MoonDragon's Health & Wellness
(Cat or Animal Bites)
"For Informational Use Only"
For more detailed information contact your health care provider
about options that may be available for your specific situation.
DOG BITE DESCRIPTION
A bite or scratch from a dog (or cat or any animal) that breaks the skin poses the danger of infection, especially if the wound is deep. Any bite also carries the risk of rabies. Most household pets have been immunized against rabies, but the possibility of infection still exists. It is also possible to contract a tetanus infection from an animal bite. The microbe that causes tetanus, Clostridum tetani, lives in the top layers of soil, and in the intestinal tracts of cows and horses. It easily infects wounds that result in reduced oxygen flow in the tissue, particularly crushing and puncture wounds.
A dog (or animal bite) can be nothing more than a minor graze, or it can be so severe as to be life threatening. Children are at most risk from dog bites, and children under 5 years of age are victim of the most severe attacks - many of them requiring hospitalization.
DOG BITE INCIDENCE
Each year approximately 4 million Americans are bitten by dogs, and about 800,000 of these persons (44 percent of whom are younger than 14 years) present for medical treatment. More than one dozen fatalities related to dog bites occur each year in this country; most of these victims are children. Although most dog bite attacks are not provoked, there are several measures that adults and children can take to decrease the possibility of being bitten. Family health care providers can educate parents and children on ways to prevent dog bites, but, when dog bites do occur, the health care provider must be knowledgeable about how to treat the bites effectively.
More than one dozen fatalities related to dog bites occur each year in this country; most of these victims are children.
As of 1994, an estimated 34 million American households owned at least one dog, accounting for a canine population in the United States in excess of 55 million. Most dogs never bite a human; however, under certain circumstances, any dog is capable of inflicting harm. The most common victims of dog bites are children, especially in incidents that prove fatal. Almost one half of all reported cases of dog bites involve an animal owned by the victim's family or the victim's neighbors. Most victims are involved in normal, non-provoking activities before the dog attacks. For example, neonatal deaths resulting from a dog bite most often involve a sleeping baby.
Several dog breeds have been identified for their role in fatal dog bite attacks, including pit bull breeds, malamutes, chows, Rottweilers, huskies, German shepherds and wolf hybrids. From 1979 to 1988, pit bull breeds accounted for more than 41 percent of dog biterelated fatalities, three times as many as German shepherds.
IS A RABIES SHOT NEEDED?
Probably not. Rabies is uncommon in dogs and cats in the United States. If a dog or cat that bit you appeared to be healthy at the time of the bite, it is unlikely that the animal had rabies. However, it is a good idea to take some precautions if you are bitten by a dog or cat. If the bite is from a wild animal or a pet that has become feral, the risk increases.
If you know the owner of the dog or cat that bit you, ask for the pet's vaccination record (record of shots). An animal that appears healthy and has been vaccinated should still be quarantined (kept away from people and other animals) for 10 days to make sure it does not start showing signs of rabies. If the animal gets sick during the 10-day period, a veterinarian will test it for rabies. If the animal does have rabies, you will need to get a series of rabies shots (see below).
If the animal is a stray, or you cannot find the owner of the dog or cat that bit you, call the animal control agency or health department in your area. They will try to find the animal so it can be tested for rabies.
If the animal control agency or health department cannot find the animal that bit you, if the animal shows signs of rabies after the bite, or if a test shows that the animal has rabies, your health care provider will probably want you to get a series of rabies shots (also called post-exposure prophylaxis). You need to get the first shot as soon as possible after the bite occurs. After you receive the first shot, your health care provider will give you 5 more shots over a 28-day period.
HOME-CARE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ANIMAL BITES
For superficial bites from a familiar household pet who is immunized and in good health:
If you have been bitten by a dog or any animal, the first thing you should do is remove the animal's saliva from the wound. Wash the wound area thoroughly with warm water, then add soap and water under pressure from a faucet for at least five minutes more, but do not scrub, as this may bruise the tissue. Rinse the wound a few minutes more with plain water. Apply an antiseptic lotion or cream.
Watch for signs of infection at the site, such as increased redness or pain, swelling, drainage, or if the person develops a fever. Call your health care provider right away if any of these symptoms occur.
DEEP BITES OR PUNCTURE WOUNDS
For deeper bites or puncture wounds from any animal, or for any bite from a strange animal:
If the bite or scratch is bleeding, apply pressure to the injured part with a clean bandage or towel to stop the bleeding.
Wash the wound with soap and water under pressure from a faucet for at least five minutes, but do not scrub, as this may bruise the tissue.
Dry the wound and cover it with a sterile gauze dressing for 24 hours or until seen by your health care provider. Do not use tape or butterfly bandages to close the wound, as this could trap harmful bacteria in the wound.
Keep the injury elevated above the level of the heart to slow swelling and prevent infection.
Call your health care professional for guidance in reporting the attack and to determine whether additional treatment, such as stitches (sutures) or antibiotics, a tetanus booster, or rabies vaccination is needed. This is especially important for bites on the face, or for bites that cause deeper puncture wounds of the skin.
Report the incident to the proper authority in your community (animal control or police). If possible, locate the animal that inflicted the wound. If you know who the dog's owner is, inquire as to the animal's vaccination status. If the dog is unfamiliar, try to have someone confine it if possible so that its health can be checked and it can be placed under observation. Some animals need to be captured, confined, and observed for rabies. Do not try to capture the animal yourself; instead contact the nearest animal warden or animal control office in your area.
If the animal cannot be found, or if the animal was a high-risk species (skunk or bat), or the animal attack was unprovoked, the victim may need a series of rabies shots.
Apply antibiotic ointment to the area 2 times every day until the bite heals or follow instructions given by your health care provider.
