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MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
Disorders

DOG BITES
(Cat or Animal Bites)





  • Dog Bite Description
  • Dog Bite Treatment
  • Herbal Recommendations
  • Nutritional Supplement Recommendations
  • Notify Your Health Care Provider




  • "For Informational Use Only"
    For more detailed information contact your health care provider
    about options that may be available for your specific situation.


    dog bite


    DOG BITE DESCRIPTION

    A bite or scratch from a dog (or cat or any animal) that breaks the skin poses the danger of infection, especially if the wound is deep. Any bite also carries the risk of rabies. Most household pets have been immunized against rabies, but the possibility of infection still exists. It is also possible to contract a tetanus infection from an animal bite. The microbe that causes tetanus, Clostridum tetani, lives in the top layers of soil, and in the intestinal tracts of cows and horses. It easily infects wounds that result in reduced oxygen flow in the tissue, particularly crushing and puncture wounds.

    A dog (or animal bite) can be nothing more than a minor graze, or it can be so severe as to be life threatening. Children are at most risk from dog bites, and children under 5 years of age are victim of the most severe attacks - many of them requiring hospitalization.

    DOG BITE INCIDENCE

    Each year approximately 4 million Americans are bitten by dogs, and about 800,000 of these persons (44 percent of whom are younger than 14 years) present for medical treatment. More than one dozen fatalities related to dog bites occur each year in this country; most of these victims are children. Although most dog bite attacks are not provoked, there are several measures that adults and children can take to decrease the possibility of being bitten. Family health care providers can educate parents and children on ways to prevent dog bites, but, when dog bites do occur, the health care provider must be knowledgeable about how to treat the bites effectively.

    More than one dozen fatalities related to dog bites occur each year in this country; most of these victims are children.

    As of 1994, an estimated 34 million American households owned at least one dog, accounting for a canine population in the United States in excess of 55 million. Most dogs never bite a human; however, under certain circumstances, any dog is capable of inflicting harm. The most common victims of dog bites are children, especially in incidents that prove fatal. Almost one half of all reported cases of dog bites involve an animal owned by the victim's family or the victim's neighbors. Most victims are involved in normal, non-provoking activities before the dog attacks. For example, neonatal deaths resulting from a dog bite most often involve a sleeping baby.

    Several dog breeds have been identified for their role in fatal dog bite attacks, including pit bull breeds, malamutes, chows, Rottweilers, huskies, German shepherds and wolf hybrids. From 1979 to 1988, pit bull breeds accounted for more than 41 percent of dog bite­related fatalities, three times as many as German shepherds.

    IS A RABIES SHOT NEEDED?

    Probably not. Rabies is uncommon in dogs and cats in the United States. If a dog or cat that bit you appeared to be healthy at the time of the bite, it is unlikely that the animal had rabies. However, it is a good idea to take some precautions if you are bitten by a dog or cat. If the bite is from a wild animal or a pet that has become feral, the risk increases.

    If you know the owner of the dog or cat that bit you, ask for the pet's vaccination record (record of shots). An animal that appears healthy and has been vaccinated should still be quarantined (kept away from people and other animals) for 10 days to make sure it does not start showing signs of rabies. If the animal gets sick during the 10-day period, a veterinarian will test it for rabies. If the animal does have rabies, you will need to get a series of rabies shots (see below).

    If the animal is a stray, or you cannot find the owner of the dog or cat that bit you, call the animal control agency or health department in your area. They will try to find the animal so it can be tested for rabies.

    If the animal control agency or health department cannot find the animal that bit you, if the animal shows signs of rabies after the bite, or if a test shows that the animal has rabies, your health care provider will probably want you to get a series of rabies shots (also called post-exposure prophylaxis). You need to get the first shot as soon as possible after the bite occurs. After you receive the first shot, your health care provider will give you 5 more shots over a 28-day period.





    Dog bite on hand


    HOME-CARE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ANIMAL BITES

    SUPERFICIAL BITES

    For superficial bites from a familiar household pet who is immunized and in good health:

  • If you have been bitten by a dog or any animal, the first thing you should do is remove the animal's saliva from the wound. Wash the wound area thoroughly with warm water, then add soap and water under pressure from a faucet for at least five minutes more, but do not scrub, as this may bruise the tissue. Rinse the wound a few minutes more with plain water. Apply an antiseptic lotion or cream.

  • Dog bite - cleaning the wound


  • Watch for signs of infection at the site, such as increased redness or pain, swelling, drainage, or if the person develops a fever. Call your health care provider right away if any of these symptoms occur.

  • DEEP BITES OR PUNCTURE WOUNDS

    For deeper bites or puncture wounds from any animal, or for any bite from a strange animal:

  • If the bite or scratch is bleeding, apply pressure to the injured part with a clean bandage or towel to stop the bleeding.

  • Wash the wound with soap and water under pressure from a faucet for at least five minutes, but do not scrub, as this may bruise the tissue.

  • Dry the wound and cover it with a sterile gauze dressing for 24 hours or until seen by your health care provider. Do not use tape or butterfly bandages to close the wound, as this could trap harmful bacteria in the wound.

  • Keep the injury elevated above the level of the heart to slow swelling and prevent infection.

  • Call your health care professional for guidance in reporting the attack and to determine whether additional treatment, such as stitches (sutures) or antibiotics, a tetanus booster, or rabies vaccination is needed. This is especially important for bites on the face, or for bites that cause deeper puncture wounds of the skin.

  • Report the incident to the proper authority in your community (animal control or police). If possible, locate the animal that inflicted the wound. If you know who the dog's owner is, inquire as to the animal's vaccination status. If the dog is unfamiliar, try to have someone confine it if possible so that its health can be checked and it can be placed under observation. Some animals need to be captured, confined, and observed for rabies. Do not try to capture the animal yourself; instead contact the nearest animal warden or animal control office in your area.

