempting it, and some drug therapy still may be required. The majority of children who have been put on this diet benefit from it, and many have been able to stop taking, or reduce their dosage of, anti-seizure medication. Using this dietary program can be challenging for parents, however; the child's foods, liquids, medications, and even personal hygiene products such as toothpaste must be strictly controlled, and the program must be followed to the letter (even slight deviations can negate its effects). It should be undertaken only under the direct supervision of a health care provider who is experienced in its use. Information about the ketogenic diet is available from:

  • Pediatric Epilepsy Center
    John's Hopkins Hospital
    600 North Wolfe Street
    Baltimore, MD 21287-7247
    Phone: 410-955-9100

  • Pseudoseizures, also known as psychogenic or non-epileptic attack disorder, are non-epliptic seizures and may be a symptom of a number of different psychological factors.

  • Hunting's disease (HD), also sometimes called Huntington's chorea, is a disorder that can cause tremors, jerking movements that may resemble myoclonic seizures. This is, however, not a seizure disorder. Huntington's disease is a result of a genetically transmitted chromosome irregularity that usually manifests itself during the third decade of life. There is no known cure for Huntington's disease, but following the diet designed for epilepsy may help slow the progression and ease symptoms of the condition.

  • For more information on epilepsy, contact:
      Epilepsy Foundation of America (EFA)
      4351 Garden City Drive
      Landover, MD 20785-2267
      Phone: 301-459-3700
      postmater@efa.org

    MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Pregnancy & Seizure Disorders

  • Epilepsy - Taming the Seizures, Dispelling the Myths
  • Epilepsy - Seizures Cure & Curing Program, How to Cure Epilepsy - Seizures
  • Epilepsy Ontario: Information About Epilepsy
  • Epilepsy, Seizures, Convulsions & Vaccination Citations
  • Epilepsy.com: Epilepsy & Seizure Information
  • Epilepsy Foundation: Reliable Information About Epilepsy
  • KidsHealth: Teens Health - Epilepsy
  • NINDS Epilepsy Information
  • MedlinePlus: Epilepsy
  • CDC: Epilepsy
  • WebMD: Epilepsy Health Center
  • StevensMom: Seizures & Epilepsy


  • Seizures & Epilepsy in Childhood: A Guide for Parents - by John M. Freeman, Eileen P.G. Vining, Diana J. Pillas

  • Lee, The Rabbit With Epilepsy - by Deborah M. Moss, Carol Schwartz

  • The Ketogenic Diet: A Treatment for Epilepsy, 3rd Edition - by John Mark Freeman, et al

  • Treating Epilepsy Naturally: A Guide to Alternative & Adjunct Therapies - by Patricia A. Murphy, Russell L. Blaylock

  • Your Child: Epilepsy- by Fiona Marshall (Paperback)





  • HERBAL RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Alfalfa is a good source of needed minerals. Take 2,000 mg daily in capsule or extract form.

  • Black Cohosh, Hyssop, and Lobelia are beneficial for people with epilepsy because they aid in controlling the central nervous system and have a calming effect. For best results, they should be used on an alternating basis. Caution: Do not use Black Cohosh during pregnancy.

  • Blue Vervain is a natural tranquilizer, anti-inflammatory, and expectorant.

  • Colon & Liver Cleanser (CAC) Tea is a cleansing tea that has many additional benefits: improves overall digestion; strengthens the immunity; helps to prevent cancer; makes the skin more emollient and flexible: clears the eyes; and provides an overall tonic effect on the body.

  • Relieve stress all naturally with a Stress Formula combined with popular herbs like Valerian, Hops and Black Cohosh traditionally used to relax the body's systems and provide general health maintenance.

  • Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE) may be used topically as an antiseptic wound cleaner and to treat infections of the skin. Internally, the concentrate is useful as a supportive treatment for a wide variety of ailments.

  • Guarana Seed (Paullinia Cupana) is a creeping shrub native to the Amazon (and particularly the regions of Manaus and Parintins). In the lushness of the Brazilian Amazon where it originates, it often grows to 12 m high. The fruit is small, round, bright-red in color, and grows in clusters. As it ripens, the fruit splits and a black seed emerges - giving it the appearance of an "eye" about which Indians tell legends. With strong caffeine like stimulant effects, it helps to maintain stamina and physical endurance. It is traditionally used to assist in the relief of stress and nervous tension, and headaches, as well as many other ailments.

  • Hyssop herb regulates blood pressure, purifies the blood & promotes circulation, excellent aid for the eyes, hoarseness, lungs, mucous buildup, nervous disorders and skin problems.

  • Lobelia Herb (Lobelia Inflata) is an analgesic, antispasmodic, astringent and decongestant.