Call your health care provider for any flu-like symptoms such as a fever, headache, malaise, decreased appetite, or swollen glands following an animal bite.
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Cuts, Scrapes & Wounds
Your health care provider may prescribe an oral antibiotic to prevent infection. If so, make sure that you take Acidophilus to replace the "friendly" bacteria that antibiotics destroy. Your health care provider will also likely recommend you have a tetanus booster shot if you have not had one in 6 years or more.
RABIES CONSIDERATIONS & CONCERNS
In most states, dog bite incidents must be reported to the local health department, and the dog must then be kept under observation for any signs of rabies:
- Foaming at the mouth.
- Sensitivity to noise and light.
Rabies is an RNA-type of virus that, once established in the human central nervous system, is invariably fatal. If the animal cannot be located and rabies ruled out, a serious of rabies injections will be necessary. These have been highly unpleasant to the person receiving them. The series of injections available today is not longer so painful, not are injections given in the stomach, as in the past. However, It is best to try very hard to locate the animal if at all possible and have it quarantined.
DESCRIPTION OF RABIES
Rabies is a viral infection of certain warm-blooded animals and is caused by a virus in the Rhabdoviridae family. It attacks the nervous system and, once symptoms develop, it is 100 percent fatal in animals, if left untreated. In North America, rabies occurs primarily in skunks, raccoons, foxes, and bats. In some areas, these wild animals infect domestic cats, dogs, and livestock. In the United States, cats are more likely than dogs to be rabid. Generally, rabies is rare in small rodents such as beavers, chipmunks, squirrels, rats, mice, or hamsters. Rabies is also rare in rabbits. In the mid-Atlantic states, where rabies is increasing in raccoons, woodchucks can also be rabid.
Between 40,000 and 70,000 people die of rabies worldwide each year, with a further 10 million receiving treatment after being exposed to animals suspected of having rabies. Detecting, preventing and controlling the disease in the United States costs more than $300 million a year.
The rabies virus enters the body through a cut or scratch, or through mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and eyes), and travels to the central nervous system. Once the infection is established in the brain, the virus travels down the nerves from the brain and multiplies in different organs.
The salivary glands and organs are most important in the spread of rabies from one animal to another. When an infected animal bites another animal, the rabies virus is transmitted through the infected animal's saliva. Scratches by claws of rabid animals are also dangerous because these animals lick their claws. Other rare means of infection are through entering a cave polluted by infected bats or through receiving organ transplants from a person carrying the rabies virus.
The incubation in humans from the time of exposure to the onset of illness can range anywhere from five days to more than a year depending on the severity and location of the bite, the amount of virus present and the strain of the virus, although the average incubation period is about two months (typical 30 to 50 days). The following are the most common symptoms of rabies. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
RABIES: STAGE 1
- Initial period of vague symptoms, lasting 2 to 10 days.
- Vague symptoms may include:
- Malaise and lethargy.
- Decreased appetite.
- Pain, itching or numbness and tingling at the site of the wound.
RABIES: STAGE 2
- Excessive salivation. Patients often develop difficulty in swallowing (sometimes referred to as "foaming at the mouth" due to the inability to swallow saliva - even the sight of water may terrify the patient (hydrophobia).
- Some patients have neurological signs such as insomnia, agitation (anxiety) and disorientation (confusion), while others become paralyzed.
- Furious Rabies causes the animal to foam and drool at the mouth. Animals behave unpredictably and may become vicious, snap at imaginary objects and attack without warning. The animal becomes progressively uncoordinated, paralyzed and usually dies in 4 to 5 days.
- Dumb Rabies causes early paralysis, followed by drooling and death. Animals with dumb rabies remain quiet and only bite when provoked. They are unable to eat, but will frequently try to drink water.
- Immediate death, or coma resulting in death from other complications, may result. Death usually occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.
The symptoms of rabies may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.
DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES
In animals, the direct fluorescent antibody test (dFA) is most frequently used to detect rabies. Within a few hours, diagnostic laboratories can determine whether an animal is rabid and provide this information to medical professionals. These results may save a person from undergoing treatment if the animal is not rabid.
In humans, a number of tests are necessary to confirm or rule out rabies, as no single test can be used to rule out the disease with certainty. Tests are performed on samples of serum, saliva, and spinal fluid. Skin biopsies may also be taken from the nape of the neck.
TREATMENT FOR RABIES
Unfortunately, there is no known, effective treatment for rabies once symptoms of the disease occur. However, there is an effective new vaccine which provides immunity to rabies when administered after an exposure. It may also be used for protection before an exposure occurs, for persons such as veterinarians and animal handlers.
The only hope for those bitten by a rabid animal is a course of vaccination before symptoms appear. Treatment requires prompt cleaning and disinfection of the bite site and a course of six injections over a month; one injection contains antibodies to fight the virus, the others are vaccinations to ensure long-term protection against the disease.
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DOG BITES
After confirming that the victim is medically stable, health care providers should begin a primary assessment by taking a patient history. Several medical conditions place a patient at high risk of wound and rabies virus infection from a dog bite. Information that can help determine the patient's risk of infection includes the time of the injury, whether the animal was provoked, and the general health, immunization status and current location of the animal. In some locations, notification of animal control or local law enforcement may be necessary. Also, the patient's tetanus immunization status, current medications and allergies must be noted in the record. During the physical examination, the measurement and classification of the wound (laceration, puncture, crushing or avulsion), and the range of motion of the affected and adjacent areas should be documented. Nerve, vascular and motor function, including pertinent negative findings, should be recorded. Diagrams and photographs are useful, especially in cases with irregular wounds or signs of infection, and in cases that may involve litigation, such as a wound inflicted by an unleashed dog.