  • If the animal cannot be found, or if the animal was a high-risk species (skunk or bat), or the animal attack was unprovoked, the victim may need a series of rabies shots.

  • Apply antibiotic ointment to the area 2 times every day until the bite heals or follow instructions given by your health care provider.

  • Call your health care provider for any flu-like symptoms such as a fever, headache, malaise, decreased appetite, or swollen glands following an animal bite.

  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Cuts, Scrapes & Wounds

  • Your health care provider may prescribe an oral antibiotic to prevent infection. If so, make sure that you take Acidophilus to replace the "friendly" bacteria that antibiotics destroy. Your health care provider will also likely recommend you have a tetanus booster shot if you have not had one in 6 years or more.


  • RABIES CONSIDERATIONS & CONCERNS

  • In most states, dog bite incidents must be reported to the local health department, and the dog must then be kept under observation for any signs of rabies:
    • Viciousness.
    • Paralysis.
    • Growling.
    • Foaming at the mouth.
    • Sensitivity to noise and light.
    • Agitation.

    Rabies is an RNA-type of virus that, once established in the human central nervous system, is invariably fatal. If the animal cannot be located and rabies ruled out, a serious of rabies injections will be necessary. These have been highly unpleasant to the person receiving them. The series of injections available today is not longer so painful, not are injections given in the stomach, as in the past. However, It is best to try very hard to locate the animal if at all possible and have it quarantined.



    Dog with rabies


    DESCRIPTION OF RABIES

    Rabies is a viral infection of certain warm-blooded animals and is caused by a virus in the Rhabdoviridae family. It attacks the nervous system and, once symptoms develop, it is 100 percent fatal in animals, if left untreated. In North America, rabies occurs primarily in skunks, raccoons, foxes, and bats. In some areas, these wild animals infect domestic cats, dogs, and livestock. In the United States, cats are more likely than dogs to be rabid. Generally, rabies is rare in small rodents such as beavers, chipmunks, squirrels, rats, mice, or hamsters. Rabies is also rare in rabbits. In the mid-Atlantic states, where rabies is increasing in raccoons, woodchucks can also be rabid.

    Other animals with rabies risk


    Between 40,000 and 70,000 people die of rabies worldwide each year, with a further 10 million receiving treatment after being exposed to animals suspected of having rabies. Detecting, preventing and controlling the disease in the United States costs more than $300 million a year.

    RABIES TRANSMISSION

    The rabies virus enters the body through a cut or scratch, or through mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and eyes), and travels to the central nervous system. Once the infection is established in the brain, the virus travels down the nerves from the brain and multiplies in different organs.

    The salivary glands and organs are most important in the spread of rabies from one animal to another. When an infected animal bites another animal, the rabies virus is transmitted through the infected animal's saliva. Scratches by claws of rabid animals are also dangerous because these animals lick their claws. Other rare means of infection are through entering a cave polluted by infected bats or through receiving organ transplants from a person carrying the rabies virus.

    RABIES SYMPTOMS

    The incubation in humans from the time of exposure to the onset of illness can range anywhere from five days to more than a year depending on the severity and location of the bite, the amount of virus present and the strain of the virus, although the average incubation period is about two months (typical 30 to 50 days). The following are the most common symptoms of rabies. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

    RABIES: STAGE 1
    • Initial period of vague symptoms, lasting 2 to 10 days.
    • Vague symptoms may include:
      • Fever.
      • Headache.
      • Malaise and lethargy.
      • Decreased appetite.
      • Vomiting.

    • Pain, itching or numbness and tingling at the site of the wound.

    RABIES: STAGE 2
    • Excessive salivation. Patients often develop difficulty in swallowing (sometimes referred to as "foaming at the mouth" due to the inability to swallow saliva - even the sight of water may terrify the patient (hydrophobia).

    • Some patients have neurological signs such as insomnia, agitation (anxiety) and disorientation (confusion), while others become paralyzed.
      • Furious Rabies causes the animal to foam and drool at the mouth. Animals behave unpredictably and may become vicious, snap at imaginary objects and attack without warning. The animal becomes progressively uncoordinated, paralyzed and usually dies in 4 to 5 days.

      • Dumb Rabies causes early paralysis, followed by drooling and death. Animals with dumb rabies remain quiet and only bite when provoked. They are unable to eat, but will frequently try to drink water.

    • Immediate death, or coma resulting in death from other complications, may result. Death usually occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.

    The symptoms of rabies may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.

    DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES

    In animals, the direct fluorescent antibody test (dFA) is most frequently used to detect rabies. Within a few hours, diagnostic laboratories can determine whether an animal is rabid and provide this information to medical professionals. These results may save a person from undergoing treatment if the animal is not rabid.

    In humans, a number of tests are necessary to confirm or rule out rabies, as no single test can be used to rule out the disease with certainty. Tests are performed on samples of serum, saliva, and spinal fluid. Skin biopsies may also be taken from the nape of the neck.

    TREATMENT FOR RABIES

    Unfortunately, there is no known, effective treatment for rabies once symptoms of the disease occur. However, there is an effective new vaccine which provides immunity to rabies when administered after an exposure. It may also be used for protection before an exposure occurs, for persons such as veterinarians and animal handlers.

    The only hope for those bitten by a rabid animal is a course of vaccination before symptoms appear. Treatment requires prompt cleaning and disinfection of the bite site and a course of six injections over a month; one injection contains antibodies to fight the virus, the others are vaccinations to ensure long-term protection against the disease.


    MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DOG BITES

    INITIAL ASSESSMENT

    After confirming that the victim is medically stable, health care providers should begin a primary assessment by taking a patient history. Several medical conditions place a patient at high risk of wound and rabies virus infection from a dog bite. Information that can help determine the patient's risk of infection includes the time of the injury, whether the animal was provoked, and the general health, immunization status and current location of the animal. In some locations, notification of animal control or local law enforcement may be necessary. Also, the patient's tetanus immunization status, current medications and allergies must be noted in the record. During the physical examination, the measurement and classification of the wound (laceration, puncture, crushing or avulsion), and the range of motion of the affected and adjacent areas should be documented. Nerve, vascular and motor function, including pertinent negative findings, should be recorded. Diagrams and photographs are useful, especially in cases with irregular wounds or signs of infection, and in cases that may involve litigation, such as a wound inflicted by an unleashed dog.