  • Nerves Formula was created to help calm and soothe the nerves. Can also help arteriosclerosis/atherosclerosis. A Nerves & Tension Tincture soothes the nervous system, which may help reduce stress and benefit hyperactivity, hyperkinetic, mental fatigue, migraine headache, muscular problems (aches, pain & spasms), nervous disorders, neuralgia, palsy, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, spasms, stress, and tension among other things.

  • Skullcap is an analgesic, antispasmodic, nervine, and sedative.

  • Avoid the herb Sage. This herb should not be used by anyone with a seizure disorder.





  • DIET, NUTRITION & LIFESTYLE RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Eat cultured, soured milk products like yogurt and kefir. See HomeMade Yogurt for more information.

  • Include beet greens, chard, eggs, green leafy vegetables, raw cheese, raw milk, raw nuts, seeds, and soybeans in the diet.

  • Drink fresh "live" juices made from Beets, Carrots, Green Beans, Green Leafy vegetables, peas, red grapes, and Kelp Seaweed for concentrated nutrients. See Juicing for more information.

  • Eat small meals, do not drink large quantities of liquids at once, and take 2 tablespoons of Olive Oil daily.

  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid that acts as a Neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Together with Niacinamide (Vitamin B-3) and Inositol, it prevents anxiety and stress related messages from reaching the motor centers of the brain by occupying the receptor sites.

  • DMAE (Dimethylaminoethanol), taken as a maintenance supplement, works synergistically with other smart nutrients like Ginkgo Biloba, GABA, Phosphatidyl Serine and L-Tyrosine, or can be taken alone.

  • N,N Dimethyl Glycine (DMG) is a methylated amino acid found in all cells. DMG is an antioxidant and methyl donor that has a number of beneficial effects. It has shown to have potential in increasing immune response to the flu and salmonella.

  • L-Carnitine is a non-essential amino acid that helps to maintain overall good health by facilitating the transfer of fatty acid groups.

  • L-Theanine is an amino acid found in Green Tea that produces tranquilizing effects in the brain and creates a feeling of relaxation without drowsiness. Helps reduce high blood pressure and relieve stress.

  • L-Tyrosine is an essential amino acid and a precursor of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine (adrenaline) and the thyroid hormones.

  • Taurine is a neurotransmitter, a neuromodulator and is involved in glucose uptake. It is found in meats, fish, milk and eggs, but not in vegetable proteins, so supplementation is especially important for vegetarians. Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid which is not utilized in protein synthesis, but is mainly found free in most tissues, especially throughout the nervous system. Taurine is a free-form amino acid that participates in a variety of metabolic processes.

  • Zinc boosts cold season defense, widely recognized as an important nutritional support during the cold season. Combined with Echinacea pupurea, it is clinically shown to support the immune system, and combined with Vitamin C, a vitally important vitamin for general health maintenance and providing antioxidant support.

  • Calcium and Magnesium can help with the development of strong bones and teeth, also prevents muscle cramping, risk of colon cancer, maintain regular heart beat, protects against osteoporosis and helps relax the central nervous system. Magnesium is a natural tranquilizer. Called the "anti-stress mineral," it aids in relaxing nerves, relieving tension, assisting digestion, activating enzymes important for protein and carbohydrate metabolism.

  • Avoid alcoholic beverages, animal protein, fried foods, artificial sweeteners such as aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal and other products), caffeine, and nicotine. Avoid refined foods and sugar.

  • If the bowels do not move each day, before going to bed, take a Lemon Enema using the juice of 2 Lemons and 2 quarts of water. See Enemas for more information.

  • Take Epsom Salts bath twice a week.

  • Work toward self-care. Keep drug dosages as low as possible, and work toward becoming as free from drugs and seizures as possible. The correct diet and nutritional supplements are very important in the control of epilepsy.

  • Get regular moderate exercise to improve circulation to the brain.

  • As much as possible, avoid stress and tension. Learn stress management techniques. See Stress for more information.

  • Stay away from pesticides and other chemicals. See Chemical Poisoning and Chemical Allergies for more information.

  • Avoid using aluminum cookware. Use glass or stainless steel instead. Aluminum can leach into the food during cooking, and may contribute to seizures. See Aluminum Toxicity for more information.

  • Consider having a hair analysis to rule out metal toxicity as the cause of seizures. See Hair Analysis for more information.


  • NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

    The following nutrients are important for healing once appropriate local treatment has been administered. Unless otherwise specified, the following recommended doses are for those over the age of 18. For a child between 12 and 17 years old, reduce the dose to 3/4 the recommended amount. For a child between 6 and 12 years old, use 1/2 the recommended dose, and for a child under 6, use 1/4 the recommended amount.