Associated with a High Risk of Infection
After a Dog Bite
- Chronic Disease
- Chronic Edema of the Extremity
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Liver Dysfunction
- Previous Mastectomy
- Prosthetic Valve or Joint
- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Timely and copious irrigation with normal saline or Ringer's lactate solution may reduce the rate of infection markedly. Injection of the tissue with irrigant solution should be avoided, because this can spread the infection. Necrotic or devitalized tissues should be removed, but care must be taken not to debride so much tissue as to cause problems with wound closure and appearance. Baseline radiographs (x-rays) may be obtained, especially with puncture wounds near a joint or bone.
The role of wound closure remains controversial. Puncture wounds, wounds that appear clinically infected and wounds more than 24 hours old may have a better outcome with delayed primary closure or healing by secondary intention. Some health care providers close wounds that are less than eight hours old and wounds located on the face. The success of closing facial wounds can probably be attributed to the enhanced blood supply to the face and the lack of dependent edema. Plastic surgery, general surgery or maxillofacial surgery may be necessary for deep wounds or those requiring significant debridement and closure. Cultures are usually not helpful unless the wound appears infected or is unresponsive to appropriate antibiotic therapy. When a culture is necessary, aerobic and anaerobic cultures should be obtained and observed for a minimum of 7 to 10 days to allow for slow-growing pathogens. Orthopedic consultation should be considered for wounds that directly involve joints or other bony structures.
Only 15 to 20 percent of dog bite wounds become infected. Crush injuries, puncture wounds and hand wounds are more likely to become infected than scratches or tears. Most infected dog bite wounds yield polymicrobial organisms. Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common aerobic organisms, occurring in 20 to 30 percent of infected dog bite wounds. Other possible aerobic pathogens include Streptococcus species, Corynebacterium species, Eikenella corrodens and Capnocytophaga canimorsus (formerly known as DF-2). Anaerobic organisms, including Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium species and Veillonella parvula, have also been implicated in infected dog bites. One review article identified 28 species of aerobic organisms and 12 species of anaerobic organisms isolated from dog bite wounds.
Treatment with prophylactic antibiotics for three to seven days is appropriate for dog bite wounds, unless the risk of infection is low or the wound is superficial. If frank cellulitis is evident, a 10- to 14-day course of treatment is more appropriate. Amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) is the antibiotic of choice for a dog bite. For patients who are allergic to penicillin, doxycycline (Vibramycin) is an acceptable alternative, except for children younger than eight years and pregnant women. Erythromycin can also be used, but the risk of treatment failure is greater because of antimicrobial resistance. Other acceptable combinations include clindamycin (Cleocin) and a fluoroquinolone in adults or clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra) in children. When compliance is a concern, daily intramuscular injections of ceftriaxone (Rocephin) are appropriate.
Occasionally, outpatient treatment of infection fails and the patient needs to be hospitalized and treated intravenously with antibiotics. Reasons for hospitalization include systemic signs of infection; fever or chills; severe or rapidly spreading cellulitis or advancement of cellulitis past one joint; and involvement of a bone, joint, tendon or nerve.
Consultation with a maxillofacial or plastic surgeon may be required if the patient has a facial or other highly visible wound. For patients hospitalized with cellulitis or abscess formation in an extremity, surgical consultation should be considered immediately because of the risk of worsening infection and tissue damage. Depending on community practices and the location of the injury, general orthopedic surgery, hand surgery or general surgery consultation may be appropriate. Tetanus immunization and tetanus immune globulin should be administered, if appropriate. Recommendations for tetanus prophylaxis are given above.
ACIP Recommendation Summary
Tetanus Prophylaxis in Routine Wound Management
Clean, minor wounds All other wounds* History of adsorbed tetanus toxoid (doses) Td† TIG Td‡ TIG Unknown or less than three Yes No Yes Yes Three or more† No§ No No|| No
ACIP = Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
DTP = diphtheria tetanus and pertussis
Td = tetanus and diphtheria toxoids adsorbed (adult)
TIG = tetanus immune globulin (Hyper-Tet).
* - Including, but not limited to, wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, soil or saliva; puncture wounds; avulsions; and wounds resulting from missiles, crushing, burns and frostbite.
† - For children younger than seven years, DTP (dT, if pertussis vaccine is contraindicated) is preferred to tetanus toxoid alone. For persons seven years or older, Td is preferred to tetanus toxoid alone. Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) may be used instead of DTP for the fourth and fifth doses.
‡ - If only three doses of fluid toxoid have been received, then a fourth dose of toxoid, preferably an adsorbed toxoid, should be given to complete the series.
§ - Yes, if it has been more than 10 years since the last dose.
|| Yes, if it has been more than five years since the last dose. (More frequent boosters are not needed and can accentuate side effects.)
From Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis: recommendations for vaccine use and other preventive measures. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1991;40:21.
ASSESSING THE RISK OF RABIES
The patient's risk of infection with rabies virus must be addressed immediately. Because of the serious risk to the public of a rabid animal on the loose, it is important to document the conditions surrounding the attack. As a result of widespread vaccination of dogs against rabies in the United States, the most common source of the rabies virus is now wild animals, specifically raccoons, skunks and bats. Nonetheless, there are still reported cases of rabies virus associated with a dog bite. Patients with a bite from a non-provoked dog should be considered at higher risk for rabies infection than patients with a bite from a provoked dog. If the dog owner is reliable and can confirm that the animal's vaccination against rabies virus is current, the dog may be observed at the owner's home. Observation by a veterinarian is appropriate when the vaccination status of the animal is unknown. If the animal cannot be quarantined for 10 days, the dog bite victim should receive rabies immunization.
Rabies immunization should begin within 48 hours after the bite, but it can be subsequently discontinued if the animal is shown to be free of rabies virus. Rabies immunization consists of an active immune response with a vaccine and a passive immune response with rabies immune globulin (RIG). Guidelines for rabies immunization are given below.