    Medical Conditions
    Associated with a High Risk of Infection
    After a Dog Bite


    Chronic Disease
    Chronic Edema of the Extremity
    Diabetes Mellitus
    Immunosuppression
    Liver Dysfunction
    Previous Mastectomy
    Prosthetic Valve or Joint
    Splenectomy
    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus


    Timely and copious irrigation with normal saline or Ringer's lactate solution may reduce the rate of infection markedly. Injection of the tissue with irrigant solution should be avoided, because this can spread the infection. Necrotic or devitalized tissues should be removed, but care must be taken not to debride so much tissue as to cause problems with wound closure and appearance. Baseline radiographs (x-rays) may be obtained, especially with puncture wounds near a joint or bone.

    The role of wound closure remains controversial. Puncture wounds, wounds that appear clinically infected and wounds more than 24 hours old may have a better outcome with delayed primary closure or healing by secondary intention. Some health care providers close wounds that are less than eight hours old and wounds located on the face. The success of closing facial wounds can probably be attributed to the enhanced blood supply to the face and the lack of dependent edema. Plastic surgery, general surgery or maxillofacial surgery may be necessary for deep wounds or those requiring significant debridement and closure. Cultures are usually not helpful unless the wound appears infected or is unresponsive to appropriate antibiotic therapy. When a culture is necessary, aerobic and anaerobic cultures should be obtained and observed for a minimum of 7 to 10 days to allow for slow-growing pathogens. Orthopedic consultation should be considered for wounds that directly involve joints or other bony structures.

    ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT

    Only 15 to 20 percent of dog bite wounds become infected. Crush injuries, puncture wounds and hand wounds are more likely to become infected than scratches or tears. Most infected dog bite wounds yield polymicrobial organisms. Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common aerobic organisms, occurring in 20 to 30 percent of infected dog bite wounds. Other possible aerobic pathogens include Streptococcus species, Corynebacterium species, Eikenella corrodens and Capnocytophaga canimorsus (formerly known as DF-2). Anaerobic organisms, including Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium species and Veillonella parvula, have also been implicated in infected dog bites. One review article identified 28 species of aerobic organisms and 12 species of anaerobic organisms isolated from dog bite wounds.

    Treatment with prophylactic antibiotics for three to seven days is appropriate for dog bite wounds, unless the risk of infection is low or the wound is superficial. If frank cellulitis is evident, a 10- to 14-day course of treatment is more appropriate. Amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) is the antibiotic of choice for a dog bite. For patients who are allergic to penicillin, doxycycline (Vibramycin) is an acceptable alternative, except for children younger than eight years and pregnant women. Erythromycin can also be used, but the risk of treatment failure is greater because of antimicrobial resistance. Other acceptable combinations include clindamycin (Cleocin) and a fluoroquinolone in adults or clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra) in children. When compliance is a concern, daily intramuscular injections of ceftriaxone (Rocephin) are appropriate.

    Occasionally, outpatient treatment of infection fails and the patient needs to be hospitalized and treated intravenously with antibiotics. Reasons for hospitalization include systemic signs of infection; fever or chills; severe or rapidly spreading cellulitis or advancement of cellulitis past one joint; and involvement of a bone, joint, tendon or nerve.

    Consultation with a maxillofacial or plastic surgeon may be required if the patient has a facial or other highly visible wound. For patients hospitalized with cellulitis or abscess formation in an extremity, surgical consultation should be considered immediately because of the risk of worsening infection and tissue damage. Depending on community practices and the location of the injury, general orthopedic surgery, hand surgery or general surgery consultation may be appropriate. Tetanus immunization and tetanus immune globulin should be administered, if appropriate. Recommendations for tetanus prophylaxis are given above.


    ACIP Recommendation Summary
    Tetanus Prophylaxis in Routine Wound Management

      Clean, minor wounds All other wounds*
    History of adsorbed tetanus toxoid (doses) Td† TIG Td‡ TIG
    Unknown or less than three Yes No Yes Yes
    Three or more† No§ No No|| No

    ACIP = Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
    DTP = diphtheria tetanus and pertussis
    Td = tetanus and diphtheria toxoids adsorbed (adult)
    TIG = tetanus immune globulin (Hyper-Tet).
    * - Including, but not limited to, wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, soil or saliva; puncture wounds; avulsions; and wounds resulting from missiles, crushing, burns and frostbite.
    † - For children younger than seven years, DTP (dT, if pertussis vaccine is contraindicated) is preferred to tetanus toxoid alone. For persons seven years or older, Td is preferred to tetanus toxoid alone. Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) may be used instead of DTP for the fourth and fifth doses.
    ‡ - If only three doses of fluid toxoid have been received, then a fourth dose of toxoid, preferably an adsorbed toxoid, should be given to complete the series.
    § - Yes, if it has been more than 10 years since the last dose.
    || Yes, if it has been more than five years since the last dose. (More frequent boosters are not needed and can accentuate side effects.)


    From Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis: recommendations for vaccine use and other preventive measures. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1991;40:21.


    ASSESSING THE RISK OF RABIES

    The patient's risk of infection with rabies virus must be addressed immediately. Because of the serious risk to the public of a rabid animal on the loose, it is important to document the conditions surrounding the attack. As a result of widespread vaccination of dogs against rabies in the United States, the most common source of the rabies virus is now wild animals, specifically raccoons, skunks and bats. Nonetheless, there are still reported cases of rabies virus associated with a dog bite. Patients with a bite from a non-provoked dog should be considered at higher risk for rabies infection than patients with a bite from a provoked dog. If the dog owner is reliable and can confirm that the animal's vaccination against rabies virus is current, the dog may be observed at the owner's home. Observation by a veterinarian is appropriate when the vaccination status of the animal is unknown. If the animal cannot be quarantined for 10 days, the dog bite victim should receive rabies immunization.