    NUTRIENTS
    Supplement
    Suggested Dosage
    Comments
    Essential
    Dimethylglycine
    (DMG)
    As directed on label. A powerful antioxidant increases oxygenation of tissues.

  • DMG Supplement Products
  • L-Carnitine
    As directed on label. An amino acid required to make protein and deliver essential fatty acids to the cells. Carnitine is depleted by anticonvulsant drugs.

  • Carnitine Supplement Products
  • Tyrosine
    500 mg three times daily, on an empty stomach. Take with water or juice. Do not take with milk. Take with 50 mg Vitamin B-6 and 100 mg Vitamin C for better absorption. Important for proper brain function. Caution: Do not take Tyrosine if you are taking an MAO inhibitor drug.

  • Tyrosine Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-6 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-Complex
    100 mg of each B-Vitamin daily, with meals three times daily. Amounts of individual vitamins in a complex will vary. Extremely important in the functioning of the central nervous system. Injections under a health care provider's supervision may be necessary.

  • Vitamin B-Complex Supplement Products
  • Plus Extra
    Niacin
    (Vitamin B-3)
    50 mg daily of Niacin. For safety and reduced side effects at high dosages, use Niacinamide instead of Niacin. Niacinamide is a non-flushing Vitamin B-3. Improves circulation and is helpful for many brain-related disorders.

  • Vitamin B-3 Supplement Products
  • And
    Pantothenic Acid
    (Vitamin B-5
    500 mg daily. An anti-stress vitamin.

  • Vitamin B-5 Supplement Products
  • Plus Extra
    Vitamin B-6
    (Pyridoxine)
    199 to 600 mg three times daily, under the supervision of a health care professional. Needed for normal brain functioning.

  • Vitamin B-6 Supplement Products
  • And
    Folic Acid
    (Vitamin B-9)
    400 mcg to 2,000 mcg (2 mg) daily. If you are taking anticonvulsants, do not exceed 400 mcg daily from all sources. A brain food vital for the health of the nervous system.

  • Folic Acid Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-12
    200 mcg twice daily. Involved in maintenance of the myelin sheaths that cover and protect nerve endings. A brain food vital for the health of the nervous system. An anti-stress vitamin.

  • Vitamin B-12 Supplement Products
  • Magnesium
    700 mg daily, in divided doses. Take between meals, on an empty stomach with Apple Cider Vinegar or Betaine HCl. Needed to calm the nervous system and muscle spasms. Use Magnesium Chloride form.

  • Magnesium Supplement Products
  • Apple Cider Vinegar Products
  • HCl Supplement Products
  • Selenium
    As directed on label. If you are pregnant, do not exceed 40 mcg daily. Low Selenium levels result in a deficiency of glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that detoxifies peroxides in the cells. Caution: Do not take supplemental Selenium if you are pregnant or have heart, kidney, or liver disease.

  • Selenium Supplement Products
  • Taurine
    500 mg three times daily, on an empty stomach. Take with water or juice. Do not take with milk. Take with 50 mg Vitamin B-6 and 100 mg Vitamin C for better absorption. Taurine Plus: Take 10 to 20 drops daily, in divided doses. Important for proper brain function. An important antioxidant and immune regulator, necessary for white blood cell activation and neurological function. Use the sublingual form. Caution: Do not take Tyrosine if you are taking a MAO inhibitor drug.

  • Tyrosine Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-6 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Very Important
    Calcium
    1,500 mg daily. Important in normal nerve impulse transmission.

  • Calcium Supplement Products
  • Garlic
    (Kyolic)
    As directed on label. Take with Vitamin B-1 and Vitamin B-12 Increases energy, acts as an antioxidant, and immune system support.

  • Garlic Herbal Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-1 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-12 Supplement Products
  • Zinc
    50 to 80 mg daily. Do not exceed 100 mg daily from all supplements. Protects the brain cells. Use zinc gluconate lozenges or OptiZinc for best absorption.

  • Zinc Supplement Products
  • Important
    Coenzyme Q-10
    30 mg daily. Important in immune function and improves brain oxygenation.

  • Coenzyme Q-10 Supplement Products
  • Coenzyme A
    As directed on label. Help the immune system detoxify many dangerous substances. Works well with CoQ10.

  • Coenzyme A Supplement Products
  • Coenzyme Q-10 Supplement Products
  • Oxy-5000 Forte
    As directed on label. A potent nutritional antioxidant for health and stress. Destroys free radicals.

  • Oxy 5000 Forte Supplement Products
  • Quercetin
    As directed on label. A flavonoid with anti-inlfammatory and antioxidant properties. More powerful than Vitamin C.