Rabies Immunization Guidelines
VACCINATION STATUS TREATMENT REGIMEN* Not previously vaccinated RIG Administer 20 IU per kg body weight. If anatomically feasible, the full dose should be infiltrated around the wound(s) and any remaining volume should be administered IM at an anatomic site distant from vaccine administration. Also, RIG should not be administered in the same syringe as vaccine. Because RIG may partially suppress active production of antibody, no more than the recommended dose should be given. Vaccine HDCV, RVA, or PCEC 1 mL, IM (deltoid area†), once daily on days 0‡, 3, 7, 14 and 28 Previously vaccinated§ RIG RIG should not be administered. Vaccine HDCV, RVA, or PCEC 1.0 mL, IM (deltoid area†), once daily on days 0‡ and 3
RIG = Rabies Immune Globulin
IU = Immunizing Unit
IM = Intra-muscularly
HDCV = Human Diploid Cell Vaccine
RVA = Rabies Vaccine Adsorbed
PCEC = Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine
* - These regimens apply to all age groups, including children.
† - The deltoid area is the only acceptable site of vaccination for adults and older children. For younger children, the outer aspect of the thigh may be used. Vaccine should never be administered in the gluteal area.
‡ - Day 0 is the day the first dose of vaccine is administered.
§ - Any person with a history of pre-exposure vaccination with HDCV, RVA or PCEC, prior post-exposure prophylaxis with HDCV, RVA or PCEC, or previous vaccination with any other type of rabies vaccine and a documented history of antibody response to the prior vaccination.
Reprinted from Human rabies prevention - United States, 1999. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48(RR-1):1-21 [Published erratum appears in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48:16].
FOLLOW-UP MEDICAL CARE
Patients who have been bitten by a dog should be instructed to elevate and immobilize the involved area. Most bite wounds should be reexamined in 24 to 48 hours, especially bites to the hands.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR FAMILIES CONSIDERING GETTING A DOG
When families are considering getting a dog as a pet, they need to keep in mind that dogs can play an important role in family life. As the canine population grows, so does the need for guidance to prevent dog bites. Prevention can begin with information from primary care professionals and veterinarians. Because a large percentage of dog bite victims are younger than 14 years, it is appropriate to begin prevention education with children and parents. Families acquiring a pet should consider their home environment and be told that a dog younger than four months is preferred. An older dog should not be introduced into a household with children because the dog's behavior cannot be predicted. Prospective dog owners should obtain breed-specific information before getting a new dog.
Some breeds of dogs are more likely to attack despite training. Other breeds seem to be accepted more as "family dogs". Families should be educated to avoid "humanizing" their dog (e.g., allowing it to sleep on the furniture and to beg for food at the dinner table) and treating the dog as a child or a substitute for a mate. This type of behavior makes it more difficult for the animal to distinguish between animal and master and may increase the risk of the dog biting.
BREED SPECIFIC AGGRESSIVENESS
AGGRESSIVE DOGS (Higher Attack Rates)
- Bull Terrier
- Cocker Spaniel
- Chow Chow
- Doberman Pinscher
- German Shepherd
- Great Dane
- Pit Bull
- Siberian Husky
LESS AGGRESSIVE DOGS ("Family Dogs")
- English Setter
- English Springer
- Golden Retriever
- Irish Setter
- Labrador Retriever
PREVENTING DOG & CAT BITES
Being safe around animals, even your own pets, can help reduce the risk of animal bites. Some general guidelines for avoiding animal bites and rabies include the following:
- Never leave a young child alone with a pet.
- Do not try to separate fighting animals.
- Avoid sick animals and strange animals that you do not know.
- Leave animals alone while they are eating.
- Keep pets on a leash when in public.
- Select your family pet carefully.
- Do not approach or play with wild animals of any kind, and be aware that domestic animals may also be infected with the rabies virus.
- Supervise pets so they do not come into contact with wild animals. Call your local animal control agency to remove any stray animals.
- Be sure to keep your pet's vaccinations (shots) up-to-date. This is especially important if they are outdoor or outdoor/indoor pets. A pet (such as a cat) that never goes outdoors and is strictly an indoor pet, is at a lower risk of transmitting a serious infection since exposure to an infecting agent, such as rabies, is minimal. However, cat scratches, even from a kitten can carry "cat scratch disease," a bacterial infection.
BEHAVIOR TO PREVENT A BITE
Measures for preventing dog bites are given above. Dogs have a tendency to chase a moving object. Therefore, children need to learn to avoid running and screaming in the presence of a dog. Dogs should not be greeted by presenting an outstretched hand. Do not pet a dog without letting it sniff you first. Hugging and "kissing" a dog express a sense of submission to the animal, which is confusing because the animal is used to viewing humans as being in charge. This confusion may lead to more aggressive behavior by the animal.
Educate children and adults to remain calm when threatened by a dog. Direct eye contact should be avoided because the dog may interpret that as aggression. Standing still ("like a tree") with feet together, fists folded under the neck, and arms placed against the chest is recommended. If knocked to the ground by a dog, recommendations include lying face down and becoming still "like a log," with legs together and fists behind the neck with forearms covering the ears. If a dog perceives no movement, it will most likely lose interest and go away.
If you or someone you know is bitten by an animal, remember these facts to report to your healthcare provider:
- Location of the accident.
- Type of animal involved (domestic pet or wild animal).
- Type of exposure (cut, scratch, licking of open wound).
- Part of the body involved.
- Number of exposures.
- Whether or not the animal has been immunized against rabies.
- Whether or not the animal is sick or well - if "sick," what symptoms were present in the animal.
- whether or not the animal is available for testing or quarantine.