    Rabies immunization should begin within 48 hours after the bite, but it can be subsequently discontinued if the animal is shown to be free of rabies virus. Rabies immunization consists of an active immune response with a vaccine and a passive immune response with rabies immune globulin (RIG). Guidelines for rabies immunization are given below.


    Rabies Immunization Guidelines
    VACCINATION STATUS TREATMENT REGIMEN*
    Not previously vaccinated RIG Administer 20 IU per kg body weight. If anatomically feasible, the full dose should be infiltrated around the wound(s) and any remaining volume should be administered IM at an anatomic site distant from vaccine administration. Also, RIG should not be administered in the same syringe as vaccine. Because RIG may partially suppress active production of antibody, no more than the recommended dose should be given.
      Vaccine HDCV, RVA, or PCEC 1 mL, IM (deltoid area†), once daily on days 0‡, 3, 7, 14 and 28
    Previously vaccinated§ RIG RIG should not be administered.
      Vaccine HDCV, RVA, or PCEC 1.0 mL, IM (deltoid area†), once daily on days 0‡ and 3

    RIG = Rabies Immune Globulin
    IU = Immunizing Unit
    IM = Intra-muscularly
    HDCV = Human Diploid Cell Vaccine
    RVA = Rabies Vaccine Adsorbed
    PCEC = Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine
    * - These regimens apply to all age groups, including children.
    † - The deltoid area is the only acceptable site of vaccination for adults and older children. For younger children, the outer aspect of the thigh may be used. Vaccine should never be administered in the gluteal area.
    ‡ - Day 0 is the day the first dose of vaccine is administered.
    § - Any person with a history of pre-exposure vaccination with HDCV, RVA or PCEC, prior post-exposure prophylaxis with HDCV, RVA or PCEC, or previous vaccination with any other type of rabies vaccine and a documented history of antibody response to the prior vaccination.


    Reprinted from Human rabies prevention - United States, 1999. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48(RR-1):1-21 [Published erratum appears in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48:16].


    FOLLOW-UP MEDICAL CARE

    Patients who have been bitten by a dog should be instructed to elevate and immobilize the involved area. Most bite wounds should be reexamined in 24 to 48 hours, especially bites to the hands.

    CONSIDERATIONS FOR FAMILIES CONSIDERING GETTING A DOG

    When families are considering getting a dog as a pet, they need to keep in mind that dogs can play an important role in family life. As the canine population grows, so does the need for guidance to prevent dog bites. Prevention can begin with information from primary care professionals and veterinarians. Because a large percentage of dog bite victims are younger than 14 years, it is appropriate to begin prevention education with children and parents. Families acquiring a pet should consider their home environment and be told that a dog younger than four months is preferred. An older dog should not be introduced into a household with children because the dog's behavior cannot be predicted. Prospective dog owners should obtain breed-specific information before getting a new dog.

    Some breeds of dogs are more likely to attack despite training. Other breeds seem to be accepted more as "family dogs". Families should be educated to avoid "humanizing" their dog (e.g., allowing it to sleep on the furniture and to beg for food at the dinner table) and treating the dog as a child or a substitute for a mate. This type of behavior makes it more difficult for the animal to distinguish between animal and master and may increase the risk of the dog biting.


    Dog bite threat


    BREED SPECIFIC AGGRESSIVENESS

    AGGRESSIVE DOGS (Higher Attack Rates)
    (Alphabetical Order)


    Bull Terrier
    Cocker Spaniel
    Chow Chow
    Collie
    Doberman Pinscher
    German Shepherd
    Great Dane
    Pit Bull
    Rottweiler
    Siberian Husky
    LESS AGGRESSIVE DOGS ("Family Dogs")
    (Alphabetical Order)


    Boxer
    Dalmatian
    English Setter
    English Springer
    Golden Retriever
    Irish Setter
    Labrador Retriever
    Spaniel


    PREVENTING DOG & CAT BITES

    Being safe around animals, even your own pets, can help reduce the risk of animal bites. Some general guidelines for avoiding animal bites and rabies include the following:
    • Never leave a young child alone with a pet.
    • Do not try to separate fighting animals.
    • Avoid sick animals and strange animals that you do not know.
    • Leave animals alone while they are eating.
    • Keep pets on a leash when in public.
    • Select your family pet carefully.
    • Do not approach or play with wild animals of any kind, and be aware that domestic animals may also be infected with the rabies virus.
    • Supervise pets so they do not come into contact with wild animals. Call your local animal control agency to remove any stray animals.
    • Be sure to keep your pet's vaccinations (shots) up-to-date. This is especially important if they are outdoor or outdoor/indoor pets. A pet (such as a cat) that never goes outdoors and is strictly an indoor pet, is at a lower risk of transmitting a serious infection since exposure to an infecting agent, such as rabies, is minimal. However, cat scratches, even from a kitten can carry "cat scratch disease," a bacterial infection.

    BEHAVIOR TO PREVENT A BITE

    Measures for preventing dog bites are given above. Dogs have a tendency to chase a moving object. Therefore, children need to learn to avoid running and screaming in the presence of a dog. Dogs should not be greeted by presenting an outstretched hand. Do not pet a dog without letting it sniff you first. Hugging and "kissing" a dog express a sense of submission to the animal, which is confusing because the animal is used to viewing humans as being in charge. This confusion may lead to more aggressive behavior by the animal.

    Educate children and adults to remain calm when threatened by a dog. Direct eye contact should be avoided because the dog may interpret that as aggression. Standing still ("like a tree") with feet together, fists folded under the neck, and arms placed against the chest is recommended. If knocked to the ground by a dog, recommendations include lying face down and becoming still "like a log," with legs together and fists behind the neck with forearms covering the ears. If a dog perceives no movement, it will most likely lose interest and go away.