  • Quercetin Supplement Products
  • Helpful
    Chromium Picolinate
    200 mcg daily. Important in maintaining stable cerebral glucose metabolism.

  • Chromium Supplement Products
  • Kelp
    1,000 to 1,500 mg daily. For mineral balance.

  • Kelp Herbal Supplement Products
  • Alfalfa
    2,000 mg daily in capsule or exrract form. For necessary mineral balance.

  • Alfalfa Herbal Supplement Products
  • Melatonin
    2 to 3 mg daily for adults. 1 mg or less daily for children. Take 2 hours before bedtime. If necessary, gradually increase the dosage until an effective level is reached. Helpful if symptoms include insomnia.

  • Melatonin Supplement Products
  • Proteolytic Enzymes
    As directed on label. Take between meals. Aids in healing if inflammation is the cause of seizures.

  • Multi-Enzymes Supplement Products
  • Multi-Enzyme Complex
    As directed on label. Take with meals. Aids digestion, helping to make needed nutrients available.

  • Multi-Enzymes Supplement Products
  • Raw Thymus Glandular
    As directed on labor. Important in proper brain function. Gland Therapy

  • Thymus Glanular Supplement Products
  • And
    Thyroid Glandular
    As directed on label. Important in proper brain function. See Gland Therapy.

  • Thyroid Glandular Supplement Products
  • Vitamin A
    25,000 IU daily. If you are pregnant, do not exceed 10,000 IU daily. Vitamin A is a powerful antioxidant and detoxifier. An important antioxidant that aids in protecting brain function.

  • Vitamin A Supplement Products
  • Plus
    Beta Carotene
    & Carotene Complex
    As directed on label. An antixoidant and precursor of vitamin A.

  • Beta Carotene & Carotene Complex Supplement Products
  • Vitamin C
    With
    Bioflavonoids
    2,000 to 7,000 mg daily, in divided doses. Vital to functioning of the adrenal glands, which are the anti-stress glands. A potent antioxidant.

  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Bioflavonoids Supplement Products
  • Vitamin E
    Start with 200 IU daily and gradually increase to 1,600 IU daily. Aids in circulation and immunity. Compensates for anticonvulsant-induced vitamin depletion. Emulsion form is recommended for easier asimilation and greater safety at high doses. Use d-alpha-tocopherol.

  • Vitamin E Supplement Products





  • NOTIFY YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER

  • If you have epilepsy or suspect epilepsy and have experienced seizure activity.

  • If you need professional consultation and testing for causes of seizure activity (such as a hair analysis testing for verification of toxic levels of heavy metals and chemicals in your body).

  • If you have any increase of symptoms or seizure activity.

  • If you have signs of chemical toxicity or have been exposed to chemical or allergens which may trigger seizures.

  • If you have any unexpected or unusual symptoms. Some people may have sensitivity, allergies, or side effects from epileptic drugs prescribed or other health conditions which would prevent them from using certain drugs, herbs, or other treatments.

  • Always consult your health care provider before using any over-the-counter medications, alternative and supplemental therapies or if you are planning on changing or eliminating your medications used in the treatment of epilepsy.






    EPILEPSY & SEIZURE DISORDER SUPPLEMENTS & PRODUCTS


    Information, supplements and products for Epilepsy, a neurological disorder that occurs when there is excessive electrical impulses in the brain.

  • Anxiety Formula Supplement Products
  • Beta Carotene Products
  • Bioflavonoids Supplement Products
  • Epilepsy Seizure Products
  • Folic Acid Supplement Products
  • Multimineral Supplement Products
  • Multivitamin Supplement Products
  • Natural Calm Supplement Products

  • Nerves Formula Supplement Products
  • Stress Formula Supplement Products
  • Vitamin A Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-Complex Products
  • Vitamin B-6 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-12 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Zinc Supplement Products


  • QUALITY PRODUCTS & SUPPLEMENTS


    FTC Advertising & Affilate Disclosure: This website has an affiliate relationship with certain merchants selling products and we recieve commissions from those sales to help support this website. Any products listed here are not listed by any rating system. We do not rate any product or post any feedback about products listed here. We leave this to the individual merchants to provide. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit. All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual.