Echinacea, Goldenseal, Pau D'Arco, and Red Clover, taken in tea form, are good for dog bites. Goldenseal extract can also be applied directly on the affected area. This is a natural antibiotic that helps to fight infection. Caution: Do not take Goldenseal internally on a daily basis for more than one week at a time, and do not use it during pregnancy. If you have a history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or glaucoma, use it only under supervision.
See Nutritional Supplements located on this page for more recommendations to aid in a fast recovery.
MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Cuts, Scrapes & Wounds
Essentially, a wound is an injury by an external factor to the skin and its underlying tissue. Some of the most common skin wounds are cuts, tears, punctures and abrasions. Symptoms include bleeding, redness, swelling, pain and sometimes pus formation. The skin's protective ability is compromised in the injured area, so bacteria and foreign bodies can penetrate and may cause an infection that will delay healing. When the wound heals, it closes in two basic stages. First, blood coagulates and forms the protective layer, the scab. Then the injured tissue beneath is replaced by new connective tissue. Small superficial wounds can be treated at home, but a sterile dressing should be applied to a major wound as a first-aid measure, and a health care provider should be consulted immediately.
Many medicinal plants, as well as acupuncture, heat therapies and therapeutic touch, have been known to accelerate wound healing.
QUICK SELF-CARE REMEDIES FOR MINOR WOUNDS
Stopping the bleeding is the first order of business, unless the injury is a puncture wound. Let a puncture wound bleed freely for several minutes to allow germs to be flushed out. If necessary, press gently around the wound to encourage it to bleed. For minor cuts and scrapes, apply steady pressure for several minutes, using a clean cloth or tissue. If blood soaks through, apply another layer of cloth or tissue and additional pressure. If possible, elevate the injured part above the heart to slow blood flow.
Thoroughly cleanse the area around the injury by swabbing it gently with a clean, wet cloth, or holding it under cold running water. If the surrounding area is dirty, clean it with a mild soap, but keep the soap out of the wound to avoid irritation. If necessary,remove any particles of dirt from the wound with a pair of clean tweezers dipped in alcohol.
If you cannot wash the wound, then lick it (I know this sounds yucky, but often times this is one of our first initial responses... sticking a hurt finger into out mouth seems to ease the discomfort). A study in the prestigious journal Lancet found that saliva contains a number of substances that can help kill bacteria and promote healing.
Bandage the wound with a sterile dressing, especially if it's in a place likely to get dirty or further injured, such as a hand, foot, or knee. Change the dressing frequently, but do not leave it on for more than a couple of days. Exposure to the air will reduce the risk of infection and speed up healing.
Never pick at a scab no matter how good it feels or how much it itches. This could lead to infection or scarring. Simply let the scab fall off after the skin has healed.
If in a pinch, apply a thin layer of petroleum jelly as a substitute for antiseptics and antibiotic ointments.
HELPFUL REMEDIES, SUPPLEMENTS & PRODUCTS
Never wash small wounds. Instead, allow them to bleed a bit, which will help wash away bacteria. Do not touch wounds and do not remove the scab. The scab is needed to stop bleeding and prevent additional bacteria from entering the wound. the surrounding tissue, called the wound margin, can be carefully cleaned with water and then rinsed with a diluted Calendula (1 part Calendula to 5 parts lukewarm water). Cover small wounds with an adhesive bandage and large wounds with a sterile dressing.
When the bleeding has stopped and the wound has been cleansed, apply Lavender Oil or Tea Tree Cream, both of which promoe healing and guard against infection.
A dab of Echinacea. Calendula, or Myrrh tincture (diluted in water) can be applied to the wound once bleeding has stopped to promote healing and help prevent infection.
After you apply herbal remedies, bandage the wound. Each time you change the dressing, three or four times a day, spread some Aloe Vera Gel or Calendula Cream over the wound and bandage lightly.
Everyday for five days after the injury, take Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Bromelain (an enzyme derived from fresh pineapple).
Drink herbal tea made with Echinacea and Goldenseal. Taken together, these herbs will help boost the immune system and speed up the healing process.
TEA TREE OIL DISINFECTANT
Tea Tree Oil is a good option for natural wound care. Because it is a disinfectant, Tea Tree Oil keeps the wound free of germs and also works to dissolve pus.
Put a mixture of 1 part Tea Tree Oil and 10 parts Calendula Oil on the wound 3 times a day until it heals.
HERBAL INFUSIONS PROMOTE HEALING
Herbal preparations made of St. John's Wort, Calendula, Chamomile, and/or Comfrey promote the healing process.
To make a herbal infusion, pour about 1 cup of boiling water over 2 heaping tablespoons of Comfrey, Chamomile and Calendula. Cover and let steep for 10 minutes, strain and allow the infusion to cool somewhat before using it on wounds. Dip a linen cloth in the infusion. Apply it to the wound and secure it with a gauze bandage. Be sure to change the dressing at regular intervals.
TEA TREE ANTISEPTIC SKIN SPRAY
4 ounces Witch Hazel Tincture
2 teaspoons 190 proof Ethyl Alcohol or 100 Proof Vodka (optional)
1/8 Ounce Tea Tree Oil
Dissolve the Tea Tree Oil in the ethyl alcohol and then stir into the witch hazel. Pour into a spray bottle. Shake well before using. Spray on minor cuts and scratches. Tip: You can skip using the ethyl alcohol - its main purpose is to help the Tea tree oil dissolve and mix better into the solution. If you do not want to use the ethyl alcohol shaking very well before each use will be necessary.
COMFREY ROOT POULTICE
Dig fresh Comfrey Root and wash it well. Grate 1/4 to 1/2 cup of the root and add 1 to 2 teaspoons of Calendula Oil or St. John's Wort Oil to the sticky mass. Spoon it onto thin layers of gauze, and apply it to the wound. You can keep unused comfrey root in a sealed bag in the refrigerator for several months.