    INCIDENCE REPORTING

    If you or someone you know is bitten by an animal, remember these facts to report to your healthcare provider:
    • Location of the accident.
    • Type of animal involved (domestic pet or wild animal).
    • Type of exposure (cut, scratch, licking of open wound).
    • Part of the body involved.
    • Number of exposures.
    • Whether or not the animal has been immunized against rabies.
    • Whether or not the animal is sick or well - if "sick," what symptoms were present in the animal.
    • whether or not the animal is available for testing or quarantine.





    HERBAL RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Echinacea, Goldenseal, Pau D'Arco, and Red Clover, taken in tea form, are good for dog bites. Goldenseal extract can also be applied directly on the affected area. This is a natural antibiotic that helps to fight infection. Caution: Do not take Goldenseal internally on a daily basis for more than one week at a time, and do not use it during pregnancy. If you have a history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or glaucoma, use it only under supervision.

  • See Nutritional Supplements located on this page for more recommendations to aid in a fast recovery.

  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Cuts, Scrapes & Wounds



    WOUND HEALING

    Essentially, a wound is an injury by an external factor to the skin and its underlying tissue. Some of the most common skin wounds are cuts, tears, punctures and abrasions. Symptoms include bleeding, redness, swelling, pain and sometimes pus formation. The skin's protective ability is compromised in the injured area, so bacteria and foreign bodies can penetrate and may cause an infection that will delay healing. When the wound heals, it closes in two basic stages. First, blood coagulates and forms the protective layer, the scab. Then the injured tissue beneath is replaced by new connective tissue. Small superficial wounds can be treated at home, but a sterile dressing should be applied to a major wound as a first-aid measure, and a health care provider should be consulted immediately.

    Many medicinal plants, as well as acupuncture, heat therapies and therapeutic touch, have been known to accelerate wound healing.





    QUICK SELF-CARE REMEDIES FOR MINOR WOUNDS

    Stopping the bleeding is the first order of business, unless the injury is a puncture wound. Let a puncture wound bleed freely for several minutes to allow germs to be flushed out. If necessary, press gently around the wound to encourage it to bleed. For minor cuts and scrapes, apply steady pressure for several minutes, using a clean cloth or tissue. If blood soaks through, apply another layer of cloth or tissue and additional pressure. If possible, elevate the injured part above the heart to slow blood flow.

    Thoroughly cleanse the area around the injury by swabbing it gently with a clean, wet cloth, or holding it under cold running water. If the surrounding area is dirty, clean it with a mild soap, but keep the soap out of the wound to avoid irritation. If necessary,remove any particles of dirt from the wound with a pair of clean tweezers dipped in alcohol.

    If you cannot wash the wound, then lick it (I know this sounds yucky, but often times this is one of our first initial responses... sticking a hurt finger into out mouth seems to ease the discomfort). A study in the prestigious journal Lancet found that saliva contains a number of substances that can help kill bacteria and promote healing.

    Bandage the wound with a sterile dressing, especially if it's in a place likely to get dirty or further injured, such as a hand, foot, or knee. Change the dressing frequently, but do not leave it on for more than a couple of days. Exposure to the air will reduce the risk of infection and speed up healing.

    Never pick at a scab no matter how good it feels or how much it itches. This could lead to infection or scarring. Simply let the scab fall off after the skin has healed.

    If in a pinch, apply a thin layer of petroleum jelly as a substitute for antiseptics and antibiotic ointments.





    HELPFUL REMEDIES, SUPPLEMENTS & PRODUCTS

  • Never wash small wounds. Instead, allow them to bleed a bit, which will help wash away bacteria. Do not touch wounds and do not remove the scab. The scab is needed to stop bleeding and prevent additional bacteria from entering the wound. the surrounding tissue, called the wound margin, can be carefully cleaned with water and then rinsed with a diluted Calendula (1 part Calendula to 5 parts lukewarm water). Cover small wounds with an adhesive bandage and large wounds with a sterile dressing.

  • When the bleeding has stopped and the wound has been cleansed, apply Lavender Oil or Tea Tree Cream, both of which promoe healing and guard against infection.

  • A dab of Echinacea. Calendula, or Myrrh tincture (diluted in water) can be applied to the wound once bleeding has stopped to promote healing and help prevent infection.

  • After you apply herbal remedies, bandage the wound. Each time you change the dressing, three or four times a day, spread some Aloe Vera Gel or Calendula Cream over the wound and bandage lightly.

  • Everyday for five days after the injury, take Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Bromelain (an enzyme derived from fresh pineapple).

  • Drink herbal tea made with Echinacea and Goldenseal. Taken together, these herbs will help boost the immune system and speed up the healing process.

  • wound care - tea tree oil

    TEA TREE OIL DISINFECTANT

    Tea Tree Oil is a good option for natural wound care. Because it is a disinfectant, Tea Tree Oil keeps the wound free of germs and also works to dissolve pus.

    Put a mixture of 1 part Tea Tree Oil and 10 parts Calendula Oil on the wound 3 times a day until it heals.


    HERBAL INFUSIONS PROMOTE HEALING

    Herbal preparations made of St. John's Wort, Calendula, Chamomile, and/or Comfrey promote the healing process.

    To make a herbal infusion, pour about 1 cup of boiling water over 2 heaping tablespoons of Comfrey, Chamomile and Calendula. Cover and let steep for 10 minutes, strain and allow the infusion to cool somewhat before using it on wounds. Dip a linen cloth in the infusion. Apply it to the wound and secure it with a gauze bandage. Be sure to change the dressing at regular intervals.


    calendula blossoms



    TEA TREE ANTISEPTIC SKIN SPRAY

    4 ounces Witch Hazel Tincture
    2 teaspoons 190 proof Ethyl Alcohol or 100 Proof Vodka (optional)
    1/8 Ounce Tea Tree Oil

    Dissolve the Tea Tree Oil in the ethyl alcohol and then stir into the witch hazel. Pour into a spray bottle. Shake well before using. Spray on minor cuts and scratches. Tip: You can skip using the ethyl alcohol - its main purpose is to help the Tea tree oil dissolve and mix better into the solution. If you do not want to use the ethyl alcohol shaking very well before each use will be necessary.