    ANXIETY FORMULA SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    NATIVE REMEDIES PRODUCTS

    Native Remedies: SocialFear Relief, Native Remedies, 180 Dissolvable Tablets & Pellets
    Homeopathic remedy to relieve social fear and anxiety due to shyness, stage fright and public speaking.
    Native Remedies: Triple Complex Calm Tonic, Native Remedies, 2 fl. oz.
    Homeopathic remedy to relieve anxiety, panic, stress, worry & other common nervous system problems. Supports balanced mood, improves brain and nervous system functioning, supports systemic balance.
    Native Remedies: PureCalm, Anxiety, Nervousness & Stress Symptoms, Native Remedies, 2 fl. oz.
    Herbal remedy to relieve anxiety, nervousness and symptoms of stress, plus calm moods. Helps control panic attacks and feelings of restlessness. Balances emotions during times of pressure.
    Native Remedies: ZenX, Instant Calm, Native Remedies, 90 VCaps
    A natural remedy for symptoms of anxiety and calming. A herbal supplement for a naturally calm mood and emotional health, with Kava, Passionflower & St. John's Wort. Supports emotional health, promotes restful sleep, soothes feelings of stress and restlessness, and supports healthy feelings of well being.


    CHINESE HERBS DIRECT PRODUCTS

    Chinese Herbs Direct: Anxiety Formula, Dr. Zhang HerbalMax, 120 Capsules
    The Anxiety Formula from HerbalMax uses a powerful blend of traditional Chinese herbs to ease chronic agitation and promote tranquility. Designed to soothe the mind and body quickly and effectively, this precise blend of natural herbs helps to relieve panic, fears and worries, yielding enduring calmness and relaxation with no known side effects. Additionally, in Dr. Zhang’s clinical experience, patients with chronic anxiety can see marked long-term improvement in just a few days. The Anxiety Formula aims to deliver long-lasting relief for persons suffering from constant stress, persistent bouts of anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, social phobias, and other anxiety-related conditions. Adults and children age 13 and older: 3 capsules, 3 times a day to start. After symptoms improve, you can change to 3 capsules 2 times a day. Take on an empty stomach or between meals. Children ages 9 to 12: 2 capsules, 3 times a day to start. After symptoms improve, you can change to 2 capsules 2 times a day. Take on an empty stomach or between meals. Children ages 5 to 8: 1 capsule 3 times a day to start. After symptoms improve, take 1 capsule, twice a day. Take on an empty stomach or between meals. Children ages 2 to 4: 1 capsule 2 times a day to start. After symptoms improve, take 1 a day. Take on an empty stomach or between meals. If needed, an additional daily dose may be taken. Children under age 6: open the capsules and pour the powder into a tablespoon. Mix the powder with warm water (add honey, if desired) and then have your child swallow. Ingredients include Schisandra Chinensis, Paeonia Lactiflora, Bupleurum Chinense, Curcuma Longa, Ziziphus Jujuba, Codonopsis Pilosula, Paeonia Sufuticosa.
    Chinese Herbs Direct: Good Sleep & Worry Free Formula, Dr. Shens, 150 Capsules
    Dr. Shen's Good Sleep & Worry Free Pill is used for a wide range of "disturbed shen" conditions including, insomnia, anxiety, dream disturbed sleep, irritability, restlessness, or a rancorous disposition. Dr. Shen's Good Sleep & Worry Free Pill is notable as it contains no heavy metal mineral stabilizers such as loadstone, oyster shell, or cinnabar which are used in some other Chinese herbal sleep remedies. This makes Dr. Shen's Good Sleep & Worry Free Pill safer for long term use. Pregnant women should consult their health care providers before taking any supplements. This formula is not considered to cause drowsiness or impair mental or physical functions, nevertheless, each person's reaction should be assessed before performing hazardous activities such as driving, operating machinery, etc. Dosage 2 to 4 tablets, 2 to 3 times a day. In cases of poor sleep, an extra dose in the middle of the night is appropriate. Course of use is one week or longer. Results are usually obtained after 3 to 7 days of regular use. Ingredients include Chinese Sage Root, Siberian Milk Wort, Arbor Vitae Seed, Atractylodes Root, Schizandra Fruit, Heart of Poria, Gardenia Seed, Bulrush, Ginseng Root, Chinese Licorice Root.


    AYURVEDIC HERBS DIRECT PRODUCTS

    Ayurvedic Herbs Direct: Tranquil Mind, Eases Anxiety, Banyan Botanicals, 500 mg, 90 Tabs
    Day-to-day stress from a hectic lifestyle may provoke vata in the mind and lead to conditions such as anxiety and insomnia. Tranquil Mind is carefully formulated to soothe and calm the nerves without creating dullness or lethargy. This synergistic blend of herbs balances mental activity, releases excess vata and promotes sound, restful sleep.