ST. JOHN'S WORT OIL
An external application of St. John's Wort reduces inflammation and relieves pain in fresh, bleeding wounds. St. John's Wort is always excellent for trauma to the nerves, finger injuries, tailbone trauma, and neuralgia. You can buy the oil as an over-the-counter product or make it yourself by pouring Olive Oil over fresh flowers from the plant. Grind the mix to a puree in a blender and store it in the sun for 6 weeks or until the oil turns bright red.
GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACT ANTISEPTIC
The Grapefruit Seed Extract is a powerful natural antiseptic that prohibits growth of bacteria, viruses and fungi. It also helps relieve pain and accelerate the healing process. To treat wounds, apply a few drops of undiluted Grapefruit Seed Extract to the affected areas.
After you carefully clean the cut and the bleeding stops, rub Lavender Oil gently on the wound to kill germs and promote healing. You can use Tea Tree Oil Cream or Calendula Cream as a worthy substitute; both help to fight infection, and they reduce scarring. Another option is to try the liquid extract form of Echinacea, diluted with a little water.
After the initial first aid, bandage the cut or scrape and change the dressing once or twice a day. Each time, apply either Aloe Vera Gel or Calendula Cream to the cut to diminish inflammation, stop infection, and promote healing. Grow your own Aloe Vera plant. Then, whenever you have a minor cut or scrape, break off a leaf, slice it down the middle to reveal the clear, cool aloe vera gel, and dab the gel over the wounded area. Repeat two to three times a day until healed.
Zinc is a trace element that plays an important role in wound healing. It stabilizes the cell membranes and also has an antibacterial effect. That is why many salves for wound healing contain zinc. It may also be taken internally to improve healing.
Take oral supplements together for five days after the accident. Vitamin A and Vitamin C act as anti-inflammatories and speed healing. (If you are following suggestions for a basic daily nutritional program, which includes a High-Potency Multivitamin and a good Antioxidant Complex, the extra supplements are probably unnecessary.)
Fresh pineapple enzyme Bromelain has similar anti-inflammatory properties. Taking some extra echinacea orally supports your immune system to prevent a local infection.
Sip some soothing herbal teas. Those made with Echinacea and Goldenseal, for instance, help bolster immunity and fight infection.
Many health care providers strongly recommend that everyone take a High-Potency Multi-Vitamin & Multimineral supplement and well-balanced Antioxidant Complex every day. It may be necessary to adjust the dosages account for your own daily vitamin regimen. All of these supplement recommendations also assume you are eating a healthful diet.
SUPPLEMENT INTERACTIONS & CAUTIONS
Be aware that certain cautions are associated with taking individual supplements, especially if you have other medical conditions and/or you are taking medications. Key cautions are given in the listing below, but you need to check each supplement's cautions and drug/nutrient interactions before using the supplement.
ALOE VERA: Topically apply cream or gel liberally to wound 2 or 3 times a day. Use Lavender Essential Oil as an alternative to Aloe Vera: Dab on wound 2 or 3 times a day.
Aloe Vera - Drug Interactions (Oral Intake):
- Betamethasone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from betamethasone.
- Bisoprolol Fumarate/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Chlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Chlorthalidone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Cortisone Oral: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from cortisone.
- Dexamethasone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from dexamethasone.
- Digitoxin: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from the medication.
- Digoxin: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from the medication.
- Enalapril/Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ): Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Fludrocortisone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from fludrocortisone.
- Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ): Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Hydrochlorothiazide/Triamterene: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Hydrocortisone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from hydrocortisone.
- Indapamide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Lisinopril/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Methylprednisolone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from methylprednisolone.
- Metolazone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Moexipril Hydrochloride/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Prednisolone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from prednisolone.
- Prednisone: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from prednisone.
- Propranolol/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Spironolactone/Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ): Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
- Triamcinolone Systemic: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and may lead to toxicity from triamcinolone.
- Valsartan/Hydrochlorothiazide: Misuse or overuse of aloe vera juice can cause the loss of potassium (required for proper heart function) and intensify the potassium-depleting effects of this medication.
Aloe Vera Cautions: Do not take any form of aloe internally if you are pregnant or breast-feeding; it may trigger uterine contractions. Also avoid using it during a menstrual period. Children and the elderly should not consume aloe internally. The same is true for anyone with an intestinal obstruction, an acutely inflammatory intestinal disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), appendicitis, or abdominal pain of unknown cause. Keep in mind that products that include "aloe vera extract" or "reconstituted aloe vera" may be much less potent than pure aloe vera.
When shopping for aloe vera juice, look for the "IASC-certified" seal; it is allowed only on products that contain certified raw ingredients that have been processed according to standards set by the International Aloe Science Council, a voluntary certification organization. Be sure that the aloe vera juice you select is derived from aloe vera gel, not from aloe latex.
VITAMIN A: 50,000 IU twice a day for 5 days or until wound appears to be healing nicely; pregnant women should not exceed 10,000 IU daily.
Vitamin A - Drug Interactions:
- Isotretinoin: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
- Resorcinol: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
- Sulfur Topical: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
- Tazarotene: When taken together, levels of vitamin A in the body may build up, increasing the chance of side effects.
Vitamin A Cautions: Make sure to take Vitamin A supplements with food; some fat in the diet will enhance absorption. Also, both Vitamin E and Zinc aid the body in using vitamin A. In turn, vitamin A facilitates the absorption of Iron from foods.
Do not exceed recommended doses of vitamin A. Large doses of preformed vitamin A can build up to toxic levels. If you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant, do not take more than 10,000 IU of vitamin A daily. Higher amounts may result in birth defects. Practice birth control if consuming doses greater than 10,000 IU, and for a month after stopping.