    COMFREY ROOT POULTICE

    Dig fresh Comfrey Root and wash it well. Grate 1/4 to 1/2 cup of the root and add 1 to 2 teaspoons of Calendula Oil or St. John's Wort Oil to the sticky mass. Spoon it onto thin layers of gauze, and apply it to the wound. You can keep unused comfrey root in a sealed bag in the refrigerator for several months.



    St. John's Wort Oil


    ST. JOHN'S WORT OIL

    An external application of St. John's Wort reduces inflammation and relieves pain in fresh, bleeding wounds. St. John's Wort is always excellent for trauma to the nerves, finger injuries, tailbone trauma, and neuralgia. You can buy the oil as an over-the-counter product or make it yourself by pouring Olive Oil over fresh flowers from the plant. Grind the mix to a puree in a blender and store it in the sun for 6 weeks or until the oil turns bright red.



    GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACT ANTISEPTIC

    The Grapefruit Seed Extract is a powerful natural antiseptic that prohibits growth of bacteria, viruses and fungi. It also helps relieve pain and accelerate the healing process. To treat wounds, apply a few drops of undiluted Grapefruit Seed Extract to the affected areas.



    Extra Tip

    Dandelion and Chickweed leaves have been known to heal skin wounds. They can be ground or chewed, and the applied topically to the wound.


    TOPICAL PREPARATIONS

  • After you carefully clean the cut and the bleeding stops, rub Lavender Oil gently on the wound to kill germs and promote healing. You can use Tea Tree Oil Cream or Calendula Cream as a worthy substitute; both help to fight infection, and they reduce scarring. Another option is to try the liquid extract form of Echinacea, diluted with a little water.

  • After the initial first aid, bandage the cut or scrape and change the dressing once or twice a day. Each time, apply either Aloe Vera Gel or Calendula Cream to the cut to diminish inflammation, stop infection, and promote healing. Grow your own Aloe Vera plant. Then, whenever you have a minor cut or scrape, break off a leaf, slice it down the middle to reveal the clear, cool aloe vera gel, and dab the gel over the wounded area. Repeat two to three times a day until healed.

  • Zinc is a trace element that plays an important role in wound healing. It stabilizes the cell membranes and also has an antibacterial effect. That is why many salves for wound healing contain zinc. It may also be taken internally to improve healing.

  • ORAL SUPPLEMENTS

  • Take oral supplements together for five days after the accident. Vitamin A and Vitamin C act as anti-inflammatories and speed healing. (If you are following suggestions for a basic daily nutritional program, which includes a High-Potency Multivitamin and a good Antioxidant Complex, the extra supplements are probably unnecessary.)

  • Fresh pineapple enzyme Bromelain has similar anti-inflammatory properties. Taking some extra echinacea orally supports your immune system to prevent a local infection.

  • Sip some soothing herbal teas. Those made with Echinacea and Goldenseal, for instance, help bolster immunity and fight infection.

  • Many health care providers strongly recommend that everyone take a High-Potency Multi-Vitamin & Multimineral supplement and well-balanced Antioxidant Complex every day. It may be necessary to adjust the dosages account for your own daily vitamin regimen. All of these supplement recommendations also assume you are eating a healthful diet.

  • SUPPLEMENT INTERACTIONS & CAUTIONS

    Be aware that certain cautions are associated with taking individual supplements, especially if you have other medical conditions and/or you are taking medications. Key cautions are given in the listing below, but you need to check each supplement's cautions and drug/nutrient interactions before using the supplement.

  • ALOE VERA: Topically apply cream or gel liberally to wound 2 or 3 times a day. Use Lavender Essential Oil as an alternative to Aloe Vera: Dab on wound 2 or 3 times a day.

  • Aloe Vera - Drug Interactions (Oral Intake):
    • Betamethasone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from betamethasone.
    • Bisoprolol Fumarate/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Chlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Chlorthalidone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Cortisone Oral: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from cortisone.
    • Dexamethasone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from dexamethasone.
    • Digitoxin: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from the medication.
    • Digoxin: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from the medication.
    • Enalapril/Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ): Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Fludrocortisone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from fludrocortisone.
    • Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ): Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Hydrochlorothiazide/Triamterene: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Hydrocortisone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from hydrocortisone.
    • Indapamide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Lisinopril/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Methylprednisolone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from methylprednisolone.
    • Metolazone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Moexipril Hydrochloride/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Prednisolone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from prednisolone.
    • Prednisone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from prednisone.
    • Propranolol/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Spironolactone/Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ): Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
    • Triamcinolone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from triamcinolone.
    • Valsartan/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.

    Aloe Vera Cautions: Do not take any form of aloe internally if you are pregnant or breast-feeding; it may trigger uterine contractions. Also avoid using it during a menstrual period. Children and the elderly should not consume aloe internally. The same is true for anyone with an intestinal obstruction, an acutely inflammatory intestinal disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), appendicitis, or abdominal pain of unknown cause. Keep in mind that products that include "aloe vera extract" or "reconstituted aloe vera" may be much less potent than pure aloe vera.

    When shopping for aloe vera juice, look for the "IASC-certified" seal; it is allowed only on products that contain certified raw ingredients that have been processed according to standards set by the International Aloe Science Council, a voluntary certification organization. Be sure that the aloe vera juice you select is derived from aloe vera gel, not from aloe latex.

  • VITAMIN A: 50,000 IU twice a day for 5 days or until wound appears to be healing nicely; pregnant women should not exceed 10,000 IU daily.