    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Anxiety Relief Globules, Similasan, 15 Grams (79668)
    HerbsPro: Anxiety Letting Go Homeopathic, Liddell Laboratories, 1 fl. oz. (27040)
    HerbsPro: Anxiety & Nervousness Homeopathic, King Bio Natural Medicines, 2 fl. oz. (49716)
    HerbsPro: Anxiety Soother, Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz. (105833)
    HerbsPro: Anxiety Soother, Herb Pharm, 4 fl. oz. (105834)
    HerbsPro: Stress & Anxiety Day & Nite Formulas, Natrol, 10 Plus 10 Tabs (80537)
    HerbsPro: Anxiety Free, Ridgecrest Herbals, 60 Caps (75366)
    HerbsPro: Anxiety Relief, Natural Care, 120 Tabs (50384)
    HerbsPro: Anxiety Relief, HomeoPet Solutions, 15 ml (83098)
    HerbsPro: Anxiety Free For Dogs, ActiPet, Beef Flavor, 90 Count Chews (94078)


    KALYX PRODUCTS

    Kalyx: Anxiety Relief Homeopathic Remedy, Similasan, 15 Grams: HF
    Anxiety Relief is homeopathic remedy specifically formulated to stimulate the body's natural ability to relieve symptoms of anxiety such as apprehension, restlessness, simple nervous tension, lack of concentration, and stage fright.
    Kalyx: Letting Go Anxiety Spray, Liddell Homeopathic, 1 fl oz: HF
    Kalyx: Anxiety & Nervousness, King Bio Homeopathic, 2 fl oz: HF
    Kalyx: Anti-Anxiety Formula Extract, Health & Herbs, 2 fl oz: HH
    Ingredients include Scullcap, Passionflower, Valerian, Mistletoe, Hops, Sarsparilla, Kava Kava, Catnip, Cramp Bark, Ginger, Red Clover flowers, Cayenne, Lobelia, Structured Water, 15 to 30% Grain Alcohol USP. Use 6 to 12 drops in juice, water, under the tongue, or as desired. May be taken 3 times daily.
    Kalyx: Anti-Anxiety Formula Extract, Health & Herbs, 8 fl oz: HH
    Ingredients include Scullcap, Passionflower, Valerian, Mistletoe, Hops, Sarsparilla, Kava Kava, Catnip, Cramp Bark, Ginger, Red Clover flowers, Cayenne, Lobelia, Structured Water, 15 to 30% Grain Alcohol USP. Use 6 to 12 drops in juice, water, under the tongue, or as desired. May be taken 3 times daily.
    Kalyx: Anti-Anxiety Formula Extract, Non-Alcoholic, Health & Herbs, 16 fl oz: HH
    Ingredients include Scullcap, Passionflower, Valerian, Mistletoe, Hops, Sarsparilla, Kava Kava, Catnip, Cramp Bark, Ginger, Red Clover flowers, Cayenne, Lobelia, Structured Water, Glycerine USP Use 6 to 12 drops in juice, water, under the tongue, or as desired. May be taken 3 times daily.
    Kalyx: Anti-Anxiety Formula, Health & Herbs, 16 fl oz: HH
    Ingredients include Scullcap, Passionflower, Valerian, Mistletoe, Hops, Sarsparilla, Kava Kava, Catnip, Cramp Bark, Ginger, Red Clover flowers, Cayenne, Lobelia, Structured Water, 15 to 30% Grain Alcohol USP Use 6 to 12 drops in juice, water, under the tongue, or as desired. May be taken 3 times daily.
    Kalyx: Anti-Anxiety Formula, Health & Herbs, 32 fl oz: HH
    Ingredients include Scullcap, Passionflower, Valerian, Mistletoe, Hops, Sarsparilla, Kava Kava, Catnip, Cramp Bark, Ginger, Red Clover flowers, Cayenne, Lobelia, Structured Water, 15 to 30% Grain Alcohol USP Use 6 to 12 drops in juice, water, under the tongue, or as desired. May be taken 3 times daily.
    Kalyx: SAF Stress & Anxiety Formula, Natrol, 90 Caps: HF
    A patented formula for mood support, SAF includes key nutrients that help support mental focus and clarity. SAF is a 100% drug-free formula that helps promote relaxation and helps reduce stress and anxiety.
    Kalyx: Natural Care Anxiety Relief, 120 Sublingual Tabs: HF
    For the symptomatic relief of occasional anxiety, fear, anguish, stress and worry associated with the ups and downs of everyday life. Anxiety Relief helps make occasional, minor anxious feelings less frequent or eliminates them altogether. It helps you feel less vulnerable to the minor annoyances that make up your daily life. And it works without side-effects, synthetic drugs, or function impairment.