VITAMIN C: Take 1,000 mg orally twice a day for 5 days.
Vitamin C Cautions: Large doses of Vitamin C may cause a false positive result for glucose in the urine. If you have hemochromatosis, a genetic tendency to store excess iron (vitamin C enhances iron absorption), do not take more than 500 mg of vitamin C a day. Vitamin C can distort the accuracy of medical tests for colon cancer and hemoglobin levels. Let your health care provider know if you are taking vitamin C supplements.
CALENDULA: Apply cream topically to wound 3 times a day in place of Aloe Vera or Lavender Oil.
Calendula Cautions: When treating any type of wound, remember that the most important thing you can do to prevent infection is to thoroughly clean the area before applying calendula or any other type of herb or medicine. If you have an allergy to ragweed, you may also be allergic to calendula because they are related species.
ECHINACEA: Take orally 350 to 650 mg freeze-dried root OR 2 teaspoons liquid extract 3 times a day. Topically apply 1 teaspoon liquid extract (diluted with 1 tablespoon water) to wound 2 or 3 times a day as alternative to Aloe Vera or Lavender Oil.
Echinacea Cautions: Echinacea is not a replacement for antibiotics or other infection-fighting drugs, but it can be used to complement them. Because Echinacea could, in theory at least, overstimulate the immune system, it could worsen the condition of lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune disorders. Consult your health care provider before taking the herb if you suffer from any of these disorders. Do not take echinacea for progressive infections such as tuberculosis.
TEA TREE OIL: Topically apply cream to wound 3 times a day in place of Aloe Vera or Lavender Oil.
Tea Tree Oil Cautions: Never ingest tea tree oil. It is for external use only, and should never be applied around the eyes. If you accidentally ingest the oil, immediately contact a health care provider or a poison control center. Consult your health care provider before replacing any prescription medications with tea tree oil. Look for tea tree oil derived only from Melaleuca alternifolia. Oil from other species may have a high percentage of cineole, a compound that can irritate the skin and hinder the active ingredients from providing any therapeutic actions. Tea tree oil can irritate sensitive skin, especially in the vaginal area. It can also prompt an allergic reaction in some people. As a safety precaution, dab a small amount on your inner arm with a cotton swab before using the oil or a product that contains it. If you are allergic your arm will quickly become red or inflamed.
Tea tree oil is found in various skin-care and beauty products (shampoos, soaps, and so on) as well as in some toothpastes. Because the oil is dangerous if swallowed, only very small amounts are added to toothpastes (which makes the products safe, but essentially nullifies any bacteria-fighting benefits they claim to have). The amount of oil found in various skin-care and beauty products is also often miniscule.
Arnica: Arnica accelerates blood coagulation and reduces wound pain. Take 2 pellets of 30C or higher every 15 minutes for 1 hour.
Belladonna: A hot wound that throbs is a symptom of infection, for which Belladonna is helpful. Take 2 pellets every 30 minutes until the throbbing lessens.
Unless otherwise specified, the dosages recommended in this section are for adults. For a child between the ages of 12 and 17 years, reduce the dose to 3/4 the recommended amount. For a child between 6 and 12, use 1/2 the recommended dose, and for a child under the age of 6, use 1/4 the recommended amount.
NUTRIENTS Supplement Suggested Dosage Comments Very Important Vitamin C
4,000 to 10,000 mg daily in divided doses for one week, then reduce to 3,000 mg daily. Fights infection. Important for repair of collagen and connective tissue. Important Proteolytic Enzymes As directed on label, 3 times daily. Take between meals, on an empty stomach. Acts as an anti-inflammatory. Helpful Colloidal Silver As directed on label. To reduce the danger of infection. Can be taken internally or placed on a sterile bandage covering the wound. Garlic (Kyolic) 2 capsules 3 times daily. Acts as a natural antibiotic. Kills bacteria and parasites. Enhances immunity. L-Cysteine
500 mg of each daily for two weeks. Take on an empty stomach. Take with water or juice. Do not take with milk. Take with 50 mg Vitamin B-6 and 100 mg Vitamin C for better absorption. Powerful detoxifying agents. Vitamin A 25,000 IU daily. If you are pregnant, do not exceed 10,000 IU daily. Powerful antioxidants that aid the immune system and assist healing of the skin. Plus
25,000 IU daily.
As directed on label.
Powerful antioxidants that aid the immune system and assist healing of the skin. Plus
200 to 400 IU daily. A Powerful antioxidant that aid the immune system and assist healing of the skin. Vitamin B-Complex 50 mg of each B-Vitamin daily, with meals 3 times daily (amounts of individual vitamins with vary in a complex). B-Vitamins work best when taken together. Aids in tissue oxidation and antibody production.
NOTIFY YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER
If you or a family member has been bitten by a dog (or other animal) on your hand, foot or head, or you have a bite that is deep or gaping. Your health care provider will:
- Examine the wound for possible nerve or tendon damage, or bone injury and signs of infection.
- Clean the wound with special solution and remove any damaged tissue.
- Use stitches to close a bite wound, but often the wound is left open to heal, so the risk of infection is lowered.
- Prescribe an antibiotic to prevent infection.
- May have you do a follow up visit in a few days.
- If your injury is severe, of if the infection has not gotten better even though you are taking antibiotics, you may be referred to a specialist and/or go to the hospital and get antibiotics intravenously and/or other further treatment.
If you have diabetes, liver or lung disease, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), or another condition that could weaken your ability to fight infection.
If you have a fever above 101°F, swelling, redness, warmth, increased tenderness, oozing of pus, or other signs of infection.
If you have bleeding that does not stop after 15 minutes of pressure or you think you may have a broken bone, nerve damage or other serious injury.