  • Vitamin A - Drug Interactions:
    • Isotretinoin: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
    • Resorcinol: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
    • Sulfur Topical: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
    • Tazarotene: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.

    Vitamin A Cautions: Make sure to take Vitamin A supplements with food; some fat in the diet will enhance absorption. Also, both Vitamin E and Zinc aid the body in using vitamin A. In turn, vitamin A facilitates the absorption of Iron from foods.

    Do not exceed recommended doses of vitamin A. Large doses of preformed vitamin A can build up to toxic levels. If you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant, do not take more than 10,000 IU of vitamin A daily. Higher amounts may result in birth defects. Practice birth control if consuming doses greater than 10,000 IU, and for a month after stopping.

  • VITAMIN C: Take 1,000 mg orally twice a day for 5 days.

  • Vitamin C Cautions: Large doses of Vitamin C may cause a false positive result for glucose in the urine. If you have hemochromatosis, a genetic tendency to store excess iron (vitamin C enhances iron absorption), do not take more than 500 mg of vitamin C a day. Vitamin C can distort the accuracy of medical tests for colon cancer and hemoglobin levels. Let your health care provider know if you are taking vitamin C supplements.

  • CALENDULA: Apply cream topically to wound 3 times a day in place of Aloe Vera or Lavender Oil.

  • Calendula Cautions: When treating any type of wound, remember that the most important thing you can do to prevent infection is to thoroughly clean the area before applying calendula or any other type of herb or medicine. If you have an allergy to ragweed, you may also be allergic to calendula because they are related species.

  • ECHINACEA: Take orally 350 to 650 mg freeze-dried root OR 2 teaspoons liquid extract 3 times a day. Topically apply 1 teaspoon liquid extract (diluted with 1 tablespoon water) to wound 2 or 3 times a day as alternative to Aloe Vera or Lavender Oil.

  • Echinacea Cautions: Echinacea is not a replacement for antibiotics or other infection-fighting drugs, but it can be used to complement them. Because Echinacea could, in theory at least, overstimulate the immune system, it could worsen the condition of lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune disorders. Consult your health care provider before taking the herb if you suffer from any of these disorders. Do not take echinacea for progressive infections such as tuberculosis.

  • TEA TREE OIL: Topically apply cream to wound 3 times a day in place of Aloe Vera or Lavender Oil.

  • Tea Tree Oil Cautions: Never ingest tea tree oil. It is for external use only, and should never be applied around the eyes. If you accidentally ingest the oil, immediately contact a health care provider or a poison control center. Consult your health care provider before replacing any prescription medications with tea tree oil. Look for tea tree oil derived only from Melaleuca alternifolia. Oil from other species may have a high percentage of cineole, a compound that can irritate the skin and hinder the active ingredients from providing any therapeutic actions. Tea tree oil can irritate sensitive skin, especially in the vaginal area. It can also prompt an allergic reaction in some people. As a safety precaution, dab a small amount on your inner arm with a cotton swab before using the oil or a product that contains it. If you are allergic your arm will quickly become red or inflamed.

    Tea tree oil is found in various skin-care and beauty products (shampoos, soaps, and so on) as well as in some toothpastes. Because the oil is dangerous if swallowed, only very small amounts are added to toothpastes (which makes the products safe, but essentially nullifies any bacteria-fighting benefits they claim to have). The amount of oil found in various skin-care and beauty products is also often miniscule.

    HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES

  • Arnica: Arnica accelerates blood coagulation and reduces wound pain. Take 2 pellets of 30C or higher every 15 minutes for 1 hour.

  • Belladonna: A hot wound that throbs is a symptom of infection, for which Belladonna is helpful. Take 2 pellets every 30 minutes until the throbbing lessens.





  • NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

    Unless otherwise specified, the dosages recommended in this section are for adults. For a child between the ages of 12 and 17 years, reduce the dose to 3/4 the recommended amount. For a child between 6 and 12, use 1/2 the recommended dose, and for a child under the age of 6, use 1/4 the recommended amount.

    NUTRIENTS
    Supplement
    Suggested Dosage
    Comments
    Very Important
    Vitamin C
    With
    Bioflavonoids
    4,000 to 10,000 mg daily in divided doses for one week, then reduce to 3,000 mg daily. Fights infection. Important for repair of collagen and connective tissue.

  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Bioflavonoids Supplement Products
  • Important
    Proteolytic Enzymes
    As directed on label, 3 times daily. Take between meals, on an empty stomach. Acts as an anti-inflammatory.

  • Multi-Enzymes Supplement Products
  • Helpful
    Colloidal Silver
    As directed on label. To reduce the danger of infection. Can be taken internally or placed on a sterile bandage covering the wound.

  • Silver Supplement Products
  • Garlic (Kyolic)
    2 capsules 3 times daily. Acts as a natural antibiotic. Kills bacteria and parasites. Enhances immunity.

  • Garlic Herbal Supplement Products
  • L-Cysteine
    And
    L-Methionine
    500 mg of each daily for two weeks. Take on an empty stomach. Take with water or juice. Do not take with milk. Take with 50 mg Vitamin B-6 and 100 mg Vitamin C for better absorption. Powerful detoxifying agents.

  • Cysteine Supplement Products
  • Methionine Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-6 Supplement Products
  • Vitamin C Supplement Products
  • Vitamin A
    25,000 IU daily. If you are pregnant, do not exceed 10,000 IU daily. Powerful antioxidants that aid the immune system and assist healing of the skin.

  • Vitamin A Supplement Products
  • Plus
    Beta Carotene
    And
    Carotene Complex
    25,000 IU daily.

    As directed on label.
    Powerful antioxidants that aid the immune system and assist healing of the skin.

  • Beta Carotene & Carotene Complex Supplement Products
  • Plus
    Vitamin E
    200 to 400 IU daily. A Powerful antioxidant that aid the immune system and assist healing of the skin.