  • Nutrition Basics: Mood Supplement Information



  • EPILEPSY SEIZURE PRODUCTS

    AMAZON PRODUCTS

    Amazon: Epilepsy Seizure Supplement Products
    Amazon: Epilepsy Health Care Supplement Products
    Amazon: Seizure Health Care Supplements Products
    Amazon: Seizure Alert Bracelet Products
    Amazon: Seizure Helmet Products
    Amazon: Seizure Alarm Products
    Amazon: Seizure Monitor Products
    Amazon: Seizure Pads Products



    NATURAL CALM REMEDIES PRODUCTS

    Natural Calm Magnesium Supplement is so special over other forms of magnesium supplements because it is water soluble and assimilates instantly and thoroughly, and works even in cases of highly impaired digestion. Natural Calm can be taken safely on its own without side effects. Natural Calm by itself-without any calcium-will help you feel more energetic, younger and stronger and give you a multitude of other benefits, all as a result of the magnesium being available to do its vital job. During a high-stress time, Natural Calm can provide the amount of extra magnesium necessary to forestall magnesium depletion and damage from stress. Natural Calm is used by over 1,000 health care providers and health clinics nationwide with great success.

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Regular, 350 mg, 8 oz. (63420)
    Natural Calm takes the magnesium in a form where it is completely dissolved in water. In this form the magnesium assimilates fast into the body producing almost instant relief. What makes Natural Calm so special over other forms of magnesium supplements, such as magnesium tablets or magnesium caps, also including other powdered formuals is a special delivery system developed by Peter Gillham after 20 years of research.
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Regular, 350 mg, 16 oz. (63421)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Regular, 30 Packets (69382)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Lemon, 350 mg, 8 oz. (63425)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Lemon, 350 mg, 16 oz. (63426)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Lemon-Raspberry, 350 mg, 8 oz. (63428)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Lemon-Raspberry, 350 mg, 16 oz. (63429)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Lemon-Raspberry, 30 Packets (66291)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Orange Calm, 350 mg, 8 oz. (63432)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Orange Calm, 350 mg, 16 oz. (63433)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm Plus Calcium, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, 350 mg / 230 mg, 8 oz. (63409)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm Plus Calcium, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, 350 mg / 230 mg, 16 oz. (63410)
    HerbsPro: Natural Calm Plus Calcium, Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, Lemon-Raspberry, 8 oz.(63416)
    HerbsPro: Osteo Calm Peter Gillhams Natural Vitality, 30 oz. (78025)


  • Nutrition Basics: Natural Calm Supplement Information



  • NERVES FORMULA SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Nerve Formula Extract, Dr. Christophers Formulas, 2 fl. oz. (39844)
    HerbsPro: Valerian Nerve Extract, Dr. Christophers Formulas, 2 fl. oz. (39845)
    HerbsPro: Ear & Nerve Extract, Dr. Christophers Formulas, 2 fl. oz. (39828)
    HerbsPro: Complete Nerve Powder, Nutricology Allergy Research Group, 10.6 oz. (105817)
    HerbsPro: Hylands Nerve Tonic, Hylands, 32 Caps (15843)
    HerbsPro: Hylands Nerve Tonic, Hylands, 100 Tabs (61567)
    HerbsPro: Hylands Nerve Tonic, Hylands, 500 Tabs (15844)
    HerbsPro: Target Mins Nerve & Osteo Support, Country Life, 1000 mg, 90 Tabs (37465)
    HerbsPro: Target Mins Nerve & Osteo Support, Country Life, 1000 mg, 180 Tabs (37465)