If your last tetanus vaccination was more than 5 years ago. If so, you may need a booster shot.
If you are unable to find the dog that bit you and you feel you need to be examined.
If you have any unexpected or unusual symptoms. Some people may have sensitivity, allergies, or other health conditions which would prevent them from using certain medications, herbs, supplements or other treatments. Some medications may produce side effects.
HELPFUL ONLINE LINKS
Dog Bite Law: Information about dog bites, victims, etc.
Humane Society: Staying Dog Bite Free
AVMA: Dog Owner Brochures - Dog Bite Prevention & Rabies
DogLaw.HugPug.com: Dog Law & Dog Bites
American Kennel Club: Tips To Prevent Dog Bites
DogGoneSafe: A Non-Profit Resource of Dog Bite Prevention & Education
USPS: Dog Bite Awareness - The U.S. Postal Service
KidsHealth: Dogs and Preventing Dog Bites - Kid's Tutorial
AROMATHERAPY: ESSENTIAL OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Allspice Leaf Oil Angelica Oil Anise Oil Baobab Oil Basil Oil Bay Laurel Oil Bay Oil Benzoin Oil Bergamot Oil Black Pepper Oil Chamomile (German) Oil Cajuput Oil Calamus Oil Camphor (White) Oil Caraway Oil Cardamom Oil Carrot Seed Oil Catnip Oil Cedarwood Oil Chamomile Oil Cinnamon Oil Citronella Oil Clary-Sage Oil Clove Oil Coriander Oil Cypress Oil Dill Oil Eucalyptus Oil Fennel Oil Fir Needle Oil Frankincense Oil Geranium Oil German Chamomile Oil Ginger Oil Grapefruit Oil Helichrysum Oil Hyssop Oil Iris-Root Oil Jasmine Oil Juniper Oil Labdanum Oil Lavender Oil Lemon-Balm Oil Lemongrass Oil Lemon Oil Lime Oil Longleaf-Pine Oil Mandarin Oil Marjoram Oil Mimosa Oil Myrrh Oil Myrtle Oil Neroli Oil Niaouli Oil Nutmeg Oil Orange Oil Oregano Oil Palmarosa Oil Patchouli Oil Peppermint Oil Peru-Balsam Oil Petitgrain Oil Pine-Long Leaf Oil Pine-Needle Oil Pine-Swiss Oil Rosemary Oil Rose Oil Rosewood Oil Sage Oil Sandalwood Oil Savory Oil Spearmint Oil Spikenard Oil Swiss-Pine Oil Tangerine Oil Tea-Tree Oil Thyme Oil Vanilla Oil Verbena Oil Vetiver Oil Violet Oil White-Camphor Oil Yarrow Oil Ylang-Ylang Oil Aromatherapy
Healing Baths For Colds
Using Essential Oils
AROMATHERAPY: HERBAL & CARRIER OILS DESCRIPTIONS & USES
Almond, Sweet Oil Apricot Kernel Oil Argan Oil Arnica Oil Avocado Oil Baobab Oil Black Cumin Oil Black Currant Oil Black Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Calendula Oil Camelina Oil Castor Oil Coconut Oil Comfrey Oil Evening Primrose Oil Flaxseed Oil Grapeseed Oil Hazelnut Oil Hemp Seed Oil Jojoba Oil Kukui Nut Oil Macadamia Nut Oil Meadowfoam Seed Oil Mullein Oil Neem Oil Olive Oil Palm Oil Plantain Oil Plum Kernel Oil Poke Root Oil Pomegranate Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed Oil Rosehip Seed Oil Safflower Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Sesame Seed Oil Shea Nut Oil Soybean Oil St. Johns Wort Oil Sunflower Oil Tamanu Oil Vitamin E Oil Wheat Germ Oil
HELPFUL RELATED MOONDRAGON NUTRITION BASICS LINKS
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Amino Acids Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Antioxidants Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Enzymes Information MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Herbs Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Homeopathics Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Hydrosols Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Minerals Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Mineral Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary & Cosmetic Supplements Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Dietary Supplements Introduction MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Specialty Supplements MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Vitamins Introduction
NUTRITION BASICS ARTICLES
MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: 4 Basic Nutrients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Foods That Contain Additives & Artificial Ingredients MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Is Aspartame A Safe Sugar Substitute? MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Guidelines For Selecting & Preparing Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Destroy MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Foods That Heal MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: The Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Avoid Overcooking Your Foods MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Phytochemicals MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Increase Your Consumption of Raw Produce MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Limit Your Use of Salt MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Use Proper Cooking Utensils MoonDragon's Nutrition Basics: Choosing The Best Water & Types of Water
RELATED MOONDRAGON HEALTH LINKS & INFORMATION
MoonDragon's Nutrition Information Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Therapy Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Analysis Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Diet Index MoonDragon's Nutritional Recipe Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Therapy: Preparing Produce for Juicing MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Additives Index MoonDragon's Nutrition Information: Food Safety Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Index MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Articles MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Back Pain MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Labor & Birth MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Blending Chart MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Essential Oil Details MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Links MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Miscarriage MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Post Partum MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Childbearing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy For Problems in Pregnancy & Birthing MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #1 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart of Essential Oils #2 MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Tips MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Uses MoonDragon's Alternative Health Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Information Overview MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Touch & Movement Therapies Index MoonDragon's Alternative Health Therapy: Touch & Movement: Aromatherapy MoonDragon's Alternative Therapy: Touch & Movement - Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Alternative Health: Therapeutic Massage MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 1 MoonDragon's Holistic Health Links Page 2 MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Nutrition Basics Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy Index MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Massage Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Hydrotherapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Pain Control Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Relaxation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Steam Inhalation Therapy MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Therapy - Herbal Oils Index
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