  • Vitamin E Supplement Products
  • Vitamin B-Complex
    50 mg of each B-Vitamin daily, with meals 3 times daily (amounts of individual vitamins with vary in a complex). B-Vitamins work best when taken together. Aids in tissue oxidation and antibody production.

  • Vitamin B-Complex Supplement Products





  • NOTIFY YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER

  • If you or a family member has been bitten by a dog (or other animal) on your hand, foot or head, or you have a bite that is deep or gaping. Your health care provider will:
    • Examine the wound for possible nerve or tendon damage, or bone injury and signs of infection.
    • Clean the wound with special solution and remove any damaged tissue.
    • Use stitches to close a bite wound, but often the wound is left open to heal, so the risk of infection is lowered.
    • Prescribe an antibiotic to prevent infection.
    • May have you do a follow up visit in a few days.
    • If your injury is severe, of if the infection has not gotten better even though you are taking antibiotics, you may be referred to a specialist and/or go to the hospital and get antibiotics intravenously and/or other further treatment.

  • If you have diabetes, liver or lung disease, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), or another condition that could weaken your ability to fight infection.

  • If you have a fever above 101°F, swelling, redness, warmth, increased tenderness, oozing of pus, or other signs of infection.

  • If you have bleeding that does not stop after 15 minutes of pressure or you think you may have a broken bone, nerve damage or other serious injury.

  • If your last tetanus vaccination was more than 5 years ago. If so, you may need a booster shot.

  • If you are unable to find the dog that bit you and you feel you need to be examined.

  • If you have any unexpected or unusual symptoms. Some people may have sensitivity, allergies, or other health conditions which would prevent them from using certain medications, herbs, supplements or other treatments. Some medications may produce side effects.

  • HELPFUL ONLINE LINKS

  • Dog Bite Law: Information about dog bites, victims, etc.
  • Humane Society: Staying Dog Bite Free
  • AVMA: Dog Owner Brochures - Dog Bite Prevention & Rabies
  • DogLaw.HugPug.com: Dog Law & Dog Bites
  • American Kennel Club: Tips To Prevent Dog Bites
  • DogGoneSafe: A Non-Profit Resource of Dog Bite Prevention & Education
  • USPS: Dog Bite Awareness - The U.S. Postal Service
  • KidsHealth: Dogs and Preventing Dog Bites - Kid's Tutorial





    MoonDragon's Womens Health Index

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    Health & Wellness Index





    AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Allspice Leaf Oil
    Angelica Oil
    Anise Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Basil Oil
    Bay Laurel Oil
    Bay Oil
    Benzoin Oil
    Bergamot Oil
    Black Pepper Oil
    Chamomile (German) Oil
    Cajuput Oil
    Calamus Oil
    Camphor (White) Oil
    Caraway Oil
    Cardamom Oil
    Carrot Seed Oil
    Catnip Oil
    Cedarwood Oil
    Chamomile Oil
    Cinnamon Oil
    Citronella Oil
    Clary-Sage Oil
    Clove Oil
    Coriander Oil
    Cypress Oil
    Dill Oil
    Eucalyptus Oil
    Fennel Oil
    Fir Needle Oil
    Frankincense Oil
    Geranium Oil
    German Chamomile Oil
    Ginger Oil
    Grapefruit Oil
    Helichrysum Oil
    Hyssop Oil
    Iris-Root Oil
    Jasmine Oil
    Juniper Oil
    Labdanum Oil
    Lavender Oil
    Lemon-Balm Oil
    Lemongrass Oil
    Lemon Oil
    Lime Oil
    Longleaf-Pine Oil
    Mandarin Oil
    Marjoram Oil
    Mimosa Oil
    Myrrh Oil
    Myrtle Oil
    Neroli Oil
    Niaouli Oil
    Nutmeg Oil
    Orange Oil
    Oregano Oil
    Palmarosa Oil
    Patchouli Oil
    Peppermint Oil
    Peru-Balsam Oil
    Petitgrain Oil
    Pine-Long Leaf Oil
    Pine-Needle Oil
    Pine-Swiss Oil
    Rosemary Oil
    Rose Oil
    Rosewood Oil
    Sage Oil
    Sandalwood Oil
    Savory Oil
    Spearmint Oil
    Spikenard Oil
    Swiss-Pine Oil
    Tangerine Oil
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Thyme Oil
    Vanilla Oil
    Verbena Oil
    Vetiver Oil
    Violet Oil
    White-Camphor Oil
    Yarrow Oil
    Ylang-Ylang Oil
    Aromatherapy
    Healing Baths For Colds
    Aromatherapy
    Herbal Cleansers
    Using Essential Oils


    AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES


    Almond, Sweet Oil
    Apricot Kernel Oil
    Argan Oil
    Arnica Oil
    Avocado Oil
    Baobab Oil
    Black Cumin Oil
    Black Currant Oil
    Black Seed Oil
    Borage Seed Oil
    Calendula Oil
    Camelina Oil
    Castor Oil
    Coconut Oil
    Comfrey Oil
    Evening Primrose Oil
    Flaxseed Oil
    Grapeseed Oil
    Hazelnut Oil
    Hemp Seed Oil
    Jojoba Oil
    Kukui Nut Oil
    Macadamia Nut Oil
    Meadowfoam Seed Oil
    Mullein Oil
    Neem Oil
    Olive Oil
    Palm Oil
    Plantain Oil
    Plum Kernel Oil
    Poke Root Oil
    Pomegranate Seed Oil
    Pumpkin Seed Oil
    Rosehip Seed Oil
    Safflower Oil
    Sea Buckthorn Oil
    Sesame Seed Oil
    Shea Nut Oil
    Soybean Oil
    St. Johns Wort Oil
    Sunflower Oil
    Tamanu Oil
    Vitamin E Oil
    Wheat Germ Oil





    HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction


  • NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute?
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water





  • RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION

  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index
  • MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips
  • MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1
  • MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index







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