  • Nutrition Basics: Nerves Formula Information



  • STRESS FORMULA SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS

    HERBSPRO PRODUCTS

    HerbsPro: Stress Reducing, Woodland Publishing, 112 Page Booklet (90317)
    HerbsPro: Stress Free Calm Formula, Planetary Ayurvedics, 10 Tabs (7155)
    HerbsPro: Stress & Anxiety Day & Nite Formulas, Natrol, 10 Plus 10 Tabs (80537)
    HerbsPro: Sleep Tonight Stress Reducing Sleep Aid, Enzymatic Therapy, 28 Tabs (76325)
    HerbsPro: Stress Response, Gaia Herbs, 30 Caps (91218)
    HerbsPro: Natural Stress Relief, Life Extension, 30 VCaps (91896)
    HerbsPro: Mega Stress, Only Natural, 30 Tabs (112342)
    HerbsPro: Stress-Relax Tranquil Sleep, Natural Factors, 45 Softgels (114816)
    HerbsPro: Stress Relief, NatraBio, 60 Tabs (70816)
    HerbsPro: Stress Tame, Jarrow Formulas, 60 Caps (60956)
    HerbsPro: Stress Take Care, New Chapter, 60 Softgels (82247)
    HerbsPro: Stress Hrx, Herbal Destination, 60 VCaps (110278)
    HerbsPro: Stress Shield Nighttime, Country Life, 60 Caps (105813)
    HerbsPro: No Stress, Erba Vita, 60 Caps (113390)
    HerbsPro: Stress Rescue, Ethical Nutrients, 60 Tabs (111254)
    HerbsPro: Jet Stress, Biotec Foods, 60 Tabs (14281)
    HerbsPro: Fatigued To Fantastic Adrenal Stress-End, Enzymatic Therapy, 60 Caps (13009)
    HerbsPro: Hi-Stress B & C With Herbs, Source Naturals, 60 Tabs (6946)
    HerbsPro: Stress-X, Trace Minerals, 60 Tabs (85058)
    HerbsPro: Stress Shield, Country Life, 1000 mg, 60 VCaps (85124)
    HerbsPro: Adrenal Stress Away, Natures Answer, 90 LCaps (107000)
    HerbsPro: Stress Complex, Thompson, 90 Caps (89638)
    HerbsPro: 3-Way Stress System, Rainbow Light, 90 Tabs (18638)
    HerbsPro: Stress-End, Enzymatic Therapy, 90 Caps (13026)
    HerbsPro: B-Complex Stress Formula, Solgar, 90 Tabs (36638)
    HerbsPro: Stress Plus, Vegetarian, Now Foods, 100 Tabs (68775)
    HerbsPro: Anti-Stress, BioTec Foods, 100 Tabs (14271)
    HerbsPro: Ex-Stress, Natures Way, 100 Caps (17867)
    HerbsPro: Stress-Relax Tranquil Sleep, Natural Factors, 120 Chewable Tabs (114815)
    HerbsPro: Stress Relax Pharma GABA, Natural Factors, 120 Chewable Tabs (114814)
    HerbsPro: Stress-Relax Suntheanine L-Theanine, Natural Factors, 120 Chewable Tabs (114813)
    HerbsPro: Stress-X, Trace Minerals, 120 Tabs (85059)
    HerbsPro: Stress-Relax Melatonin, Natural Factors, 5 mg, 180 Chewable Tabs (114793)
    HerbsPro: Stress Free, Planetary Herbals, 810 mg, 180 Tabs (70135)
    HerbsPro: Anti-Stress, Biotec Foods, 200 Tabs (14270)
    HerbsPro: Honey Lavender Stress Relief Tea, Yogi Teas, 16 Tea Bags (95045)
    HerbsPro: Stress Formula, Unflavored, Living Flower Essences, 0.5 oz. Liquid (94127)
    HerbsPro: Stress Tension Relief Globules, Similasan, 0.529 oz. (79666)
    HerbsPro: Stress Manager Compound, Herb Pharm, 1 fl. oz. (94356)
    HerbsPro: Stress Management Drops, BioForce USA, 1.7 fl. oz. (70804)
    HerbsPro: Energy Plus Stress Response Shots, Gaia Herbs, 2 oz. (112669)
    HerbsPro: Eye Stress Formula, King Bio Natural Medicines, 2 oz. (49516)
    HerbsPro: 911 Stress Control, King Bio Natural Medicines, 2 oz. (49712)
    HerbsPro: Stress Manager Compound, Herb Pharm, 4 fl. oz. (94357)
    HerbsPro: Stress B-Gone, Buried Treasure, 16 oz. (50445)
    HerbsPro: Energy & Stress, Liquid Health, 32 oz. (49164)
    HerbsPro: Whole Body Stress Cleanse, Enzymatic Therapy, 1 Kit (76352)
    HerbsPro: Stress Formula Balm Rose Stick, Living Flower Essences, 0.5 oz. (106008)
    HerbsPro: Stress Formula Rose Spray, Living Flower Essences, 1 oz. (106099)
    HerbsPro: Anti-Stress Shower Gel Canister, Kiss My Face, 1 oz. (Case of 24) (85515)
    HerbsPro: Stress Relief Moisturizing Lotion, Aveeno Active Naturals, 12 oz. (95962)
    HerbsPro: Stress Therapy Bath, Abra Therapeutics, 17 oz. (39914)
    HerbsPro: Anti-Stress Shower Gel, Kiss My Face, 32 oz. (81957)
    HerbsPro: Anti-Stress Comfort Wrap, Earth Therapeutics (72162)
    HerbsPro: Anti-Stress Eye Pillow, Earth Therapeutics, 1 Each (61351)
    HerbsPro: Anti-Stress Sinus Pillow (Microwavable), Earth Therapeutics, 1 Piece (70488)
    HerbsPro: Anti-Stress Neck Pillow (Microwavable), Earth Therapeutics, 1 Piece (70476)


  • Nutrition Basics: Mood Supplements Information






  • MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

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    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
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  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
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  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
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  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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    MOONDRAGON'S REALM - WEBSITE DIRECTORY


    A website map to help you find what you are looking for on MoonDragon.org's Website. Available pages have been listed under appropriate directory headings.




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